Avalon, sometimes written Avallon or Avilion, is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136 pseudo-historical account Historia Regum Britanniae as the place where King Arthur's sword Excalibur was forged and where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was associated from an early date with mystical figures such as Morgan le Fay, it is traditionally identified as the former island of Glastonbury Tor. Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as Insula Avallonis in Historia Regum Britanniae. In the Vita Merlini he called it Insula Pomorum the "isle of fruit trees"; the name is considered to be of Welsh origin, derived from Old Welsh, Old Cornish, or Old Breton aball or avallen, "apple tree, fruit tree". It is possible that the tradition of an "apple" island among the British was related to Irish legends concerning the otherworld island home of Manannán mac Lir and Lugh, Emain Ablach, where Ablach means "Having Apple Trees"—derived from Old Irish aball —and is similar to the Middle Welsh name Afallach, used to replace the name Avalon in medieval Welsh translations of French and Latin Arthurian tales.
All are etymologically related to the Gaulish root *aballo "fruit tree"— and are derived from a Common Celtic *abal- "apple", related at the Proto-Indo-European level to English apple, Russian яблоко, Latvian ābele, et al. According to Geoffrey in the Historia, much subsequent literature which he inspired, Avalon is the place where King Arthur is taken after fighting Mordred at the Battle of Camlann to recover from his wounds. Welsh and Breton tradition claimed that Arthur had never died, but would return to lead his people against their enemies. Historia states that Avalon is where his sword Excalibur was forged. Geoffrey dealt with Avalon in more detail in the Vita Merlini, in which he describes for the first time in Arthurian legend the enchantress Morgan as the chief of nine sisters who rule Avalon. Geoffrey's description of the island indicates, his description of Avalon here, indebted to the early medieval Spanish scholar Isidore of Seville, shows the magical nature of the island: In Erec and Enide by Chrétien de Troyes, the consort of Morgan is the Lord of the Isle of Avalon, Arthur's nephew named Guinguemar.
In Layamon's Brut, Arthur is taken to Avalon to be healed there through means of magic water by a distinctively Anglo-Saxon redefinition of Geoffrey's Morgen: an elf queen of Avalon named Argante. In the narrative of Alliterative Morte Arthure devoid of supernatural elements, it is physicians from Salerno who try, fail, to save Arthur's life in Avalon. Many versions of the Arthurian legend have Morgan and some other magical queens or enchantresses arrive after the battle to take the mortally wounded Arthur from the battlefield of Camlann to Avalon in a black boat. In the Vulgate Cycle, Morgan tells Arthur of her intention to relocate to the isle of Avalon, the place where "the ladies live who know all the magic in the world", shortly before Camlann. In Lope Garcia de Salazar's Spanish summary of the Post-Vulgate Roman du Graal, Morgan uses her magic to hide Avalon in mist. Arthur's fate is left untold. Conversely, Stephen of Rouen's chronicle Draco Normannicus contains a fictional letter from King Arthur to Henry II of England, in which Arthur claims that he has been healed of his wounds and made immortal by his "deathless/eternal nymph" sister Morgan on Avalon, using the island's restorative herbs.
Morgan features as an immortal ruler of a fantastic Avalon, sometimes alongside the still alive Arthur, in some subsequent and otherwise non-Arthurian chivalric romances such as Tirant lo Blanch, as well as the tales of Huon of Bordeaux, where Oberon is a son of either Morgan by name or "the Lady of the Secret Isle", the legend of Ogier the Dane, where Avalon can be described as a castle. In his La Faula, Guillem de Torroella claims to have visited the Enchanted Island and met Arthur, brought back to life by Morgan and they both of them are now forever young, sustained by the Grail. In the chanson de geste La Bataille Loquifer and her sister Marsion bring the hero Renoart to Avalon, where Arthur now prepares his return alongside Morgan, Ywain and Guinevere; such stories take place centuries after the times of King Arthur. Around 1190, Avalon became associated with Glastonbury, when monks at Glastonbury Abbey claimed to have discovered the bones
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy legendarium includes several noteworthy objects; the following list includes weapons, ships, musical instruments and other items. A wondrous large white gem, the royal jewel of the Dwarf-kingdom of Erebor, it was sought by the claimant to the kingdom, in The Hobbit. The Arkenstone had been discovered at the heart of the Mountain by Thorin's ancestor, King Thráin I the Old, shaped by the Dwarves. Thráin ruled from T. A. 1981 to 2190, the Arkenstone became the royal heirloom of his successors, Durin's line. However the great jewel was lost when the dragon Smaug captured the Lonely Mountain from the Dwarves in T. A. 2770. The Arkenstone shone of its own inner light, but having been cut and fashioned by the Dwarves, it reflected and multiplied any light glancing upon its surface with marvellous beauty, it was called the Heart of the Mountain, as Thorin describes to Bilbo Baggins: "It shone like silver in the firelight, like water in the sun, like snow under the stars, like rain upon the moon..."
