The cittern or cithren is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance. Modern scholars debate its exact history, but it is accepted that it is descended from the Medieval citole, it looks much like the modern-day flat-back mandolin and the modern Irish bouzouki, is descended from the English Guitar. Its flat-back design was cheaper to construct than the lute, it was easier to play, less delicate and more portable. Played by all classes, the cittern was a premier instrument of casual music-making much as is the guitar today; the cittern is one of the few metal-strung instruments known from the Renaissance period. It has four courses of strings, one or more course being tuned in octaves, though instruments with more or fewer courses were made; the cittern may have a range of only an octave between its lowest and highest strings and employs a re-entrant tuning – a tuning in which the string, physically uppermost is not the lowest, as is the case with the five-string banjo and most ukuleles for example.
The tuning and narrow range allow the player a number of simple chord shapes useful for both simple song accompaniment and dances, however much more complex music was written for it. Its bright and cheerful timbre make it a valuable counterpoint to gut-strung instruments; the Spanish bandurria, still used today, is a similar instrument. From the 16th until the 18th century the cittern was a common English barber shop instrument, kept in waiting areas for customers to entertain themselves and others with, popular sheet music for the instrument was published to that end; the top of the pegbox was decorated with a small carved head not always of great artistic merit. BOYET: A cittern-head. DUMAIN: The head of a bodkin. BIRON: A Death's face in a ring. Just as the lute was enlarged and bass-extended to become the theorbo and chitarrone for continuo work, so the cittern was developed into the ceterone, with its extended neck and unstopped bass strings, though this was a much less common instrument.
The leading 18th century Swedish songwriter Carl Michael Bellman played on the cittern, is shown with the instrument in a 1779 portrait by Per Krafft the elder. In Germany the cittern survives under the names Lutherzither; the last name comes from the belief. The names Thüringer Waldzither in Thüringer Wald, Harzzither in the Harz mountains, Halszither in German-speaking Switzerland are used. There is a tendency in modern German to interchange the words for zither; the term waldzither came into use around 1900. The cittern family survives as the Portuguese guitar; the guitarra portuguesa is used to play the popular traditional music known as fado. In the early 1970s, using the guitarra and a 1930s archtop Martin guitar as models, English luthier Stefan Sobell created a "cittern", a hybrid instrument used for playing folk music, which has proved to be popular with folk revival musicians. Chitarra Italiana Cithara Italica English guitar Stringed instrument tunings Gregory Doc Rossi Martina Rosenberger Music's Delight on the Cithren, John Playford.
Renovata Cythara: The Renaissance Cittern Pages Stefan Sobell website G. Doc Rossi website Zistern: Europäische Zupfinstrumente von der Renaissance bis zum Historismus -Citterns and cittern research at the Musikinstrumenten-Museum der Universität Leipzig Cittern by Petrus Raitta, England, 1579 at the National Music Museum Cittern, Urbino, ca. 1550 at the National Music Museum Decorated Cittern by Joachim Tielke, Hamburg, ca. 1685 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Fiddling refers to the act of playing the fiddle, fiddlers are musicians that play it. A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most a violin, it is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres including classical music. Although violins and fiddles are synonymous, the style of the music played may determine specific construction differences between fiddles and classical violins. For example, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to reduce the range of bow-arm motion needed for techniques such as the double shuffle, a form of bariolage involving rapid alternation between pairs of adjacent strings. To produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers use steel strings; the fiddle is part of many traditional styles, which are aural traditions—taught'by ear' rather than via written music. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms that focus on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and sustained notes.
Fiddling is open to improvisation and embellishment with ornamentation at the player's discretion—in contrast to orchestral performances, which adhere to the composer's notes to reproduce a work faithfully. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training; the medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira, a bowed string instrument of the Byzantine Empire and ancestor of most European bowed instruments. The first recorded reference to the bowed lira was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. Lira spread westward to Europe. Over the centuries, Europe continued to have two distinct types of fiddles: one square-shaped, held in the arms, became known as the viola da braccio family and evolved into the violin. During the Renaissance the gambas were elegant instruments; the etymology of fiddle is uncertain: the Germanic fiddle may derive from the same early Romance word as does violin, or it may be natively Germanic.
