A diamond interchange is a common type of road junction, used where a freeway crosses a minor road. The freeway itself is grade-separated from one crossing the other over a bridge. Approaching the interchange from either direction, an off-ramp diverges only from the freeway and runs directly across the minor road, becoming an on-ramp that returns to the freeway in similar fashion; the two places. In the United States, where this form of interchange is common in rural areas, traffic on the off-ramp faces a stop sign at the minor road, while traffic turning onto the freeway is unrestricted; the diamond interchange uses less space than most types of freeway interchange, avoids the interweaving traffic flows that occur in interchanges such as the cloverleaf. Thus, diamond interchanges are most effective in areas where traffic is light and a more expensive interchange type is not needed, but where traffic volumes are higher, the two intersections within the interchange feature additional traffic control measures such as traffic lights and extra lanes dedicated to turning traffic.
The at-grade variant of the diamond interchange is the split intersection. The ramp intersections may be configured as a pair of roundabouts to create a type of diamond interchange called a dumbbell interchange, sometimes called a double roundabout interchange; because roundabouts can handle traffic with fewer approach lanes than other intersection types, interchange construction costs can be reduced by eliminating the need for a wider bridge. This configuration allows other roads to form approach legs to the roundabouts and allows easy U-turns; this type of interchange is common in the United Kingdom and Ireland, is becoming common in the United States. Examples of dumbbell interchanges in the United States are located on Interstate 35 in Medford, Minnesota, on Interstate 87 in Malta, New York, on Interstate 17 at Happy Valley Road north of Phoenix, on Interstate 80 at California State Route 89 in Truckee, California. An example in Canada is found on the Pat Bay Highway in North Saanich, British Columbia, near Victoria International Airport.
One or both roundabouts in the dumbbell interchange may contain side lanes to increase the capacity. A good example of such a "turbo" dumbbell interchange, a half cloverleaf, can be seen in Jülich, Germany at 50.914055°N 6.323368°E / 50.914055. There are interchanges similar to dumbbells in which the ramps do not meet the roundabouts at intersections. One such interchange exists at the junction between the Ruta Interbalnearia and Route 35 North near La Floresta, Uruguay. A variation of the dumbbell interchange called a dogbone interchange, sometimes called a double roundabout interchange, occurs when the roundabouts do not form a complete circle but instead have a "raindrop" or "teardrop" shape; these two raindrop roundabouts are fused together. This configuration reduces conflicts between vehicles entering the raindrop roundabouts from the ramps, reducing queueing and delays, compared with the dumbbell interchange. Direct U-turns are not possible, although the movement can be made by circulating around both raindrop roundabouts.
An example of a dogbone interchange in the United States is located on Interstate 70 in Avon, Colorado. Several interchanges similar to those along Keystone Parkway are being built along the new US 31 freeway under construction in northern Indiana. There are some hybrid interchanges of dumbbell and dogbone having one raindrop and one full roundabout; this is made when the roundabout intersects more roads than ramps. Some examples are at exit 38 of the N7 road in Netherlands. A tennis ball interchange resembles a dogbone interchange, with the difference being that right turning movements cut through the roundabouts like a regular diamond interchange instead of going around the roundabout; such a design is found in Western Australia, between Roe Highway and Berkshire Road. A tight diamond interchange known as a compressed diamond interchange or a tight urban diamond interchange, is sometimes used in areas where there is insufficient right-of-way for a standard diamond interchange; the pair of intersections where the ramps meet the minor road are spaced.
This spacing forces the turn lanes for each direction to run beside each other, causing the minor road to be wider than it would be if it were a standard diamond. A single-point urban interchange is built with a large over- or clear underpass providing space for a single traffic signal controlled intersection with the ramps and the cross street. A contraflow left interchange is a modified TUDI, once installed at Lyons Road underneath Florida State Road 869, switching the left turn lanes on the cross street each other and bringing the long left turn phases from the single-point urban interchange to the tight urb
Carlton County, Minnesota
Carlton County is a county in the State of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 35,386, its county seat is Carlton. The county was formed in 1857 and organized in 1870, it was named for Reuben B. Carlton, a member of the Minnesota Senate. Part of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation lies in NE Carlton County. Carlton County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Carlton County lies on the east side of Minnesota, its east boundary line abuts the west boundary line of the state of Wisconsin. The Saint Louis River flows east-southeasterly through the county's NE corner, discharging into Lake Superior as it exits the county; the Moose Horn River flows southwesterly through the central part of the county, discharging into the Kettle River SW of the county's south boundary. The Nemadji River and the South Fork Nemadji River flow eastward through the eastern and SE part of the county, meeting a few miles east of the county's eastern boundary before flowing to Lake Superior.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills wooded. The terrain slopes to the several river valleys; the county has a total area of 875 square miles, of which 861 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlton have ranged from a low of 1 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −45 °F was recorded in January 1912 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.87 inches in February to 4.34 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,386 people residing in the county. 89.7% were White, 5.9% Native American, 1.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.4% of two or more races. 1.4% were Hispanic or Latino. 16.4 % were of 13.5 % Finnish, 8.9 % Norwegian, 8.6 % Swedish and 5.6 % American ancestry. As of the 2000 census, there were 31,671 people, 12,064 households, 8,408 families in the county.