Thorin, the heir of Thráin, arrived at the Lonely Mountain with Bilbo in T. A. 2941. When Bilbo found the Arkenstone on Smaug's golden bed deep inside the Lonely Mountain he pocketed it, having learned how much Thorin valued it. While his Dwarf companions sorted the treasure, Thorin sought only the Arkenstone, unaware that Bilbo was hiding it in his pillow; when the Dwarves refused to share any of the treasure with Bard and King Thranduil, Bilbo crept out of the Dwarves' fort inside the Mountain, gave them the Arkenstone. Bard and Gandalf tried to trade it for Bilbo's fourteenth share of Smaug's hoard; the dispute was interrupted by goblins and wargs from the Misty Mountains, the Battle of Five Armies ensued, Thorin was killed. When Thorin was buried deep under Erebor, Bard placed the Arkenstone on Thorin's breast. Tolkien took the name from Old English earcanstān or Old Norse jarknasteinn, meaning "precious stone"; the word appears in several Old English poems. The Arkenstone is compared with the Silmarils, the great jewels at the centre of The Silmarillion.
Though the Arkenstone is not a Silmaril, it is an import from Tolkien's writings of the "mythology" into his children's story which were, at the time of The Hobbit's composition, unrelated writings. In The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, the Arkenstone is portrayed as a round glowing gem, similar to a luminous white opal; the gem was inserted into Thrór's throne, the king viewed it as a symbol of his rule by divine grace. He attempted to take it with him when Smaug invaded Erebor, but dropped it into a pile of gold where it was lost. In The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug, it is revealed that the entire purpose of the dwarves' quest was to retrieve the Arkenstone, since possessing it would have given Thorin the authority required to unite all the dwarven clans and launch an assault to liberate Erebor; the chief token of royalty of Gondor. It is referred as the Winged Crown, the Silver or White Crown, the Crown of Elendil. Tolkien describes the crown in The Lord of the Rings thus: It was shaped like the helms of the Guards of the Citadel, save that it was loftier, it was all white, the wings at either side were wrought of pearl and silver in the likeness of the wings of a sea-bird, for it was the emblem of kings who came over the Sea.
In a letter Tolkien describes the crown as "very tall, like that of Egypt, but with wings attached, not set straight back but at an angle". The Hedjet of Upper Egypt was, like Gondor's crown known as the White Crown. Tolkien made a sketch of the crown of Gondor, reproduced in J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator; the first Crown of Gondor was the helmet. His brother Anárion's helmet had been crushed by the stone that killed him during the Siege of Barad-dûr. During the reign of King Atanatar II Alcarin, a new crown was made of silver and jewels; this Crown was worn by all the subsequent Kings of Gondor. Traditionally, a father passed the Crown to his heir. If the heir was not present when the King died, the Crown was set in the King's tomb in the Hallows, where his heir would go alone to retrieve it. In 2050, the Lord of the Nazgûl challenged King Eärnur to single-combat. Eärnur left the Crown on the tomb of his father Eärnil II and he went to Minas Morgul and was never seen again. From that time on, the Stewards ruled Gondor in the absence of a King.