The name appears to be related to Icelandic Fiðla and Old English fiðele. A native Germanic ancestor of fiddle might be the ancestor of the early Romance form of violin. In medieval times, fiddle referred to a predecessor of today's violin. Like the violin, it came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, have fretted fingerboards. In performance, a solo fiddler, or one or two with a group of other instrumentalists, is the norm, though twin fiddling is represented in some North American, Scandinavian and Irish styles. Following the folk revivals of the second half of the 20th century, however, it has become common for less formal situations to find large groups of fiddlers playing together—see for example the Calgary Fiddlers, Swedish Spelmanslag folk-musician clubs, the worldwide phenomenon of Irish sessions. Orchestral violins, on the other hand, are grouped in sections, or "chairs".
These contrasting traditions may be vestiges of historical performance settings: large concert halls where violins were played required more instruments, before electronic amplification, than did more intimate dance halls and houses that fiddlers played in. The difference was compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music and fiddle music; the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, did not always follow. In situations that required greater volume, a fiddler could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. Various fiddle traditions have differing values. In the late 20th century, a few artists have attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and "big fiddle," or cello. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hanson's Bonnie Lasses, Alasdair Fraser and Natalie Haas' Fire and Grace. and Tim Macdonald and Jeremy Ward's The Wilds.
Hungarian and Romanian fiddle players are accompanied by a three-stringed variant of the viola—known as the kontra—and by double bass, with cimbalom and clarinet being less standard yet still common additions to a band. In Hungary, a three stringed viola variant with a flat bridge, called the kontra or háromhúros brácsa makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music; the flat bridge lets the musician play three-string chords. A three stringed double bass variant is used. To a greater extent than classical violin playing, fiddle playing is characterized by a huge variety of ethnic or folk music traditions, each of which has its own distinctive sound. English folk music fiddling, including The Northumbrian fiddle style, which features "seconding", an improvised harmo
Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are in the form of money but other gratuities such as food, drink or gifts may be given. Street performance dates back to antiquity. People engaging in this practice are called street buskers. Performances are anything. Performers may do acrobatics, animal tricks, balloon twisting, clowning, contortions, dance, fire skills, flea circus, fortune-telling, magic, living statue, musical performance, snake charming, storytelling or reciting poetry or prose, street art such as sketching and painting, street theatre, sword swallowing, ventriloquism; the term busking was first noted in the English language around the middle 1860s in Great Britain. The verb to busk, from the word busker, comes from the Spanish root word buscar, with the meaning "to seek"; the Spanish word buscar in turn evolved from the Indo-European word *bhudh-skō. It was used for many street acts, title of a famous Spanish book about one of them, El Buscón.
Today, the word is still used in Spanish but relegated for female street sex workers, or women seeking to be set up as private mistress of married men. There have been performances in public places for gratuities in every major culture in the world, dating back to antiquity. For many musicians street performance was the most common means of employment before the advent of recording and personal electronics. Prior to that, a person had to produce any music or entertainment, save for a few mechanical devices such as the barrel organ, the music box, the piano roll. Organ grinders were found busking in the old days. Busking is common among some Romani people. Romantic mention of Romani music and fortune tellers are found in all forms of song poetry and lore; the Roma brought the word busking to England by way of their travels along the Mediterranean coast to Spain and the Atlantic Ocean and up north to England and the rest of Europe. In medieval France buskers were known by the terms troubadours and jongleurs.
