Minot Point is a rock point midway along the west coast of Brabant Island, in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It lies 3 nautical miles west of the summit of Mount Parry; the point was mapped from air photos taken by Hunting Aerosurveys Ltd in 1956–57, was named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee after American physician George R. Minot, co-winner of a Nobel Prize for his work on liver therapy in pernicious anemia. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 64 62. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, UK, 1980. Brabant Island to Argentine Islands. Scale 1:250000 topographic map. British Antarctic Survey, 2008; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Minot Point"
Operation Left Jab was the first military offensive launched against the Sihanouk Trail extension of the Ho Chi Minh Trail during the Second Indochina War. It was the first battalion-sized operation waged by the Royal Lao Army against the communists in Military Region 4. Carried out between 21 and 26 June 1969, the assault interdicted Route 110 of the Sihanouk Trail for its planned three-day stoppage of military supplies; the Royalist guerrillas of Special Guerrilla Unit 2 evaded an approaching counterattack and regrouped in friendly territory. Operation Left Jab had cleared the way for Operation Diamond Arrow. Located in the southern panhandle of the territory of the Kingdom of Laos, the Ho Chi Minh Trail was the logistics backbone of the communist forces during the Second Indochina War, as it was the main supply route for Viet Cong and People's Army of Vietnam forces fighting in South Vietnam. At the southern end of the Ho Chi Trail was a dirt road, Route 110, a surrounding network of logistical trails running into Cambodia that comprised the Sihanouk Trail.
The Sihanouk Trail connected the Ho Chi Minh Trail with the deep water ocean port of Sihanoukville, the entry point for thousands of tons of communist war materiel. From December 1966 through April 1969, over 21,000 tons of ordnance entered the Sihanouk Trail from the post of Sihanoukville. Operation Left Jab was the first of a number of military operations waged against the Trail in southern Laos, including missions such as Operation Maeng Da, Operation Honorable Dragon, Operation Junction City Jr. that originated in Laos. The Central Intelligence Agency had trained the first Royalist Lao guerrilla battalions in Military Region 4 of Laos. One of them was selected to undertake MR 4's first battalion-sized operation. A secondary mission was spotting targets for future air strikes. Staging out of Pakse Site 38 on 21 June 1969, 2 SGU Battalion was helilifted southeastward into the offensive by a mixed fleet of 21st Special Operations Squadron and Air America helicopters. Accompanied by four A-1E Skyraiders for air cover, 2 SGU met no resistance at their landing zone on muddy Route 110.
The 350 guerrillas settled in. Only one feasible air target occurred, when a communist force of 180 closed in on a Royalist road block. Tactical air strikes scattered that potential counterattack. After cutting the communist supply lines between Cambodia and South Vietnam for three days, 2 SGU withdrew in the face of gathering PAVN forces, their interdiction having diverted communist offensive pressure from the Royalist garrison at Attopeu, 2 SGU now evaded the PAVN and regrouped there on 26 June 1969. The successful Left Jab cleared the way for the Royalists to launch Operation Diamond Arrow. Ahern, Thomas L. Jr. Undercover Armies: CIA and Surrogate Warfare in Laos. Center for the Study of Intelligence. Classified control no. C05303949. Castle, Timothy N.. At War in the Shadow of Vietnam: U. S. Military Aid to the Royal Lao Government 1955–1975. ISBN 0-231-07977-X. Conboy and James Morrison. Shadow War: The CIA's Secret War in Laos. Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-535-8. Knott, Richard. Fire from the Sky: Seawolf Gunships in the Mekong Delta.