The Crown remained in the Hallows, the Stewards bore a white rod as the token of their office. To prepare for the coronation of Aragorn as King Elessar, the Steward Faramir went to the Hallows and retrieved the Crown from Eärnil's tomb; the Crown was placed in a casket of black lebethron wood bound with silver. On the day of the coronation, 1st'May' T. A. 3019, the casket was carried to the Great Gate of Minas Tirith by four Guards of the Citadel. Aragorn lifted the Crown and, quoting his ancestor Elendil as he arrived in Middle-earth, said: "Et Eärello Endorenna utúlien. Sinome maruvan ar Hildinyar tenn' Ambar-metta!" At Aragorn's request, Frodo Baggins brought the Crown forward and gave it to Gandalf, who set it upon Aragorn's head. As King, Aragorn bore both the Crown of Gondor and the Sceptre of Annúminas, the chief token of royalty of Arnor, an
Middle-earth wars and battles
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy writings include many wars and battles set in the lands of Aman, Beleriand, Númenor, Middle-earth; these are related in his various books such as The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales and other posthumously published books edited by his son Christopher Tolkien. These are given below in an in-universe, fictional chronology: The Battle of the Powers called the War of the Powers, occurred between the god-like Valar and their former member Melkor in primeval Middle-earth. After a long titanic conflict the Valar defeated Melkor, confined in a massive chain for three ages; the battle caused massive changes to Middle-earth's original geography. The Kinslayings are the collective term for the three battles fought among the Eldar; the first battle, the Kinslaying at Alqualondë, appears in print in The Silmarillion. It involves the Noldorin Elves under their king, Fëanor, against their fellow Elves, the Teleri whose Lord was Olwë, who did not take part in the battle.
Against the will of the godlike Valar, Fëanor had induced the Noldor to leave Valinor to make war upon the Dark Lord Morgoth in revenge for the murder of his father Finwë and the theft of his Silmarilli jewels. As the easiest route to Middle-earth was by sea, Fëanor and his sons led one host of the Noldor to the city of Alqualondë and asked the seafaring Teleri of Alqualondë for their vessels; the Teleri refused to help. Bitter fighting broke out and many of Elves on both sides were slain. Though the Teleri were armed, they were able to defend themselves to some degree until a second host of the Noldor, led by Fëanor's half-nephew Fingon, arrived together with some of his father Fingolfin's people. Fingon's people assumed erroneously that the Teleri had attacked the Noldor under orders of the Valar. In the end, many of the Teleri were slain and the ships taken. Afterward, the sea destroyed many of the boats to punish the Noldor for this cruel act. Though the Teleri forgave the Noldor by the end of the First Age of Middle-earth, they still refused to fight in the War of Wrath.
All Elves that followed Fëanor and continued towards Middle-earth fell under the Doom of Mandos. This episode appears in Tolkien's earliest Middle-earth-related writings, published in The Book of Lost Tales. In the earliest surviving version, the "Noldoli" steal the ships of the "Solosimpi" without any fighting; when a concept of a battle was developed, the location was first called "Kopas Alqalunten". In a late version of the legendarium, Galadriel fought on the side of the Teleri, her mother Eärwen's people, against the Fëanorians; the second battle is the Sack of Doriath made by the Sons of Fëanor. Caranthir and Curufin died there, Celegorm dies killing the son of Beren and Luthien. Although the fëanorians won the battle, they did not manage to obtain the Silmaril; the third battle in the Kinslaying is the attack by the Sons of Fëanor on the Mouths of Sirion where Elwing was attacked. The last Kinslaying is considered the cruellest of them all because many women and children were murdered by the Fëanorians.
