SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Minor scale

In music theory, the term minor scale refers to three scale patterns – the natural minor scale, the harmonic minor scale, the melodic minor scale – rather than just one as with the major scale. In each of these scales, the first and fifth scale degrees form a minor triad. In some contexts, minor scale is used to refer to any heptatonic scale with this property. A natural minor scale is a diatonic scale, built by starting on the sixth degree of its relative major scale. For instance, the A natural minor scale can be built by starting on the 6th degree of the C major scale: Because of this, the key of A minor is called the relative minor of C major; every major key has a relative minor, which starts on step. For instance, since the 6th degree of F major is D, the relative minor of F major is D minor. A natural minor scale can be constructed by altering a major scale with accidentals. In this way, a natural minor scale is represented by the following notation: 1, 2, ♭3, 4, 5, ♭6, ♭7, 8Each degree of the scale, starting with the tonic, is represented by a number.

Their difference from the major scale is shown. Thus, a number without a flat represents a major interval. A number with a flat represents a minor interval. In this example, the numbers mean: 1 = unison 2 = major second ♭3 = minor third 4 = perfect fourth 5 = perfect fifth ♭6 = minor sixth ♭7 = minor seventh 8 = octaveThus, for instance, the A natural minor scale can be built by lowering the third and seventh degrees of the A major scale by one semitone: Because of this, the key of A minor is called the parallel minor of A major; the intervals between the notes of a natural minor scale follow the sequence below: whole, whole, half, wholewhere "whole" stands for a whole tone, "half" stands for a semitone. The natural minor scale is maximally even; the harmonic minor scale has the same notes as the natural minor scale except that the seventh degree is raised by one semitone, creating an augmented second between the sixth and seventh degrees. Thus, a harmonic minor scale is represented by the following notation: 1, 2, ♭3, 4, 5, ♭6, 7, 8Thus, a harmonic minor scale can be built by lowering the 3rd and 6th degrees of the parallel major scale by one semitone.

Because of this construction, the 7th degree of the harmonic minor scale functions as a leading tone to the tonic because it is a semitone lower than the tonic, rather than a whole tone lower than the tonic as it is in natural minor scales. The intervals between the notes of a harmonic minor scale follow the sequence below: whole, whole, half, augmented second, half The scale is called the harmonic minor scale because it is a common foundation for harmonies in minor keys. For example, in the key of A minor, the dominant chord is a minor triad in the natural minor scale, but when the seventh degree is raised from G♮ to G♯, the triad becomes a major triad. Chords on degrees other than V may include the raised 7th degree, such as the diminished triad on VII itself, which has a dominant function, as well as an augmented triad on III, not found in any "natural" harmony; this augmented fifth chord played a part in the development of modern chromaticism. The triads built on each scale degree follow a distinct pattern.

The roman numeral analysis is shown below. An interesting property of the harmonic minor scale is that it contains two chords that are each generated by just one interval: an augmented triad, generated by major thirds a diminished seventh chord, generated by minor thirdsBecause they are generated by just one interval, the inversions of augmented triads and diminished seventh chords introduce no new intervals that are absent from its root position; that is, any inversion of an augmented triad is enharmonically equivalent to a new augmented triad in root position. For example, the triad E♭–G–B in first inversion is G–B–E♭, enharmonically equivalent to the augmented triad G–B–D♯. One chord, with various spellings, may therefore have various harmonic functions in various keys. While it evolved as a basis for chords, the harmonic minor with its augmented second is sometimes used melodically. Instances can be found in Mozart and Schubert. In this role, it is used while descending far more than while ascending.

The harmonic minor is occasionally referred to as the Mohammedan scale as its upper tetrachord corresponds to the Hijaz jins found in Middle Eastern music. The harmonic minor scale as a whole is called Nahawand in Arabic nomenclature, as Bûselik Hicaz in Turkish nomenclature, as an Indian raga, it is called Kirwani; the Hungarian minor scale is similar to the harmonic minor scale but with a raised 4th degree. This scale is sometimes referred to as "Gypsy Run", or alternatively "Egyptian Minor Scale", as mentioned by Miles Davis who describes it in his autobiography as "something that I'd learned at Juilliard". In popular music, examples of songs in harmonic minor include Katy B's "Easy Please Me", Bobby Brown's "My Prerogative", Jazmine Sullivan's "Bust Your Windows

Lucius Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus

Lucius Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus was a Roman senator active during the reigns of Commodus and Septimus Severus. He was appointed consul in AD 196 as the colleague of Gaius Domitius Dexter. Thrasea Priscus was a member of the second century gens Valeria, it is possible he was the son of Lucius Vipstanus Poplicola Messalla, who may have been a praetor designatus but died before he acceded to the consulate. If so, Thrasea Priscus altered his gentilicum to reflect his descent through the Vipstani from the republican Valerii. After stepping down from the consulate, Thrasea Priscus may have held the office of curator aquarum in Rome, around AD 198. Thrasea Priscus may have been a partisan of Publius Septimius Geta, the brother and rival of the emperor Caracalla, he became one of the victims of the earliest purges of Caracalla, being struck down in the emperor's presence after the murder of Geta. Christian Settipani has speculated that Thrasea Priscus married Coelia Balbina the daughter of Marcus Aquilius Coelius Apollinaris, a close relative of the future Emperor Balbinus.