The population density was 36.8/sqmi. There were 13,721 housing units at an average density of 15.9/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 91.75% White, 0.97% Black or African American, 5.19% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.5 % were of 11.8 % Swedish and 5.8 % Polish ancestry. 95.5 % spoke 1.8 % Finnish and 1.1 % Spanish as their first language. There were 12,064 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.40% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,021, the median income for a family was $48,406. Males had a median income of $38,788 versus $25,555 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,073. About 5.40% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.20% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Big Lake Esko Mahtowa Clear Creek North Carlton Carlton County voters are traditionally Democratic. In no national election since 1928 has the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Carlton County, Minnesota Cloquet Fire of 1918 Carlton County official website Carltoncountyhelp.org: A guide to service organizations in Carlton County MN Mn/DOT – map of Carlton County
Iron Range refers collectively or individually to a number of elongated iron-ore mining districts around Lake Superior in the United States and Canada. Despite the word "range," the iron ranges are not mountain chains, but outcrops of Precambrian sedimentary formations containing high percentages of iron; these cherty iron ore deposits are Precambrian in age for the Vermilion Range, while middle Precambrian in age for the Mesabi and Cuyuna ranges, all in Minnesota. The Gogebic Range in Wisconsin and the Marquette Iron Range and Menominee Range in Michigan have similar characteristics and are of similar age. Natural ores and concentrates were produced from 1848 until the mid 1950s, when taconites and jaspers were concentrated and pelletized, started to become the major source of iron production; the far eastern area, containing the Duluth Complex along the shore of Lake Superior, the far northern area, along the Canada–US border, of the region are not associated with iron ore mining. Due to its shape, the area is collectively referred to as the Arrowhead region of Minnesota.
It consists of seven counties: Aitkin, Cook, Koochiching and Saint Louis. Minnesota's Iron Range is notable in terms of public safety. From a geological perspective, the Iron Range in Minnesota includes these four major iron deposits: Mesabi Range, the largest iron range within Itasca and Saint Louis counties. Within Minnesota, "The Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation is a State Department, established by the legislature of 1941 to render public service through research and the actual development of all the state's resources both natural and human." The Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board, known as "the I-triple-R-B" or Iron Range Resources, is an economic development agency funded by taxes levied by the state on taconite-producing companies and charged with creating jobs. Geologically, the iron ranges in Minnesota belong to the Animikie Group; the geologic history of the formations containing iron are typical of banded iron formations worldwide. Prior to the 19th century, Native American groups mined native copper on the Keweenaw Peninsula.
William Austin Burt discovered iron ore in the Marquette Range near Negaunee, Michigan in 1844. Iron ore was discovered on the Menominee Range in 1867, on the Gogebic Range in 1884, on the Vermilion Range in 1885, the Mesabi Range in 1890, the Cuyuna Range in 1903. Underground mines were developed to remove the valuable ore of most ranges. However, iron mining operations on the Mesabi and Cuyuna Ranges evolved into enormous open pit mines, where steam shovels and other industrial machines could remove massive amounts of ore. "Large-scale commercial production of magnetite taconite ore on the Mesabi Range started in 1956 at the Peter Mitchell Mine near Babbitt, Minnesota." The Iron Range contains several smaller cities. Some of the more significant communities in the region include: Aitkin is located on the eastern edge of the Cuyuna Range. Aitkin was the birthplace of film actor Warren William. Aurora is located on the Eastern Mesabi Range; the former St. James, Meadow and Stephens mines lie within the city limits.