And still the Silmaril is not taken back. It was stated by Eönwë herald of Manwë that because of these evil deeds the remaining Sons of Fëanor had lost all right to the Silmarils, when Maedhros and Maglor retrieved them, the Silmarils burned their hands, driving Maedhros to suicide and Maglor to wander the Earth forever; the battles between the Elves of Beleriand and the forces of Morgoth are referred to as the Battles of Beleriand, but as the War of the Jewels as the Silmarilli were behind them all. The battles spanned the last several centuries of the First Age. In J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, the First Battle of Beleriand was, as the name suggests, the first battle of the Wars of Beleriand, fought by the Sindarin Elves, led by Elu Thingol, King of Doriath and Lord of Beleriand, against the armies of Morgoth, the Great Enemy and original Dark Lord; the First Battle of Beleriand was fought before the Noldor arrived, was fought by the Sindar and Laiquendi Elves. The Second Battle was Dagor-nuin-Giliath, fought by the Noldor following Fëanor and his Seven Sons, in which the Noldor were victorious but Fëanor was slain by Balrogs.
During this battle the Battle of Lhammoth was fought by the host of Fingolfin. The Third Battle was Dagor Aglareb. Various minor battles were fought during the Siege; the Fourth Battle was the Dagor Bragollach, in which the Siege was broken and Fingolfin was slain by Morgoth. The Fifth Battle was the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, in which the Noldor were utterly defeated and Fingon, Azaghâl and Huor are killed and Hurin captured. Years the Battle of Tumhalad, in which the elven forces under Orodreth and Túrin were defeated by Angband forces under Glaurung, led to the sack of Nargothrond, it was the last battle of the Elves of the kingdom of Nargothrond. It was fought on the plain of Tumhalad between the river Narog and its tributary, the river Ginglith. In year 510 FA the Fall of Gondolin takes place, it was fought between the Elves of Gondolin led by Turgon their king and the city's houses leaders and the hosts of Morgoth swarmed from Angband led by Gothmog. At the end the elves are defeated, the city is lost and destroyed, the king, most of the houses' leaders
Atlantis is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic. In the story, Athens repels the Atlantean attack unlike any other nation of the known world giving testament to the superiority of Plato's concept of a state; the story concludes with Atlantis falling out of favor with the deities and submerging into the Atlantic Ocean. Despite its minor importance in Plato's work, the Atlantis story has had a considerable impact on literature; the allegorical aspect of Atlantis was taken up in utopian works of several Renaissance writers, such as Francis Bacon's New Atlantis and Thomas More's Utopia. On the other hand, nineteenth-century amateur scholars misinterpreted Plato's narrative as historical tradition, most notably in Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Plato's vague indications of the time of the events—more than 9,000 years before his time—and the alleged location of Atlantis—"beyond the Pillars of Hercules"—has led to much pseudoscientific speculation.
As a consequence, Atlantis has become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations and continues to inspire contemporary fiction, from comic books to films. While present-day philologists and classicists agree on the story's fictional character, there is still debate on what served as its inspiration; as for instance with the story of Gyges, Plato is known to have borrowed some of his allegories and metaphors from older traditions. This led a number of scholars to investigate possible inspiration of Atlantis from Egyptian records of the Thera eruption, the Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War. Others have rejected this chain of tradition as implausible and insist that Plato created an fictional nation as his example, drawing loose inspiration from contemporary events such as the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC or the destruction of Helike in 373 BC; the only primary sources for Atlantis are Plato's dialogues Critias. The dialogues claim to quote Solon, who visited Egypt between 590 and 580 BC.
Written in 360 BC, Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus: For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, over many other islands and parts of the continent; the four people appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic method in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition; the Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations.
In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic, wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions a tale he considered to be historical, that would make the perfect example, he follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. According to Critias, the Hellenic deities of old divided the land so that each deity might have their own lot; the island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined, but it was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. Plato asserted that the Egyptians described Atlantis as an island consisting of mountains in the northern portions and along the shore and encompassing a great plain in an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia."
