IBM Personal Computer
The IBM Personal Computer known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, was introduced on August 12, 1981, it was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to mean more a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture, within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, software proliferated. "IBM compatible" became an important criterion for sales growth. International Business Machines, one of the world's largest companies, had a 62% share of the mainframe computer market in 1982. In the late 1970s the new personal computer industry was dominated by the Commodore PET, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Tandy Corporation's TRS-80, various CP/M machines.
With $150 million in sales by 1979 and projected annual growth of more than 40% in the early 1980s, the microcomputer market was large enough for IBM's attention. Other large technology companies such as Hewlett-Packard, Texas Instruments, Data General had entered it, some large IBM customers were buying Apples, so the company saw introducing its own personal computer as both an experiment in a new market and a defense against rivals and small. In 1980 and 1981 rumors spread of an IBM personal computer a miniaturized version of the IBM System/370, while Matsushita acknowledged that it had discussed with IBM the possibility of manufacturing a personal computer for the American company; the Japanese project, codenamed "Go", ended before the 1981 release of the American-designed IBM PC codenamed "Chess", but two simultaneous projects further confused rumors about the forthcoming product. Data General and TI's small computers were not successful, but observers expected AT&T to soon enter the computer industry, other large companies such as Exxon, Montgomery Ward and Sony were designing their own microcomputers.
Xerox produced the 820 to introduce a personal computer before IBM, becoming the second Fortune 500 company after Tandy to do so, had its Xerox PARC laboratory's sophisticated technology. Whether IBM had waited too long to enter an industry in which Tandy and others were successful was unclear. An observer stated that "IBM bringing out a personal computer would be like teaching an elephant to tap dance." Successful microcomputer company Vector Graphic's fiscal 1980 revenue was $12 million. A single IBM computer in the early 1960s cost as much as $9 million, occupied one quarter acre of air-conditioned space, had a staff of 60 people; the "Colossus of Armonk" only sold through its own sales force, had no experience with resellers or retail stores, did not introduce the first product designed to work with non-IBM equipment until 1980. Another observer claimed that IBM made decisions so that, when tested, "what they found is that it would take at least nine months to ship an empty box"; as with other large computer companies, its new products required about four to five years for development.
IBM had to learn how to develop, mass-produce, market new computers. While the company traditionally let others pioneer a new market—IBM released its first commercial computer a year after Remington Rand's UNIVAC in 1951, but within five years had 85% of the market—the personal-computer development and pricing cycles were much faster than for mainframes, with products designed in a few months and obsolete quickly. Many in the microcomputer industry resented IBM's power and wealth, disliked the perception that an industry founded by startups needed a latecomer so staid that it had a strict dress code and employee songbook; the potential importance to microcomputers of a company so prestigious, that a popular saying in American companies stated "No one got fired for buying IBM", was nonetheless clear. InfoWorld, which described itself as "The Newsweekly for Microcomputer Users", stated that "for my grandmother, for millions of people like her, IBM and computer are synonymous". Byte stated in an editorial just before the announcement of the IBM PC: Rumors abound about personal computers to come from giants such as Digital Equipment Corporation and the General Electric Company.
But there is no contest. IBM's new personal computer... is far and away the media star, not because of its features, but because it exists at all. When the number eight company in the Fortune 500 enters the field, news... The influence of a personal computer made by a company whose name has come to mean "computer" to most of the world is hard to contemplate; the editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: "I want to see personal computing take a giant step." Desktop sized programmable calculators by HP had evolved into the HP 9830 BASIC language computer by 1972. In 1972–1973 a team led by Dr. Paul Friedl at the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Po
Random-access memory is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. More than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, RAM devices have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices. In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits. RAM is associated with volatile types of memory, where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has been developed.
Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. Integrated-circuit RAM chips came into the market in the early 1970s, with the first commercially available DRAM chip, the Intel 1103, introduced in October 1970. Early computers used relays, mechanical counters or delay lines for main memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order. Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but efficient retrieval of memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as registers; such registers were large and too costly to use for large amounts of data. The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947.
It stored data. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access; the capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches. Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first ran a program on 21 June 1948. In fact, rather than the Williams tube memory being designed for the Baby, the Baby was a testbed to demonstrate the reliability of the memory. Magnetic-core memory was developed up until the mid-1970s, it became a widespread form of random-access memory. By changing the sense of each ring's magnetization, data could be stored with one bit stored per ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible.
Magnetic core memory was the standard form of memory system until displaced by solid-state memory in integrated circuits, starting in the early 1970s. Dynamic random-access memory allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit increasing memory density at the cost of volatility. Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, had to be periodically refreshed every few milliseconds before the charge could leak away; the Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator, introduced in 1965, used a form of DRAM built from discrete components. DRAM was developed by Robert H. Dennard in 1968. Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory circuits, permanent random-access memory was constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core rope memory planes; the two used forms of modern RAM are static RAM and dynamic RAM. In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is faster and requires less dynamic power than DRAM. In modern computers, SRAM is used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a DRAM cell; the capacitor holds a high or low charge, the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment; these persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras and portable devices, solid-state drives.