It is believed that Thrasea Priscus had a son, Lucius Valerius Messalla Apollinaris, Roman consul in AD 214. Mennen, Inge and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284

Number 96 (TV series)

Number 96 is a 1970s Australian television soap opera/serial set in a fictional, four-storey, inner city apartment block at 96 Lindsay Street, hence the title. Creators Don Cash and Bill Harmon of the Cash Harmon Television production company, produced the series for what was known as the 0–10 Network, which had requested a similar type of series to the high-rating English soap opera series Coronation Street and one that explored mature subject matter; the premise, original story outlines, original characters were devised by David Sale, who wrote the scripts for the first episodes and continued as scriptwriter for much of the show's run. A then-vacant building at 83 Moncur Street, was used as the exterior, establishing shot of the block of flats whilst the majority of filming was carried out on the set built at Channel Ten's studio in Lane Cove, Sydney. Though the series was not the first soap opera in Australia, it was the first to gain a cult following both locally and internationally; when the series started its cast was one of the largest assembled for a local production and upon its demise, after 1218 episodes, was the longest running soap opera produced in Australia, before being surpassed by the Nine Network program The Young Doctors Storylines explored the relationships of the residents of the four-storey apartment block The series proved to be a huge success for the Cash Harmon production team when it was launched on the 0-10 network, the precursor to Network Ten, running five nights a week, Monday to Friday, at 8.30pm.

The series debuted in Sydney on March 13 1972, finished on August 11 1977. Kevin Powell served as production manager, whilst Ted Jobbins was associate producer. Directors were Peter Benardos and Brian Phillis, whilst regular screenwriters included series creator David Sale, Johnny Whyte, Lynn Foster, Ken Shadie and Eleanor Witcombe. Number 96 was so popular it spawned a feature film adaptation, filmed in December 1973, which became one of the most profitable Australian movies made. Number 96 was known for its groundbreaking sex scenes and comedy characters, as well as featuring controversial storylines including teenage drug addiction and a Black Mass sequence This list is a selected round-up of regular primary cast members. During its run Number 96 featured a cast of over 1,000 actors, many plucked from former radio and theatre careers; the series launched the career of Abigail, promoted as the quintessential sex symbol, was the first soap globally to feature an ongoing gay character, Don Finlayson, played by Joe Hasham.

Don was a dependable lawyer, joined by his more flamboyant partner Dudley Butterfield, played by Chard Hayward. The groundbreaking series featured the first transgender character portrayed by a transgender actress in Carlotta, interracial romance featuring Ronne Arnold and an ongoing role for Indigenous actress Justine Saunders. Number 96 would feature dozens of performers in cameo guest role appearances Other minor actors to appear in the series included Thelma Scott as Claire Houghton, Carol Raye as Baroness Amanda Von Pappenberg, One memorable cliffhanger was the explosion in the Godolfus’ deli on the ground floor of Number 96. Tom Greer and Ed Byron used to have drinks with the journalists from the Daily Telegraph at the Evening Star Hotel in Elizabeth Street opposite Central station, Sydney. Tom said to the journalists "Want a great story for tomorrow's paper?" Next morning every newsagent had a billboard out front of the shop with the headline "FOUR PEOPLE KILLED IN 96 BOMB". The Daily Telegraph had to urgently run a fourth edition.

During 96's lifetime the show attracted many complaints. The Australian Broadcasting Control Board sanctioned Channel 10. In an effort not to have the show taken off air, executives agreed to come in each morning at 7 AM and view that night's episode prior to it going to air, to ensure that it complied with the Control Board's guidelines. Offending scenes would be cut from the episode after its Sydney airing meaning other city and country viewers missed out. Paperwork of all this "offensive" material survives with the National Film and Sound Archive but the actual reel of footage has never been found; the first episodes feature cuts and screen blackouts. Due to the show's phenomenal popularity, the Broadcasting Control Board relaxed its restrictions and stopped viewing the episodes in advance. Cast members were amazed to learn the show was screening in some overseas countries but despite a short late-night run in Toronto, Canada on Citytv, the content was far too explicit for the US and UK networks of the day.

An attempt to sell the show at Cannes, France in 1975 with a topless model backfired when British tabloid newspapers reported it got a "swift'No Entry' sign" from the BBC and ATV. A feature film adaptation of the serial was shot in eleven days in December 1973 in colour on 16mm film and blown up to 35mm; the film features nearly all the show's regular cast as well as more revealing nudity than was allowed on TV at the time. A gay kiss between Don and Simon was mysteriously cut from the movie after its Sydney season. Critics were not kind but Mike Harris from The Australian had to admit he had never been in a cinema before where every character's first appearance got a roar of approval from the crowd. Former resident Sonia Freeman returns to Number 96 after her release from a mental asylum. Sonia is now married to newspaper journal