Fifty stadia from the coast was a mountain, low on all sides... broke it off all round about... the central island itself was five stades in diameter. In Plato's metaphorical tale, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins; the eldest of these, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean, was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island to
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Great Sea or the Sundering Seas, is the sea of Arda, west of Middle-earth, it represents a loose mythical view of the Atlantic Ocean. Before the Second Age, Belegaer stretched from the Gap of Ilmen in the far north, where a bridge made of ice known as the Helcaraxë connected Middle-earth and Aman, to the far south, where it connected with Ilmen and froze. Belegaer was narrower in the north than with its widest part near the equator of Arda; the full extent of Belegaer after the Akallabêth is never made clear, but it reaches far enough to the north to be ice-covered, far to the south. The name is Sindarin, has the elements beleg and aer or eär, the latter present in the name Eärendil; the Quenya name of Belegaer, never used in published writing, is Alatairë. Before the end of the Second Age, the continent of Aman, home of the Valar, formed the western edge of Belegaer. Before the ruin of Beleriand at the end of the First Age, the sea was narrow and ice-filled in the north, forming the strait of Helcaraxë, the Grinding Ice.
It was thus possible to cross from Aman to Middle-earth on foot, though with difficulty, as did Fingolfin and his people of the Noldor when fleeing Valinor. After the War of Wrath Belegaer was widened by the drowning of a large part of Middle-earth. During the Akallabêth in the Second Age, the seas were "bent" and the world was made round. Aman was removed from the world, Belegaer washed "new lands", only the chosen could find the "Straight Road" to Valinor; the new western reaches of Belegaer are never described in the narrative, although there are indications that Númenórean refugees reached them in search for Valinor. The "new lands" have been compared before to the Americas by fans, although Tolkien himself never indicated whether, what he intended. On the west, before Aman was removed from the world near the end of the Second Age, features of Belegaer included: the Twilit Isles or Enchanted Isles in the Shadowy Seas, it was the remainder of the eastern edge of the Great Gulf that had divided Beleriand from the Lands to the South in the First Age.
After the end of the War of Wrath a large section of western Middle-earth was drowned, with the new coastline the Bay of Belfalas extended from Andrast to the Mouths of Anduin, south past Umbar to the unknown southern shores. The Bay of Belfalas was an important inlet for incoming ships, it served as a passageway for Corsairs coming from the Havens of Umbar in the South. Most of the Rivers of Gondor flowed into the Bay of Belfalas, it had many smaller bays and capes; the mouths of the Anduin and the Rivers Lefnui, Ciril, Ringló, Harnen all emptied into the Bay of Belfalas. The Bay was named for the region of Belfalas, in it lay the rocky island of Tolfalas at the mouths of the Anduin. Bay of Belfalas Tolfalas, in the Bay of Belfalas "Belegaer". Tolkien Gateway
King Arthur was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians; the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain; the legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.
How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Although the themes and characters of the Arthurian legend varied from text to text, there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey's version of events served as the starting point for stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established a vast empire. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, final rest in Avalon; the 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.
Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but in adaptations for theatre, television and other media; the historical basis for King Arthur has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century; the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon. Recent studies, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum; the other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.
The Annales date this battle to 516–518, mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur did fight at Badon. Problems have been identified, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account; the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it that early, they were more added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Badon entry derived from the Historia Brittonum; this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him".
These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. So, he found little to say about a historical Arthur. In reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820, he is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. The historian David Dumville wrote: "I think.
He owes his place in our history books to a'no smoke without fire' school of thought... The f
Minor places in Beleriand
J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contains many locations; some of the minor places in the region of Beleriand during the First Age are described below. It is to be supposed that all of them were destroyed in the Drowning of Beleriand during the War of Wrath unless otherwise noted. Aelin-uial A marshy confluence of Aros in Sirion, held to be a part of Doriath, it was protected by the Girdle of Melian and secret ferries were maintained on the east shore. This area had a strong connection to Ulmo, able to send visions to both Finrod and Turgon bidding them to seek a place where a stronghold hidden from the eyes of Morgoth could be established. Aglon See Pass of AglonAmon Darthir A peak in the Ered Wethrin to the south-east of Dor-lómin, over which led the only pass over the mountains; the stream of Nen Lalaith sprang from its side, after the coming of the Easterlings some outlaws of the House of Hador maintained a refuge in a cave here. Amon Ereb The broad, shallow-sided hill between Ramdal and the river Gelion that dominated the southern plains of East Beleriand.