Babbitt Biwabik Bovey is located along U. S. Highway 169 between Taconite. Bovey was the birthplace of NHL goaltender Adam Hauser, San Francisco politician Richard Hongisto, Eric Enstrom – photographer of the famous 1918 photograph "Grace." Buhl is located along U. S. Highway 169 between Virginia. Buhl claims "The Finest Water in America" on its water tower. Chisholm is the geographic center of the Mesabi Range, home of the Chisholm Bluestreaks, it is the home of Minnesota Discovery Center, the Minnesota Museum of Mining, the Iron Range Research Center. Archibald "Moonlight" Graham, subject of the motion picture "Field of Dreams" settled in Chisholm; the motion picture "North Country" was partly filmed in Chisholm. Coleraine is referred to as the "start place of the Iron Range." The town was built in the early 20th century to accommodate the miners of the Oliver Iron Mining's Canisteo Mine. John Greenway was the superintendent of the mine. Crosby is an old mining boomtown on the southwestern edge of the Iron Range, home of the Crosby-Ironton Rangers.
Duluth The fourth largest city in the state, while not part of the Iron Range, is a destination for much of its production shipped via the DM&IR railroad. Iron pellets are shipped "downward" through the Soo Locks to steel towns such as Cleveland, Toledo et al; the Port of Duluth allows for the iron ore to be shipped through the Great Lakes. Deerwood Mining engineer Cuyler Adams discovered the Cuyuna Range near Deerwood in 1895. Ely, in the Vermillion Range, is best known as the most popular entry point for the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Eveleth is where U. S. Senator Paul Wellstone and seven others died in a plane crash in 2002 two miles away from the municipal airport, it the site of the conflict that resulted in the landmark sexual harassment class action case Jenson v. Eveleth Taconite Co. and the film North Country. It is al
International Falls, Minnesota
International Falls is a city in and the county seat of Koochiching County, United States. The population was 6,424 at the 2010 census. International Falls is located on the Rainy River directly across from Fort Frances, Canada; the two cities are connected by the Fort Frances–International Falls International Bridge. Voyageurs National Park is located 11 miles east of International Falls. There is a major U. S. Customs and Border Protection Port of Entry on the International Falls side of the toll bridge and a Canadian Customs entry point on the north side of the bridge. International Falls is nicknamed "Icebox of the Nation,” with an average of 109.4 days per year with a high temperature below 32 °F. The area now known as International Falls was inhabited by many Indigenous peoples; the International Falls area was well known to explorers and voyagers as early as the 17th century. It was not until April 1895 that the community was platted by L. A. Ogaard, a teacher and preacher for the Koochiching Company, named Koochiching.
The word “Koochiching” comes from either the Ojibwe word Gojijiing or the Cree Kocicīhk, both meaning “at the place of inlets,” referring to the neighboring Rainy Lake and River. The European inhabitants gave the names Rainy Lake and Rainy River to the nearby bodies of water because of the mist-like rain present at the falls where the lake flowed into the river. On August 10, 1901, the village was incorporated and two years its name was changed to International Falls in recognition of the river's role as a border between the United States and Canada, it was incorporated as a city in 1909. Realizing the potential for water power and mills in the area, industrialist E. W. Backus, president of the Minnesota and Ontario Paper Company in the early 20th century, built a dam on the Rainy River to power the company's mills. Purchased by Boise Cascade Corporation in 1965, sold to an investment group in 2003, the company remains the largest business and employer in the area. In 2013 Boise closed down a paper machine.
It sold to Packaging Corporation of America. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.53 square miles, of which 6.42 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. International Falls, with its central position in the North American continent, has a humid continental climate, with long, bitterly cold winters and humid warm summers, is part of USDA Plant hardiness zone 3a. January averages 4.4 °F, lows reach 0 °F on average of 58 nights annually. Highs only reach the freezing point or above an average of 16.7 days in the months of December and February. Spring, more autumn, are short but mild transition seasons. July averages 65.2 °F, with highs reaching 90 °F an average of only 3.2 days annually, in close to 40% of years, the temperature does not rise that high. Precipitation averages about 24.2 in per year, is concentrated in the warmer months. The average window for freezing temperatures is September 14 through May 26, allowing a frost-free period of 110 days.