ECC memory includes special circuitry to detect and/or correct random faults (mem
UUCP is an abbreviation of Unix-to-Unix Copy. The term refers to a suite of computer programs and protocols allowing remote execution of commands and transfer of files and netnews between computers. A command named; the UUCP suite includes uux, uustat and uuname. Some versions of the suite include uuencode/uudecode. Although UUCP was developed on Unix in the 1970s and 1980s, is most associated with Unix-like systems, UUCP implementations exist for several non-Unix-like operating systems, including Microsoft's MS-DOS, IBM's OS/2, Digital's OpenVMS, Commodore's AmigaOS, classic Mac OS, CP/M. UUCP can use several different types of physical connections and link layer protocols, but was most used over dial-up connections. Before the widespread availability of Internet access, computers were only connected by smaller private networks within a company or organization, they were often equipped with modems so they could be used remotely from character-mode terminals via dial-up telephone lines. UUCP used the computers' modems to dial out to other computers, establishing temporary, point-to-point links between them.
Each system in a UUCP network has a list of neighbor systems, with phone numbers, login names and passwords, etc. When work is queued for a neighbor system, the uucico program calls that system to process the work; the uucico program can poll its neighbors periodically to check for work queued on their side. Today, UUCP is used over dial-up links, but is used over TCP/IP; the number of systems involved, as of early 2006, ran between 1500 and 2000 sites across 60 enterprises. UUCP's longevity can be attributed to its low cost, extensive logging, native failover to dialup, persistent queue management. UUCP was written at AT&T Bell Laboratories by Mike Lesk. By 1978 it was in use on 82 UNIX machines inside the Bell system for software distribution, it was released in 1979 as part of Version 7 Unix. The original UUCP was rewritten by AT&T researchers Peter Honeyman, David A. Nowitz, Brian E. Redman around 1983; the rewrite is referred to as HDB or HoneyDanBer uucp, enhanced, bug fixed, repackaged as BNU UUCP.
Each of these versions was distributed as proprietary software, which inspired Ian Lance Taylor to write a new free software version from scratch in 1991. Taylor UUCP was released under the GNU General Public License. Taylor UUCP addressed security holes which allowed some of the original network worms to remotely execute unexpected shell commands. Taylor UUCP incorporated features of all previous versions of UUCP, allowing it to communicate with any other version and use similar config file formats from other versions. UUCP was implemented for non-UNIX operating systems, most-notably MS-DOS systems. Packages such as UUSLAVE/GNUUCP, UUPC and FSUUCP, brought early Internet connectivity to personal computers, expanding the network beyond the interconnected university systems. FSUUCP formed the basis for many bulletin board system packages such as Galacticomm's Major BBS and Mustang Software's Wildcat! BBS to connect to Usenet traffic; as an example, UFGATE was a package that provided a gateway between networks running Fidonet and UUCP protocols.
FSUUCP was the only other implementation of Taylor's enhanced'i' protocol, a significant improvement over the standard'g' protocol used by most UUCP implementations. The uucp and uuxqt capabilities could be used to send email between machines, with suitable mail user interfaces and delivery agent programs. A simple UUCP mail address was formed from the adjacent machine name, an exclamation mark, followed by the user name on the adjacent machine. For example, the address barbox!user would refer to user user on adjacent machine barbox. Mail could furthermore be routed through the network, traversing any number of intermediate nodes before arriving at its destination; this had to be done by specifying the complete path, with a list of intermediate host names separated by bangs. For example, if machine barbox is not connected to the local machine, but it is known that barbox is connected to machine foovax which does communicate with the local machine, the appropriate address to send mail to would be foovax!barbox!user.
User barbox!user would publish their UUCP email address in a form such as …!bigsite!foovax!barbox!user. This directs people to route their mail to machine bigsite and from there through the machine foovax to the account of user user on barbox. Publishing a full path would be pointless, because it would be different, depending on where the sender was.. Many users would suggest multiple routes from various large well-known sites, providing better and faster connection service
Arachne (web browser)
Arachne is a discontinued Internet suite containing a graphical web browser, email client, dialer. Arachne was developed by Michal Polák under his xChaos label, a name he changed into Arachne Labs, it was written in C and compiled using Borland C++ 3.1. Arachne has since been released under the GPL as Arachne GPL. Arachne runs on DOS-based operating systems, but includes builds for Linux as well; the Linux version relies on SVGALib and therefore does not require a display server. Arachne supports many file formats and standards including video modes from CGA 640×200 in monochrome to VESA 1024×768 in high color mode, it is designed for systems. Arachne supports multiple image formats including JPEG, PNG, BMP and animated GIF, it supports a subset of the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards, including full support for tables and frames. Supported protocols include NNTP for USENET forums, POP3, SMTP and Gopher. Arachne includes a full-fledged TCP/IP connection suite, which has support for some dial-up and Ethernet connections.