As the highest point in that region and the easternmost hill of Andram, standing alone, it had tremendous strategic importance, because it guarded the eastern passage around the long wall of the Andram into the southern parts of Beleriand and the northern Taur-im-Duinath. It was here that Denethor Lord of the Nandor met his end in the First Battle against the Orcs in the Wars of Beleriand, much Caranthir fortified it to guard his escape into the south after the Dagor Bragollach and the Fëanoreans withdrew there after Nírnaeth Arnoediad; the hill was called "Ereb" for short. Amon Ethir A hill raised artificially by the people of Finrod in the wide plain of Talath Dirnen, a league east of the Doors of Nargothrond above the river Narog. Over the years, trees grew on its flanks, but from its clear summit the watchers of Nargothrond could watch the lands about with the clear sight of the Elves, so the hill got its name, Amon Ethir, meaning'Hill of Spies'. After the Sack of Nargothrond, the hill still stood, it was here that Nienor encountered Glaurung the Dragon.
Having plunged the land into a thick fog of dragon-reek, so that only the hill remained above the mists, he cast Nienor into a deep spell of darkness and forgetfulness. Amon Rûdh In the First Age, Amon Rûdh was a stone hill south of Brethil in West Beleriand, it had only deep red flowers called seregon "stone's blood" growing on its top, which made it seem blood-covered. Mîm the Petty-dwarf lived within Amon Rûdh with Ibûn and Khîm. Mîm was captured by a group of outlaws led by Túrin Turambar and forced to reveal the location of his refuge, called Bar-en-Danwedh "House of Ransom"; when it was discovered that Khîm, shot at, had been killed, Túrin repented and offered his services to Mîm, who from on tolerated the presence of the outlaws. Amon Rûdh became the base of operations for the outlaws and with the arrival of Beleg, it became the heart of the area known as Dor-Cúarthol "Land of Bow and Helm", a centre of resistance against the forces of Morgoth. Túrin's location was discovered and orcs slew the outlaws and captured Turambar, covering the hilltop with real blood.
Amon Rûdh was lost under the sea with the destruction of Beleriand during the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age. Andram A long line of hills that ran across Beleriand, from Nargothrond and the Gates of Sirion in the west to Ramdal in the east, it marked a steep fall in the height of the land of Beleriand. At the easternmost edge stood Amon Ereb, not considered a part of the Andram. Androth A complex of caves in the Mountains of Mithrim. After Nírnaeth Arnoediad, some of the Sindar and Edain that survived the battle took refuge there. Tuor was fostered by the Elves of Androth. Annon-in-Gelydh A subterranean passage below the Ered Lómin. Through it a river from the Mountains of Mithrim flowed towards Cirith Ninniach; the tunnel was enlarged and carved by the Noldor of Turgon when he dwelt in Nevrast to ease the communication with Fingon in Hithlum. Gelmir and Arminas led Tuor through this passage at the bidding of Ulmo. Ard-galen Anfauglith, was the wide green plain that lay north of the highlands of Dorthonion and south of Morgoth's fortress of Angband in the Iron Mountains, in the First Age.
In the first days after the rising of the Sun, Ard-galen was a green plain with rich grass, reaching from Hithlum and the Ered Wethrin in the west to the Ered Luin in the east, rising into highlands of Dorthonion in the south. But the plain was laid waste by rivers of flame and poisonous gases that issued forth from Angband in the Dagor Bragollach and renamed Anfauglith; the Fifth Battle of the Wars of Beleriand, called Nírnaeth Arnoediad, was fought upon the plain, the dead bodies from that battle were piled up, forming a hill in the midst of the plain, named Haudh-en-Ndengin, the Hill of Slain, by the Elves, Haudh-en-Nirnaeth, the Hill of Tears. Like the other lands around it, Anfauglith sank beneath the waves after the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age. Arossiach A ford in Dor Dínen near the north-eastern edge of Doriath known as The Fords of Aros, it connected the Esgalduin on Aros on the east. Besides providing the only pass between Himlad and Dor Dínen, the crossing was part of an ancient road running from Vinyamar