Naval Institute Press. ISBNs 1591144477, 978-1591144472. Nalty, Bernard C.. The War Against Trucks: Aerial Interdiction In Southern Laos 1968–1972. Air Force History and Museums Program. ISBN 978-1-47755-007-6. Tambini, Anthony J.. Wiring Vietnam: The Electronic Wall. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810866919, 9780810866911
Radio halos are large-scale sources of diffuse radio emission found in the center of some, but not all, galaxy clusters. There are two classes of radio halos: giant radio halos; the linear size of giant radio halos is about 700kpc-1Mpc, whereas mini-halos are less than 500kpc. Giant radio halos are more observed in X-ray luminous cluster samples than less luminous X-ray clusters in complete samples, they have a low surface brightness and do not have obvious galaxy counterparts. However, their morphologies follow the distribution of gas in the intra-cluster medium. Mini-halos however, while similar to giant halos, are found at the center of cooling core clusters but around a radio galaxy; the cause of radio haloes is still debated, but they may be caused by reacceleration of mildly relativistic electrons during a merger event between galaxy clusters. The generated turbulent motions of the intra-cluster plasma drive Magneto-Hydrodynamical Waves, which couples with mildly relativistic particles and accelerate them up to energy of 10 GeV or more.
An alternative model suggests they are caused by secondary electrons generated by collisions between cosmic ray protons and intra-cluster medium protons. Radio relics are found at the edge of clusters, they are to result from synchrotron radiation originating from electrons accelerated by shock waves, moving in the intracluster magnetic field of around 0.1 - 3 μG
Jelly-falls are marine carbon cycling events whereby gelatinous zooplankton cnidarians, sink to the seafloor and enhance carbon and nitrogen fluxes via sinking particulate organic matter. These events provide nutrition to benthic megafauna and bacteria. Jelly-falls have been implicated as a major “gelatinous pathway” for the sequestration of labile biogenic carbon through the biological pump; these events are common in protected areas with high levels of primary production and water quality suitable to support cnidarian species. These areas include several studies have been conducted in fjords of Norway. Jelly-falls are made up of the decaying corpses of Cnidaria and Thaliacea. Several circumstances can trigger the death of gelatinous organisms; these include high levels of primary production that can clog the feeding apparatuses of the organisms, a sudden temperature change, when an old bloom runs out of food, when predators damage the bodies of the jellies, parasitism. In general, jelly-falls are linked to jelly-blooms and primary production, with over 75% of the jelly falls in subpolar and temperate regions occurring after spring blooms, over 25% of the jelly-falls in the tropics occurring after upwelling events.
With global climates shifting towards creating warmer and more acidic oceans, conditions not favored by non-resilient species, jellies are to grow in population sizes. Eutrophic areas and dead zones can become jelly hot spots with substantial blooms; as the climate changes and ocean waters warm, jelly blooms become more prolific and the transport of jelly-carbon to the lower ocean increases. With a possible slowing of the classic biological pump, the transport of carbon and nutrients to the deep sea through jelly-falls may become more and more important to deep ocean; the decomposition process starts after death and can proceed in the water column as the gelatinous organisms are sinking. Decay happens faster in the tropics than in temperate and subpolar waters as a result of warmer temperatures. In the tropics, a jelly-fall may take less than 2 days to decay in warmer, surface water, but as many as 25 days when it is lower than 1000m deep. However, lone gelatinous organisms may spend less time on the sea floor as one study found that jellies could be decomposed by scavengers in the Norwegian deep sea in under two and a half hours.
Decomposition of jelly-falls is aided by these kinds of scavengers. In general, such as sea stars, have emerged as the primary consumer of jelly-falls, followed by crustaceans and fish. However, which scavengers find their way to jelly-falls is reliant on each ecosystem. For example, in an experiment in the Norwegian deep sea, hagfish were the first scavengers to find the traps of decaying jellies, followed by squat lobsters, decapod shrimp. Photographs taken off the coast of Norway on natural jelly-falls revealed caridean shrimp feeding on jelly carcasses. With increased populations and blooms becoming more common, with favorable conditions and a lack of other filter feeders in the area to consume plankton, environments with jellies present will have carbon pumps be more supplied with jelly-falls; this could lead to issues of habitats with established biological pumps succumbing to nonequilibrium as the presence of jellies would change the food web as well as changes to the amount of carbon deposited into the sediment.