In northern France they were known as trouveres. In old German buskers were known as Spielleute. In obsolete French it evolved to busquer for "seek, prowl" and was used to describe prostitutes. In Russia buskers are called skomorokh and their first recorded history appears around the 11th century. Mariachis, Mexican bands that play a style of music by the same name busk when they perform while traveling through streets and plazas, as well as in restaurants and bars. Around the mid-19th century Japanese Chindonya started to be seen using their skills for advertising, these street performers are still seen in Japan. Another Japanese street performance form dating from the Edo period is Nankin Tamasudare, in which the performer creates large figures using a bamboo mat. In 19th century, Italian street musicians began to roam worldwide in search of fortune. Musicians from Basilicata the so called Viggianesi, would become professional instrumentalists in symphonic orchestras in the United States; the street musicians from Basilicata are sometimes cited as an influence on Hector Malot's Sans Famille.
In the United States, medicine shows proliferated in the 19th century. They were traveling vendors selling potions to improve the health, they would employ entertainment acts as a way of making the clients feel better. The people would associate this feeling of well-being with the products sold. After these performances they would "pass the hat". One-man bands have performed as buskers playing a variety of instruments simultaneously. One-man bands proliferated in urban areas in the 19th and early 20th centuries and still perform to this day. A current one-man band plays all their instruments acoustically combining a guitar, a harmonica, a drum and a tambourine, they may include singing. Many still busk but some are booked to play at other events. Folk music has always been an important part of the busking scene. Cafe, restaurant and pub busking is a mainstay of this art form. Two of the more famous folk singers are Joan Baez; the delta bluesmen were itinerant musicians emanating from the Mississippi Delta region of the USA around the early 1940s and on.
B. B. King is one famous example; the counterculture of the hippies of the 1960s staged "be-ins", which resembled some present-day busker festivals. Bands and performers would gather at public places and perform for free, passing the hat to make money; the San Francisco Bay Area was at the epicenter of this movement – be-ins were staged at Golden Gate Park and San Jose's Bee Stadium and other venues. Some of the bands that performed in this manner were Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Country Joe and the Fish, Moby Grape and Jimi Hendrix. Christmas caroling can be a form of busking, as wassailing included singing for alms, wassail or some other form of refreshment such as figgy pudding. In Ireland the traditional Wren Boys and in England Morris Dancing can be considered part of the busking tradition. In India and Pakistan's Gujarati region Bhavai is a form of street art where there are plays enacted in the village, the barot or the village singer is part of the local entertainment scene.
In the 2000s, some performers have begun "Cyber Busking". Artists post work or performances on the Internet for people to download or "stream" a
Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America and Asia. Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, short tails. While the polar bear is carnivorous, the giant panda feeds entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous with varied diets. With the exception of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are solitary animals, they may have an excellent sense of smell. Despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they are adept runners and swimmers. Bears use shelters, such as logs, as their dens. Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their fur. With their powerful physical presence, they play a prominent role in the arts and other cultural aspects of various human societies.
In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable or endangered, least concern species, such as the brown bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain countries; the poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing. The English word "bear" comes from Old English bera and belongs to a family of names for the bear in Germanic languages, such as Swedish björn used as a first name; this form is conventionally said to be related to a Proto-Indo-European word for "brown", so that "bear" would mean "the brown one". However, Ringe notes that while this etymology is semantically plausible, a word meaning "brown" of this form cannot be found in Proto-Indo-European, he suggests instead that "bear" is from the Proto-Indo-European word *ǵʰwḗr- ~ *ǵʰwér "wild animal". This terminology for the animal originated as a taboo avoidance term: proto-Germanic tribes replaced their original word for bear—arkto—with this euphemistic expression out of fear that speaking the animal's true name might cause it to appear.
