A bungalow is a type of building developed in the Bengal region of the subcontinent. The meaning of the word bungalow varies internationally. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow associated with the United States was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom, a bungalow today is a house detached, that may contain a small loft, it is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof with dormer windows. The term originated in the Indian subcontinent, deriving from the Hindi word "बंगला", meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style"; this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent. Such houses were traditionally small, of one story and detached, had a wide veranda; the term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe "bungales or hovells" in India for English sailors of the East India Company.
It became used for the spacious homes or official lodgings of officials of the British India, was so known in Britain and America, where it had high status and exotic connotations. The style began to be used in the late 19th century for large country or suburban residential buildings built in an Arts and Crafts or other Western vernacular style—essentially as large cottages, a term sometimes used. Developers began to use the term for smaller buildings. Bungalows are convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story and there are no stairs between living areas. A bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs. Neighborhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighborhoods with two-story houses; as bungalows are one or one and a half stories, strategically planted trees and shrubs are sufficient to block the view of neighbors. With two-story houses, the extra height requires much taller trees to accomplish the same, it may not be practical to place such tall trees close to the building to obscure the view from the second floor of the next door neighbor.
Bungalows provide cost-effective residences. On the other hand closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighborhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas to shade the interior from intense sun, but as a result they are excessively dark inside, requiring artificial light in daytime. On a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area; the larger foundation will translate into larger lot size requirements, as well. Due to this, bungalows are fully detached from other buildings and do not share a common foundation or party wall: if the homeowner can afford the extra expense of a bungalow relative to a two-story house, they can afford a detached property as well. Although the'footprint' of a bungalow is a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high, are close to the roof.
This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the brick wall above the windows. However, in two-story houses, there is no choice but to continue the brick wall above the window In rural Bangladesh, the concept is called Bangla ghar and remain popular. Today's main construction material is corrugated steel sheets or red clay tiles, while past generations used wood and khar straw; this straw was used keeping the house cooler during hot summer days. From 1891 the Federation Bungalow style swept across Australia, first in Camberwell and through Sydney's northern suburbs after 1895; the developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, in Rosebery, New South Wales. Beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia and New Zealand; the style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and spread throughout the Australian states and New Zealand.
In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments. The first two bungalows in England were built in Westgate-on-Sea in 1869 or 1870. A bungalow was a prefabricated single-story building used as a seaside holiday home. Manufacturers included Boulton & Paul Ltd, who made corrugated iron bungalows as advertised in their 1889 catalogue, which were erected by their men on the purchaser's light brickwork foundation. Examples include Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum, Castle Bungalow at Peppercombe, North Devon, owned by the Landmark Trust. Construction of this type of bungalow peaked towards the end of the decade, to be replaced by brick construction. Bungalows became popular in the United Kingdom between the two World Wars and large numbers were built in coastal resorts, giving rise to the pejorative adjective, "bungaloid", first found in the Daily Express from 1927: "Hideous allotments and bungaloid growth make the approaches to any city repulsive".
Many villages and seaside resorts have large estates of 1960s bungalows occupied by retired people. The typical 1930s bungalow is square
A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
Lassen Street Olive Trees (Chatsworth, California)
The Lassen Street Olive Trees known as 76 Mature Olive Trees, are a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument located in the Chatsworth community of the northwestern San Fernando Valley, in Los Angeles, Southern California. An avenue of Olive trees were planted in 1890 along a dirt road by N. A. Grey, who owned property there, they are believed to have been grown from cuttings taken from the Spanish Colonial c. 1800 planted olive orchard trees at the Mission San Fernando Rey de España across the Valley. When the site was designated a Historic-Cultural Monument in 1967, there were 76 olive trees along several blocks of western of Lassen Street. According to the Chatsworth Daughters of the American Revolution chapter, there are 49 trees surviving/remaining in the 2010s. History of the San Fernando Valley List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley
Chatsworth Nature Preserve
The Chatsworth Nature Preserve is a 1,325-acre open-space preserve located in the northwest corner of the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, United States. The preserve contains oak woodlands, riparian areas, vernal pools, an Ecology Pond, all of which support more than 200 bird species and numerous mammals and reptiles; the CNP is located within Los Angeles city limits. The preserve's western edge abuts Los Angeles County's western border with Ventura County; the preserve is in the foothills of the Simi Hills. The following San Fernando Valley neighborhoods surround the preserve: Chatsworth, Chatsworth Lake Manor, West Hills; the preserve is located at the former site of Chatsworth Reservoir, a former DWP water-storage facility. Nearby points of interest include Stoney Point, Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Burro Flats Painted Cave, Minnie Hill Palmer House. In the 1990s, former Los Angeles City Councilman Hal Bernson, other community leaders, environmental organizations worked together to create the Chatsworth Nature Preserve.