Decomposition is aided by the microbial community. In a case study on the Black Sea, the number of bacteria increased in the presence of jelly-falls, the bacteria were shown to preferentially use nitrogen released from decaying jelly carcasses while leaving carbon. In a study conducted by Andrew Sweetman in 2016, it was discovered using core samples of the sediment in Norwegian fjords, the presence of jelly-falls impacted the biochemical process of these benthic communities. Bacteria consume jelly carcasses removing opportunities of acquiring sustenance for bottoming feeding macrofauna, which has impacts traveling up the trophic levels. In addition, with the exclusion of scavengers, jelly-falls develop a white layer of bacteria over the decaying carcasses and emit a black residue over the surrounding area, from sulfide; this high level of microbial activity requires a lot of oxygen, which can lead zones around jelly-falls to become hypoxic and inhospitable to larger scavengers. Researching jelly-falls relies on direct observational data such as video, photography, or benthic trawls.
A complication with trawling for jelly-falls is the gelatinous carcass falls apart and as a result, opportunistic photography and chemical analysis have been primary methods of monitoring. This means; because jelly-falls can be processed and degraded within a number of hours by scavengers and the fact that some jelly-falls will not sink below 500m in tropical and subtropical waters, the importance and prevalence of jelly-falls may be underestimated. Biological pump Jellyfish Pyrosoma atlanticum Whale fall Deep sea community Dead zone
Rudrakṣajābāla upaniṣat known as Rudraksha Jabala Upanishat, Rudraksha jabalopanishat, Rudraksha Upanishat and Rudrakshopanishat, is one of 108 Upanishadic Hindu scriptures, written in Sanskrit language. It is dedicated to the Rudraksha, a seed used as prayer beads, sacred to the god Shiva; the scripture belongs to the Shaiva sect, which worships Shiva, is associated with the Samaveda, is one of 14 Shaiva Upanishads. It is told as a conversation between a form of Shiva and Sage Sanatkumara; the Rudraksha Jabala Upanishad begins with an invocation to Brahman, the Supreme Reality for the well-being of all parts of the body, the prana, speech. The hymn ends with a wish for Peace. Sage Bhusunda known as Sanatkumara, asks Kalagni Rudra, a destructive form of Shiva, identified with Bhairava, about the origins of the Rudraksha and the benefits of wearing it; the god replies that for the destruction of the Tripura, he closed his eyes for a thousand years in meditation. The mere utterance of the word "Rudraksha" is said to bestow the merit of the donation of ten cows, its sight and touch equals the charity of twenty cows.
Bhusunda probes further about information regarding the rudraksha, such as the method of wearing it, associated mantras, so on. Kalagni Rudra says, its sight equals the merit of a crore, its wearing yields a 100 crore, wearing and doing japa has a lakh crore benefits. The characteristics of a rudraksha are described. A rudraksha of the amla fruit size is the best, followed by the size of a berry and the size of the black gram, the lowest. Four types of rudraksha – white, red and black – are declared fit for four Varnas or castes – Brahmin, Kshatriya and Shudra, respectively; the best rudraksha is described as well-rounded, well-sized, hard and with a natural hole. A rudraksha, damaged, infested, or damaged by worms or insects, without thorns, or of abnormal size or shape, should not be used; the rudrakshas should be worn. A rudraksha can be worn on the hair tuft, 30 around the head, 36 in a necklace, 16 on each arm, 12 on each wrist, 15 around the shoulders, 108 in the yajnopavita, they can be worn as 3, 5, or 7 rounds.