According to author Ralph Keyes, this is the oldest known euphemism. Bear taxon names such as Arctoidea and Helarctos come from the ancient Greek word ἄρκτος, meaning bear, as do the names "arctic" and "antarctic", from the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern sky. Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from he-bear/she-bear; the female first name "Ursula" derived from a Christian saint's name, means "little she-bear". In Switzerland, the male first name "Urs" is popular, while the name of the canton and city of Bern is derived from Bär, German for bear; the Germanic name Bernard means "bear-brave", "bear-hardy", or "bold bear". The Old English name Beowulf is a kenning; the family Ursidae is one of nine families in the suborder Caniformia, or "doglike" carnivorans, within the order Carnivora. Bears' closest living relatives are the pinnipeds and musteloids. Modern bears comprise eight species in three subfamilies: Ailuropodinae and Ursinae. Nuclear chromosome analysis show that the karyotype of the six ursine bears is nearly identical, with each having 74 chromosomes, whereas the giant panda has 42 chromosomes and the spectacled bear 52.
These smaller numbers can be explained by the fusing of some chromosomes, the banding patterns on these match those of the ursine species, but differ from those of procyonids, which supports the inclusion of these two species in Ursidae rather than in Procyonidae, where they had been placed by some earlier authorities. The earliest members of Ursidae belong to the extinct subfamily Amphicynodontinae, including Parictis and the younger Allocyon, both from North America; these animals looked different from today's bears, being small and raccoon-like in overall appearance, with diets more similar to that of a badger. Parictis does not appear in Africa until the Miocene, it is unclear whether late-Eocene ursids were present in Eurasia, although faunal exchange across the Bering land bridge may have been possible during a major sea level low stand as early as the late Eocene and continuing into the early Oligocene. European genera morphologically similar to Allocyon, to the much younger American Kolponomos, are known from the Oligocene, including Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon.
There has been various morphological evidence linking amphicynodontines with pinnipeds, as both groups were semi-aquatic, otter-like mammals. In addition to the support of the pinniped–amphicynodontine clade, other morphological and some molecular evidence supports bears being the closet living relatives to pinnipeds; the raccoon-sized, dog-like Cephalogale is the oldest-known member of the subfamily Hemicyoninae, which first appeared during the middle Oligocene in Eurasia about 30 Mya
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
An Ashik was traditionally a singer who accompanied his song— be it a dastan or a shorter original composition—with a long necked lute in Turkish culture and related Turkic cultures. The modern Azerbaijani ashik is a professional musician who serves an apprenticeship, masters playing the bağlama, builds up a varied but individual repertoire of Turkic folk songs; the word ashiq عاشق is subjective forms derives from ishq عشق, related to Avestan iš- "to wish, search". The Turkish term that ashik superseded was ozan. In the early armies of the Turks, as far back as that of Attila, the ruler was invariably accompanied by an ozan; the heroic poems, which they recited to the accompaniment of the kopuz, flattered the sensibilities of an entire people. The ashik tradition in Turkic cultures of Anatolia and Iran has its origin in the Shamanistic beliefs of ancient Turkic peoples; the ancient ashiks were called by various names such as bakshy/bakhshi/Baxşı, uzan or ozan. Among their various roles, they played a major part in perpetuation of oral tradition, promotion of communal value system and traditional culture of their people.
These wandering bards or troubadours are part of current rural and folk culture of Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, the Turkmen Sahra and Turkmenistan, where they are called bakshy. Thus, ashik, in traditional sense, may be defined as travelling bards who sang and played saz, an eight or ten string plucking instrument in the form of a long necked lute. Judging based on the Turkic epic Dede Korkut, the roots of ashiks can be traced back to at least the 7th century, during the heroic age of the Oghuz Turks; this nomadic tribe journeyed westwards through Central Asia from the 9th century onward and settled in present Turkey, Azerbaijan Republic and North-west areas of Iran. Their music was evolved in the course of the grand migration and ensuing feuds with the original inhabitants the acquired lands. An important component of this cultural evolution was that the Turks embraced Islam within a short time and of their own free will. Muslim Turk dervishes, desiring to spread the religion among their brothers who had not yet entered the Islamic fold, moved among the nomadic Turks.
