The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A prison known as a correctional facility, gaol, detention center, remand center, or internment facility, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial. In simplest terms, a prison can be described as a building in which people are held as a punishment for a crime they have committed. Prisons can be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes, their perceived opponents may be imprisoned for political crimes without trial or other legal due process. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American English and jail are treated as having separate definitions; the term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, are operated by the state or federal governments.
The term jail tends to describe institutions for confining people for shorter periods of time and are operated by local governments. Outside of North America and jail have the same meaning. Common slang terms for a prison include: "the pokey", "the slammer", "the can", "the clink", "the joint", "the calaboose", "the hoosegow" and "the big house". Slang terms for imprisonment include: "behind bars", "in stir" and "up the river"; the use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society; the best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi, written in Babylon around 1750 BC. The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code were exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis, whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance by the victims themselves; this notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can be found in many other legal codes from early civilizations, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti, the Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, the Israelite Mosaic Law.
Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform offenders instead of using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead; the prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, quarries. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, established around 640 B. C. by Ancus Marcius. The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was a common form of punishment.
In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery in ergastula. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were used as makeshift prisons; the possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils. Another common punishment was sentencing people to galley slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships and forcing them to row on naval or merchant vessels. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and torture became more widespread both in Europe and in the United States. Under the Bloody Code, with few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving unpopular with the public. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence.
They developed systems of mass incarceration with hard labor, as a solution. The prison reform movement that arose at this time was influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies; the first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalism, suggested that prisons should be used as a more effective substitute for public corporal punishments such as whipping, etc. This theory, referred to as deterrence, claims tha
National Register of Historic Places listings in Beltrami County, Minnesota
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Beltrami County, Minnesota. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Beltrami County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 13 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 1 National Historic Landmark district; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnesota Minnesota National Register Properties Database—Minnesota Historical Society
Red Wing, Minnesota
Red Wing is a city in Goodhue County, United States, along the upper Mississippi River. The population was 16,459 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Goodhue County. Red Wing is home to the manufacturers of nationally known products: Red Wing Shoes, Riedell Skates, Red Wing Stoneware; the Cannon Valley Trail has its eastern terminus in Red Wing. Treasure Island Resort & Casino is operated by the nearby Prairie Island Indian Reservation; the National Trust for Historic Preservation placed Red Wing on its 2008 distinctive destinations list, which adds twelve communities annually nationwide. Red Wing was added for its "impressive architecture and enviable natural environment." Red Wing is connected to Wisconsin by Red Wing Bridge. S. Route 63 over the Mississippi River and its backwaters; this city was named after Red Wing, or Hupahuduta. He was one of a succession of Mdewakanton Dakota chiefs whose name "Red Wing" came from their use of a dyed swan's wing as their symbol of rank, he was an ally of British soldiers during the War of 1812.
After a vision in which he saw the Americans driving out the British, he declared neutrality. French Canadians referred to him as L'Aile Rouge, he took the name Shakea, or "The Man Who Paints Himself Red," after passing the name Red Wing on to a successor chief. During the lifetime of Hupahuduta, there were few European-American pioneers in his territory. Red Wing was known as a firm friend of the United States, keeping peace with the traders and settlers, trading for goods that were valued by his tribe; the federal government established a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in 1889 along the Mississippi River to free up land for new settlers. The city of Red Wing developed around it; this reservation is known as the Prairie Island Indian Community. In the early 1850s, settlers from Mississippi River steamboats came to Red Wing to farm in Goodhue County, they encroached on traditional territory of the Mdewakanton Sioux. The settlers cleared the land for the annual crop of which could pay the cost of the land.
Before the railroads were constructed across the territory of Goodhue County, it produced more wheat than any other county in the country. In 1873, Red Wing led the country in the amount of wheat sold by farmers; the warehouses in the port of Red Wing could export more than a million bushels of wheat. Once the railroads connected southern Minnesota with Minneapolis and Saint Anthony where the largest flour mills were built, the port at Red Wing lost prominence; the Aurora Ski Club in Red Wing, founded on February 8, 1887, was one of the first ski clubs formed in North America, reflecting skills of Scandinavian immigrants in the area. Aurora club members introduced in the 1880s, what became known as “Red Wing Style” ski techniques, patterned after the Telemark skiing form; the term "Red Wing style" continued in use in the United States well into the twentieth century. The first North American ski jumping record was set by Norwegian immigrant Mikkjel Hemmestveit, his 37-foot flight in 1887 was established at the Aurora Ski Club's McSorley Hill.
The federal government established a Mdewakanton Sioux Indian reservation in 1889 along the Mississippi River to free up land for new settlers. It is now within the boundaries of the city of Red Wing, is known as the Prairie Island Indian Community; the first settlers in town built small mills and workshops, similar to ones they were familiar with in New England and the upper Midwest, from where many had come. Numerous immigrants from Germany, Ireland and Sweden settled in this area and were skilled craftsmen; some early industries were tanning and shoe-making, while other businessmen manufactured farm equipment, barrels, furniture and buttons. Consumables included lumber. Service industries including stone-cutting and retailing; the St. James Hotel remains a working token of the earlier time. Red Wing was once home to Hamline University, founded in 1854 as the first institution of higher education in the state of Minnesota, it closed in 1869 because of low enrollment due to diversion of students to the American Civil War.
Chartered in St. Paul in 1871, it reopened there in 1880. Red Wing Seminary was a Lutheran Church seminary, founded in 1879. Red Wing Seminary was the educational center for the Hauge's Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran Synod in America known as the Hauge Synod. Red Wing Seminary operated until 1917. Red Wing was the home of Minnesota Elementarskola a Swedish elementary school, the predecessor to Gustavus Adolphus College, a private liberal arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America; the school was founded in Red Wing in 1862 by Eric Norelius, it moved to East Union in 1863 and in St. Peter the college was built in 1873-1876; the Red Wing pottery and stoneware industry began in 1861, when county potter John Paul discovered the large, glacially deposited clay pits beds on the northwest of the city, close to Hay Creek. The first commercial pottery company, Red Wing Stoneware, was founded in 1877, it used clay from the area of the Hay Creek headwaters, close to Goodhue, near a hamlet named Claybank.
A railroad branch line was built to carry clay to Red Wing for this important industry. The factory buildings remain; the Minnesota Correctional Facility – Red Wing is housed in the former Minnesota State Training School, built in 1889. The original Romanesque building was designed by Warren B. Dunnell, he was the architect of a number of historical public buildings in Minnesota. The
National Register of Historic Places listings in Carver County, Minnesota
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Carver County, Minnesota. It is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Carver County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 33 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Many structures are built of local Chaska brick. A supplementary list includes four additional sites that were listed on the National Register; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnesota Minnesota National Register Properties Database—Minnesota Historical Society
National Register of Historic Places listings in Chippewa County, Minnesota
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Chippewa County, Minnesota. It is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Chippewa County, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in an online map. There are 9 districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Minnesota Minnesota National Register Properties Database—Minnesota Historical Society