One should wear them around the waist, as earrings, as a rosary. A devotee of Shiva should eternally wear them. Mantras that should be recited when the rudraksha is worn around a particular part of the body are recited. Bhusunda enquires about the classification of Rudraksha based on the benefits of each. Kalagni Rudra correlates. Wearing that particular rudraksha placates the associated deity: Further, Kalagni Rudra says that one who wears a rudraksha should not consume alcohol, garlic, onions. etc. The rudraksha should be worn on eclipses, Poornima, so forth. Further, the god says. Sanatkumara joined by various sages approaches Kalagni Rudra; the sages include Nidagha, Dattatreya, Bharadvaja, Kapila and Pippalada. The group asks Kalagni Rudra about other rules of wearing the rudraksha; the god says since they are born from Rudra's eyes, they are called rudraksha. Wearing it is equated to wearing Bhasma; the mere utterance of its name is equated to the charity of ten cows. Touching and wearing is equal to the donation of 2,000 cows.
Wearing the rudraksha is charity of a crore cows. However, wearing it in the ears is regarded as the best. In the tradition of the Upanishad, the text concludes by narrating the benefits of the text. One becomes a guru and an expert in mantras by studying the scripture daily. One should use the mantras in the text in Havana; the Brahmin who chants this Upanishad in the evening is absolved of sins he committed during the day. Recitation at noon frees him of the sins of six births. One who recites it in the daytime and in the evening is absolved of the sin of many births and earns the merit of recitation of 6,000 lakh gayatri mantras. One is freed of the sins of killing a Brahmin, stealing gold, drinking alcohol, having coitus with the wife of his guru, he gains the merits of visiting all bathing in all sacred rivers. He unites with Shiva after death and does not experience rebirth; the Encyclopaedia of Hinduism states that late Upanishads are not considered "true Upanishads" by some scholars, who bestow that status only upon the Mukhya Upanishads.
The Rudraksha Jabala Upanishad is given as an example of Tantric Upanishad. These texts are said to have "abused the high name" of Upanishads to propagate their sectarian beliefs; the Symbols Of Art, Religion And Philosophy echoes this sentiment, calling the text as "hardly entitled to be called" an Upanishad. Klaus Klostermaier classifies the Rudrakshajabala Upanishad along with the Bhasmajabala Upanishad, the Kalagni Rudra Upanishad, the Brihajjabala Upanishad and the Akshamalika Upanishad, which glorify Shaiva sectarian practices. Rudrakshajabala Upanishad in Sanskrit
Seiji Kameda is a Japanese music producer and bass guitarist. He has worked extensively with Ringo Shiina, serving as her producer and touring bassist for many years, including his tenure with their band Tokyo Jihen from 2005 to 2012, he was moved to Japan when he was one. He started piano classes with his elder sister. In 1970 he moved to Osaka. One year he joined Chisato Elementary School, he began to study classical guitar in 1975 with his elder brother. In 1976 Kameda moved to Tokyo, he developed a hobby of trying to intercept radio signals from across the ocean, using an instrument called BCL, to hear western-style music. In 1977 he started broadcasting his own radio station from his room. Three years he joined Musashi High School and bought his first bass guitar, a Yamaha BB2000. In 1984 Kameda got his first Fender Jazz Bass. In 1987 he graduated from Waseda University and began to record self-made demo tapes with his arrangements. One year he began his bassist and arranger-producer career. In 1999, he participated in the production of Ringo Shiina's first and second album as an arranger, they were big hits.
Because of those hits, he received many commissions to produce music. That started his great success. Since he has been producing for musicians and bands like Spitz, Ken Hirai, Shikao Suga, Do As Infinity, Angela Aki, others, he participates in many musicians' recordings as a session bassist, or plays a bass guitar as a member of various solo singers' tour bands, or temporary bands like Bank Band. From May 2 to 3, 2009, Kameda gathered many artists who were related with him, promoted the music festival "Kame no Ongaeshi." The following are musical groups related to Kameda. They were produced, or their songs were arranged by Kameda, he offered songs to them. Makotoya – Seiji Kameda Official Web Site Tokyo Jihen Official Web Site The introduction of the member of Tokyo Jihen