The all-time record high temperature is 103 °F, set on July 22, 1923, while the all-time record low is −55 °F, set on January 6, 1909, a range of 158 °F. International Falls has long promoted itself as the "Icebox of the Nation". Officials from Fraser claimed usage since 1956, International Falls since 1948; the two towns came to an agreement in 1986, when International Falls paid Fraser $2,000 to relinquish its "official" claim. However, in 1996, International Falls inadvertently failed to renew its federal trademark, although it had kept its state trademark up to date. Fraser filed to gain the federal trademark. International Falls submitted photographic proof that its 1955 Pee Wee hockey team traveled to Boston, Massachusetts with the slogan. After several years of legal battles, the United States Patent and Trademark Office registered the slogan with International Falls on January 29, 2008, Registration Number 3375139. Only a few days after announcing its success in the trademark battle, International Falls had a daily record low temperature of −40 °F, beating a previous record of −37 °F in 1967.
Besides Fraser, there are still many towns that are smaller and annually overall colder than International Falls, many of these being mountain communities in the Rockies, as well as several in northern Minnesota. International Falls is still called the "Icebox of the Nation" after winning the claim against Fraser in court. One thing that does help or hinder International Falls is that Fraser is located within the Rocky Mountains, which would help to depress low temperatures while International Falls is located on flat land, which takes longer to cool on warm summer nights. While sub−freezing temperatures are common at high elevation, valley sites in the Rockies during the winter, maximum temperatures that remain sub−freezing are quite rare, while at International Falls and much of the upper Midwest they are of frequent occurrence; this is reflected by the average monthly temperatures during
Interstate 35 in Minnesota
Interstate 35 is a north–south Interstate Highway in the United States that stretches from Laredo, Texas, to Duluth, Minnesota. In Minnesota, the route travels from south to north and terminates after deflecting to the east near the state line with Wisconsin; the highway intersects I-90 shortly after. Passing through Owatonna, I-35 continues north nearing the twin cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, it enters them in the south, bridging across Lake Marion and passing by Crystal Lake, where it splits into Interstates 35E and 35W, going through Saint Paul and Minneapolis respectively. Northeastern of the twin cities, I-35E and I-35W join again, I-35 continues to the north–east, where it crosses the St. Louis River south of Scanlon and terminates in Duluth at its junction with Minnesota Highway 61. Interstates 35 and 35E parallel U. S. Highway 61 from the city of Saint Paul to the city of Wyoming. Interstate 35 parallels Chisago County Road 61, State Highway 361, Pine County Road 61, Carlton County Road 61.
State Highway 23 runs concurrent with Interstate 35 between Sandstone. I-35 enters the state from Iowa near Albert Lea, it heads due north towards the Twin Cities, where it splits into I-35E and I-35W. The two halves of I-35 rejoin north of the Twin Cities. From there, I-35 travels north-northeast; the route ends near the shore of Lake Superior in Duluth. The entire route is designated the Red Bull Highway, named after the 34th Infantry Division. Interstate 35 is defined as Routes 390, 395, 396 in the Minnesota Statutes § 161.12. The I-35 legislative route designation and mileposts follow I-35E in the Twin Cities area. I-35 enters the state in Freeborn County south of Albert Lea; the first mile northbound contains Minnesota welcome center. Shortly after the first exit, for Freeborn County Highway 5, there is a sweeping S curve to the northwest and back to the north; the exit for County 13 marks the last exit before Albert Lea. Up to here, the interstate marked the halfway point between U. S. Route 65 and US 69.
Both US Highways end in Albert Lea. In Albert Lea, it meets US 65, which passes beneath the interstate. US 65 picks up Interstate 35 Business, it crosses Albert Lea Lake of a pair of one-quarter-mile-long bridges. It straightens back to the north to meet County 46, which follows the former route of US 16. Shortly after that interchange, it intersects the national northern end of US 65. At the northeastern edge of Albert Lea, there is an interchange with I-90, which directs traffic to La Crosse, Wisconsin, or Sioux Falls, South Dakota. I-35 continues north through the rolling hills of southern Minnesota. At Clarks Grove, it intersects State Highway 251. Between there and the County 35 exit to Geneva, it passes to the west of Geneva Lake. Just east of Ellendale is an interchange with MN 30. Exit 32, County 4 to Hope, is the last interchange before Owatonna. On the southern edge of Owatonna is an interchange with US 14; as of June 2012, the interchange has been rebuilt as a full cloverleaf interchange.
US 218 begins at the interchange along US 14. North of County 45, the County 34 exit serves northern Owatonna and provides access to the Owatonna Degner Regional Airport; the County 9 exit serves a Cabela's. Further north, I-35 meets County 23 in Medford. Along County 23, which serves as a western frontage road to I-35, lies an outlet mall. Now in Rice County, the interstate approaches Faribault. Exit 55 only serves entering southbound traffic. MN 60 is the main east–west street through Faribault, MN 21 provides access to Fairbault from the north of town. MN 21 ends at MN 60. North of Faribault, the interstate heads due north before the two directions are separated when they enter a corridor of trees; the route straightens out again and intersects County 1 and MN 19 at diamond interchanges spaced three miles apart. It enters Scott County where it meets County 2 near Elko New Market, it enters Dakota County and the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. In southwestern Lakeville, there is a folded diamond interchange with County 70.