The Los Angeles City Council passed City Ordinance #169723 in 1994, limiting use of the area encompassing the former Chatsworth Reservoir property to a nature preserve and related scientific studies and education. More than 200 bird species inhabit the CNP. Resident bird species are greater roadrunner, California quail, herons, orioles, ash-throated flycatchers, acorn woodpecker, Nuttall's woodpecker, western kingbird, great horned owl and others. Migratory birds include Canada goose, western meadowlark, tricolored blackbird, a variety of ducks and shorebirds. Raptors populating the preserve include ferruginous hawk, red-tailed hawk, prairie falcon, many others. Notable amphibians and reptiles include western spadefoot toad, slender salamander, western skink, ring-necked snake, red racer; the preserve's wildlife population includes large and small mammals: desert cottontail rabbit, gray fox and raccoon, plus occasional bobcats, mountain lions, mule deer. Among the CNP's various natural habitats are oak woodlands and savanna, riparian areas, grassland, pond water and fringing marsh, seasonal ponds, vernal pools created by seasonal rains and streams, including Woolsey Canyon Creek and Box Canyon Creek, which drain into the preserve from the steep rocky Simi Hills.
Inside the preserve, the now-channelized Chatsworth Creek, a tributary of the Los Angeles River, joins with Box Canyon Creek, Woolsey Canyon Creek, additional unnamed creeks. Rocky hills rise out of the preserve, earthen berms from former water-retention dams arc across the terrain; the CNP Ecology Pond provides the only permanent source of water within the preserve and draws wildlife from throughout the area. In recent history it has served as habitat for a variety of dabbling ducks, diving ducks, egrets, coots and shorebirds; the pond is the core for a complex of habitats along its shores, including mudflats during lower water periods, a fringing marsh of cattails, bulrushes and other water-associated plants. On higher ground, the pond waters support dense thickets of mule fat and willows that could not exist in drier areas; the pond and marsh provide foraging and nest sites for numerous bird species, are used by various mammals and amphibians. The thickets support breeding bird species; the Ecology Pond is used as an emergency water supply source for fighting nearby wildfires.
Fire department helicopters refill their water tanks with the pond's water. The CNP contains Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument #141, thus designated on April 2, 1975 by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission. Known as the Chatsworth Calera, monument #141 is a centuries-old kiln used for burning limestone in the making of lime for concrete and whitewash, a step in the construction of bricks and tiles; the monument now looks like a hole in the ground with walls of vitrified brick. It measures six and a half feet across; the kiln was in use during early California history. Rich in oak trees and lime deposits, the location was ideal for kiln operation. Several such lime kilns were in operation around the edge of the San Fernando Valley; the word "Calera" is Spanish for "limestone quarry" or "limekiln". The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power owns and manages the CNP. A chain-link fence encloses most of the preserve's grounds; the LADWP limits general public access to the enclosed portion of the CNP to a once-yearly Earth Day celebration.
The CNP contains evidence of at least 1,000 years of human culture: native tribes made sacred use of the land, the Fernandeño and Chumash people ground acorns and seeds in the sandstone outcroppings. Spanish missionaries processed limestone for use in plaster coatings of adobe buildings, in the 19th century the land was used by Mexican cattle ranchers and Basque sheepherders. In the early 20th century, the City of Los Angeles developed a linked chain of 19 water-retention basins to store and manage water imported via the Los Angeles Aqueduct system from the Owens Valley. Chatsworth Reservoir was the last of these, occupied the now-current CNP lands. Placed into service in 1919, the reservoir was created by two large earth-filled dams and two smaller dykes spanning gaps between hills. From 1920 to 1950 it was the main water storage facility for the western San Fernando Valley serving agricultural irrigation needs. During that period, dam improvements increased water capacity from the initial 7,400 acre-feet to 9,840 acre-feet.
As the W
In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts; the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a historic district fall into one of two types of property: contributing and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th-century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a modern medical clinic, does not.
The contributing properties are key to a historic district's historic associations, historic architectural qualities, or archaeological qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place. According to the National Park Service, the first instance of law dealing with contributing properties in local historic districts occurred in 1931 when the city of Charleston, South Carolina, enacted an ordinance that designated the "Old and Historic District." The ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street. By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charleston's lead. An amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans; the city passed a local ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, indicate differing dates for the preservation ordinances in both Charleston and New Orleans.
The Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that these two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946; the National Park Service appears to refute this. In 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, the city's original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local design controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design and demolition controls were valid within defined historic districts. Beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures; the United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, D. C. protected in 1950. By 1965, 51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances.
By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns and villages had enacted historic preservation ordinances. Contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a district's historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. In historic preservation law, a contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district that contributes to its historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological qualities of a historic district, it can be any property, structure or object that adds to the historic integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal, significant. Definitions vary. Another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can sever its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. A property listed as a contributing member of a historic district meets National Register criteria and qualifies for all benefits afforded a property or site listed individually on the National Register. A building within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Building property type of NRHP listing. An object within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Object property type of NRHP listing. A structure within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Structure property type of NRHP listing. A site within a historic district that contributes to the historic character of the district. See Site property type of NRHP listing; the line between contributing and non-contributing can be fuzzy. In particular, American historic districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places before 1980 have few records of the non-contributing structures.