They ported it to compile as a 32-bit protected mode extended DOS application, while Arachne is a 16-bit application. This program was sold as DR-WebSpyder in 1998; when Caldera had transferred DR-DOS to its branch company Caldera Thin Clients, which renamed itself into Lineo in 1999, the browser was referred to under the name Embrowser. Since 2000, the Linux port of the browser was called Embedix Browser. Comparison of web browsers Lynx FreeDOS List of web browsers MINUET List of Usenet newsreaders Comparison of Usenet newsreaders Bager, Jo. "Ansichtssachen - Alternative Web-Browser für Windows, MacOS, Linux, OS/2 und DOS". C't - magazin für computertechnik. Heise Verlag. 1998: 116-. Archived from the original on 2018-08-25. Retrieved 2018-08-26. Arachne Development group & list Arachne GPL Arachne Add-ons Arachne Labs homepage Mel's Arachne4DOS UK Home page Arachne HTML support at freedos.org Arachne web browser. Installing and setting up for internet connection via Ethernet network adapter
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones, they duplicate exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as AT models; the IBM AT compatible bus was named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales. Descendants of the IBM PC compatibles comprise the majority of personal computers on the market presently with the dominant operating system being Microsoft Windows, although interoperability with the bus structure and peripherals of the original PC architecture may be limited or non-existent.
Some computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used. Only the Macintosh kept significant market share without compatibility with the IBM PC. IBM decided in 1980 to market a low-cost single-user computer as as possible in response to Apple Computer's success in the burgeoning microcomputer market. On 12 August 1981, the first IBM PC went on sale. There were three operating systems available for it; the least expensive and most popular was PC DOS made by Microsoft. In a crucial concession, IBM's agreement allowed Microsoft to sell its own version, MS-DOS, for non-IBM computers; the only component of the original PC architecture exclusive to IBM was the BIOS. IBM at first asked developers to avoid writing software that addressed the computer's hardware directly, to instead make standard calls to BIOS functions that carried out hardware-dependent operations; this software would run on any machine using MS-DOS or PC-DOS. Software that directly addressed the hardware instead of making standard calls was however.
Software addressing IBM PC hardware in this way would not run on MS-DOS machines with different hardware. The IBM PC was sold in high enough volumes to justify writing software for it, this encouraged other manufacturers to produce machines which could use the same programs, expansion cards, peripherals as the PC; the 808x computer marketplace excluded all machines which were not hardware- and software-compatible with the PC. The 640 KB barrier on "conventional" system memory available to MS-DOS is a legacy of that period. Rumors of "lookalike", compatible computers, created without IBM's approval, began immediately after the IBM PC's release. InfoWorld wrote on the first anniversary of the IBM PC that The dark side of an open system is its imitators. If the specs are clear enough for you to design peripherals, they are clear enough for you to design imitations. Apple... has patents on two important components of its systems... IBM, which has no special patents on the PC, is more vulnerable. Numerous PC-compatible machines—the grapevine says 60 or more—have begun to appear in the marketplace.
By June 1983 PC Magazine defined "PC'clone'" as "a computer accommodate the user who takes a disk home from an IBM PC, walks across the room, plugs it into the'foreign' machine". Because of a shortage of IBM PCs that year, many customers purchased clones instead. Columbia Data Products produced the first computer more or less compatible with the IBM PC standard during June 1982, soon followed by Eagle Computer. Compaq announced its first IBM PC compatible in the Compaq Portable; the Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer, 100% PC-compatible. The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and write its own BIOS using clean room design. At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Texas Instruments, Tulip and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tandy described the Tandy 2000, for example, as having a "'next generation' true 16-bit CPU", with "More speed. More disk storage. More expansion" than the IBM PC or "other MS-DOS computers". While admitting in 1984 that many MS-DOS programs did not support the computer, the company stated that "the most popular, sophisticated software on the market" was available, either or "over the next six months". Like IBM, Microsoft's intention was that application writers would write to the application programming interfaces in MS-DOS or the firmware BIOS, that this would form what would now be termed a hardware abstraction layer; each computer would have its own Original Equipment Manufacturer version of MS-DOS, customized to its hardware. Any software written for MS-DOS would operate on any MS-DOS computer, despite variations in hardware design; this expectation seemed reasonable in the computer marketplace of the time. Until Microsoft was based on computer languages such as BASIC; the established small system operating software was CP/M from Digital Research, in use both at the hobbyist level and by the more professional of t
Mahogany (email client)
Mahogany is an open source cross-platform email and news client. It is available for X11/Unix and MS Win32 platforms, supporting a wide range of protocols and standards, including SMTP, POP3, IMAP, NNTP and full MIME support; the current official release version is 0.67. Mahogany is developed by The Mahogany Development Team, it is licensed under a special Mahogany Artistic License similar to the Perl Artistic License but the developers allow licensing the program under GNU GPL license. The program features an optional embedded Python interpreter. Python scripts have full access to all internal Mahogany data structures and objects and can be used to extend Mahogany. Mahogany on SourceForge.net Article On Linuxplanet.com Business Email & Regulatory Compliance Download & Short Description At Softpedia