Right before a partial cloverleaf interchange with County 60, the interstate crosses Marion Lake. Shortly after an interchange with County 5 and County 50 there is a park and ride complex on the northbound side of the interstate. An entrance and exit ramp provide access to the interstate while two entrances from Kendrick Avenue, a frontage road, provide non-interstate access to the complex. After the County 46 interchange, the interstate enters Burnsville. A half diamond interchange, with only northbound exit and southbound entrance ramps precedes the split. I-35 splits into I-35W and I-35E. Interstates 35W and 35E join again near Forest Lake; the route continues as Interstate 35. In contrast to the rolling terrain of I-35 south of the Twin Cities area, this region is quite flat; this is the Anoka Sand Plain, an area, formed by outwash under the last glaciers that lay over this area as they melted. This is an extensive region. The
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
St. Louis County, Minnesota
St. Louis County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,226, its county seat is Duluth. It is the largest county by total area in Minnesota, the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River. St. Louis County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Major industries include pulpwood tourism. Surface mining of taconite and processing it into high grade iron ore remains an important part of the economy of the Iron Range. Parts of the federally recognized Bois Forte and Fond du Lac Indian reservations are in the county; this area was long inhabited by Algonquian-speaking tribes: the Ojibwe and Potawatomi peoples were loosely affiliated in the Council of Three Fires. As American settlers entered the territory, the Native Americans were pushed to outer areas; the Minnesota Legislature established St. Louis County on February 20, 1855, as Doty County, changed its name to Newton County on March 3, 1855.
It consisted of the area east and south of the St. Louis River, while the area east of the Vermilion River and north of the St. Louis River was part of Superior County. Superior County was renamed St. Louis County. On March 1, 1856, that St. Louis County was renamed as Lake County. Newton County had that eastern area added to it. On May 23, 1857, St. Louis County took its current shape when Carlton County was formed from parts of St. Louis and Pine counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,860 square miles, of which 6,247 square miles is land and 612 square miles is water. By area, it is the largest county in Minnesota and the largest in the U. S. east of the Mississippi River. Voyageurs National Park, established in 1975, is located in its northwestern corner, on the south shore of Rainy Lake on the Canada–US border; the county includes parts of Superior National Forest, established in 1909, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness on the border, established in 1978.
The BWCAW is a 1,090,000-acre wilderness area designated for fishing, camping and canoeing, is one of the most visited wilderness areas in the United States. St. Louis County has more than 500 lakes, including Rainy, Namakan, Sand Point, Crane lakes; the largest lakes are Vermilion. The "Hill of Three Waters" on the Laurentian Divide lies northeast of Hibbing. Rain falling on this hill runs to three watersheds: Hudson Bay to the north, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east, or the Gulf of Mexico to the south and west; the county is drained by the St. Louis and other rivers. Duluth on Lake Superior is one of the most important fresh-water ports in the United States and located in this county; the county encompasses part of the Iron Range. It has had a significant taconite mining industry in the city of Virginia. Rainy River District, Canada Lake County Douglas County, Wisconsin Carlton County Aitkin County Itasca County Koochiching County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Voyageurs National Park The county has a humid continental climate moderated by its proximity to Lake Superior.
Winters are long and cold seeing maximum temperatures remaining below 32 °F on 106 days. Due to global warming, in January 2019 Tracy Twine, professor at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Soil and Climate, said "we just don’t expect temperatures to be below 10 degrees Fahrenheit in Duluth anymore. Public schools and other government offices shut down on January 29-30, 2019 because of wind chills of -70°F; as of the 2010 census, there were 200,226 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% White, 2.2% Native American, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 1.2% were Hispanic or Latino. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the ancestral makeup was 24.3% German, 15.9% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 10.2% Irish. As of the 2000 census, there were 200,528 people, 82,619 households, 51,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 95,800 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.86% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 2.03% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.60% of households included children under the age of 18, 49.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families. 31.20% of all households consisted of individuals and 13.00% of individuals 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The population spread by age was 22.40% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,306, the median income for a family was $47,134.
Males had a median income of $37,934 versus $24