They choose the folk language and its associate musical form as an appropriate medium for effective transmission of their message. Thus, ashik literature developed alongside mystical literature and was refined starting since the time of Turkic Sufi Khoja Akhmet Yassawi in early twelfth century; the single most important event in the history of ashik music was the ascent to the throne of Shah Isma'il, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. He was a prominent ruler-poet and has, apart from his diwan compiled a mathnawi called Deh-name, consisting of some eulogies of Ali, the fourth Caliph of early Islam, he used the pen-name Khata'i and, in ashik tradition, is considered as an amateur ashik. Isma'il's praised playing Saz as a virtue in one of his renowned qauatrains. After the demise of Safavid dynasty in Iran, Turkish culture could not sustain its early development among the elites. Instead, there was a surge in the development of verse-folk stories intended for performance by ashiks in weddings.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union the governments of new republics in Caucasus region and Central Asia sought their identity in traditional cultures of their societies. This elevated the status of ashugs as the guardians of national culture; the new found unprecedented popularity and frequent concerts and performances in urban settings have resulted in rapid innovative developments aiming to enhance the urban-appealing aspects of ashik performances. A concise account of the ashik music and its development in Armenia is given in Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. In Armenia, ashik are known since the 16th century onward. By far the most notable of the ashik was Sayat Nova, who honed the art of troubadour musicianship to crowning refinement. Pahlavi era was the darkest period for Azerbaijani literature; the education and publication in Azerbaijani language was banned and writers of Azerbaijan, had to publish their works in the Persian language. However, ashik music was tolerated. Ashiks performed in coffee houses in all the major cities of east and west Azerbaijan in Iran.
Tabriz was Urmia the western center. In Tabriz ashiks most performed with two other musicians, a Balaban player and a Qaval player. After the Islamic revolution music was banned. Ten years ashik Rəsul Qurbani, forced to make a living as a travelling salesman, aspired to return to the glorious days of fame and leisure, he started composing songs with revolutionary themes. The government, realizing the propaganda potential of these songs, allowed their broadcast in national radio and sent Rəsul to perform in some European cities; this facilitated the emergence of the ashik music as the symbol of Azeri cultural identity. In September 2009, Azerbaijan’s ashik art was included into UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Ashik art combines poetic and performance ability. Ashiks themselves describe the art as the unified duo of söz; this duo is conspicuously featured in a popular composition by Səməd Vurğun: The following subsections provide more details about saz and söz. Mastering in playing saz is the essential requirement for an ashik.
This instrument, a variant of, known as Ba
Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, sporting events, martial arts. Acrobatics is most associated with activities that make extensive use of gymnastic elements, such as acro dance and gymnastics, but many other athletic activities — such as ballet and diving — may employ acrobatics. Although acrobatics is most associated with human body performance, it may apply to other types of performance, such as aerobatics. Acrobatic traditions are found in many cultures, there is evidence that the earliest such traditions occurred thousands of years ago. For example, Minoan art from c. 2000 BC contains depictions of acrobatic feats on the backs of bulls. Ancient Greeks practiced acrobatics, the noble court displays of the European Middle Ages would include acrobatic performances that included juggling. In China, acrobatics have been a part of the culture since the Western Han Dynasty. Acrobatics were part of village harvest festivals.
During the Tang Dynasty, acrobatics saw much the same sort of development as European acrobatics saw during the Middle Ages, with court displays during the 7th through 10th century dominating the practice. Acrobatics continues to be an important part of modern Chinese variety art. Though the term applied to tightrope walking, in the 19th century, a form of performance art including circus acts began to use the term as well. In the late 19th century and other acrobatic and gymnastic activities became competitive sport in Europe. Acrobatics has served as a subject for fine art. Examples of this are paintings such as Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando by Impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, which depicts two German acrobatic sisters, Pablo Picasso's 1905 Acrobat and Young Harlequin, Acrobats in a Paris suburb by Viktor Vasnetsov. An aerialist is an acrobat who performs in the air, on a suspended apparatus such as a trapeze, cloud swing, aerial cradle, aerial pole, aerial silk, or aerial hoop. Acrobatic gymnastics Contortion List of acrobatic activities