State Historic Preservation Offices conduct surveys to determine the historical character of structures in historic districts. Districts nominated to the National Register of Historic Places after 1980 list those structures considered non-contributing; as a general rule, a contributing property helps make a historic district historic. A 19th-century Queen Anne mansion, such as the David Syme House, is a contributing property, while a modern gas station or medical clinic within th
National Register of Historic Places architectural style categories
In the United States, the National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of architecture. Listed properties are given one or more of 40 standard architectural style classifications that appear in the National Register Information System database. Other properties are given a custom architectural description with "vernacular" or other qualifiers, others have no style classification. Many National Register-listed properties do not fit into the several categories listed here, or they fit into more specialized subcategories; the complete list of the 40 architectural style codes in the National Register Information System—NRIS follows: Obs — ARSTYLCD — ARSTYL 1 — 01 NO STYLE LISTED 2 — 10 COLONIAL 3 — 11 GEORGIAN 4 — 20 EARLY REPUBLIC 5 — 21 FEDERAL 6 — 30 MID 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL 7 — 31 GREEK REVIVAL 8 — 32 GOTHIC REVIVAL 9 — 33 ITALIAN VILLA 10 — 34 EXOTIC REVIVAL 11 — 40 LATE VICTORIAN 12 — 41 GOTHIC 13 — 42 ITALIANATE 14 — 43 SECOND EMPIRE 15 — 44 STICK/EASTLAKE 16 — 45 QUEEN ANNE 17 — 46 SHINGLE STYLE 18 — 47 ROMANESQUE 19 — 48 RENAISSANCE 20 — 49 OCTAGON MODE 21 — 50 LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY REVIVALS 22 — 51 COLONIAL REVIVAL 23 — 52 CLASSICAL REVIVAL 24 — 53 TUDOR REVIVAL 25 — 54 LATE GOTHIC REVIVAL 26 — 55 MISSION/SPANISH REVIVAL 27 — 56 BEAUX ARTS 28 — 57 PUEBLO 29 — 60 LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN MOVEMENTS 30 — 61 PRAIRIE SCHOOL 31 — 62 EARLY COMMERCIAL 32 — 63 CHICAGO 33 — 64 SKYSCRAPER 34 — 65 BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN 35 — 70 MODERN MOVEMENT 36 — 71 MODERNE 37 — 72 INTERNATIONAL STYLE 38 — 73 ART DECO 39 — 80 OTHER 40 — 90 MIXED Some selected National Register Information System styles, with examples, include: Federal architecture was the classicizing architecture style built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830.
Examples include: the Old Town Hall in Massachusetts, Plumb House in Virginia. Greek Revival architecture is a Neoclassical movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe, it emerged in the U. S. following the War of 1812 and while a revolutionary war in Greece attracted America's interest. Greek Revival architecture was popularized by Minard Lafever's pattern books: The Young Builders' General Instructor in 1829, the Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835, The Architectural Instructor in 1850. Greek Revival in the U. S. includes vernacular versions such as the 1839 Simsbury Townhouse built by an unknown craftsman and the Dicksonia Plantation, high-style versions such as the Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. Plantation houses Many plantation houses in the Southern United States were built in Greek Revival variations, including Millford Plantation, Melrose and Annandale Plantation Examples of the American revival of classical Palladian architecture include: The Rotunda by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland.
Late Victorian architecture is distributed on the register's listings, for many building types in every state. The Carpenter Gothic style was popular for Late Victorian wooden churches; the Queen Anne style was popular in American Victorian architecture, after the earlier Italianate style, is frequent on NRHP residential listings. The Shingle Style is an American variation of Queen Anne. A grouping of historicist architecture Revival styles, with the title Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals, has been applied by the NRHP for many listings. There are numerous listed buildings designed in an amalgam of several to many revival styles that defy a singular or simpler classification title. Mission/Spanish Revival is an amalgam of two distinct styles popular in different but adjacent eras: the late-19th-century Mission Revival Style architecture and early-20th-century Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the combined term, or the individual terms, are used in the style classifications of NRHP listed buildings.
Pueblo Revival Style architecture is a revival style based on traditional Native American Pueblo architecture of adobe dwellings–communities in the Pueblo culture in present-day New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. Examples include the Institute of American Indian Arts, La Fonda on the Plaza, the Mabel Dodge Luhan House in New Mexico, the Painted Desert Inn in Arizona. Exotic Revival architecture is another style that may reflect a mix of Moorish Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival architecture, other influences. Just a few of many National Register-listed places identified with this style are El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Fort Smith Masonic Temple, Algeria Shrine Temple. Examples in California include Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose; the Mayan Revival architecture style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs with those of other Mesoamerican cultures of Aztec architecture. Examples include: the Mayan Theater in Downtown Los Angeles.
S. Route 66 in Southern California. "Postmedieval English" architecture is a style term used for a number of NRHP listings, including William Ward Jr. House in Middlefield, Connecticut. "Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements" ar