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Minuet

A minuet is a social dance of French origin for two people in 34 time. The word was adapted from Italian minuetto and French menuet from the French menu meaning slender, referring to the small steps, or from the early 17th-century popular group dances called branle à mener or amener; the term describes the musical form that accompanies the dance, which subsequently developed more often with a longer musical form called the minuet and trio, was much used as a movement in the early classical symphony. The name may refer to the short steps, pas menus, taken in the dance, or else be derived from the branle à mener or amener, popular group dances in early 17th-century France; the minuet was traditionally said to have descended from the bransle de Poitou, though there is no evidence making a clear connection between these two dances. The earliest treatise to mention the possible connection of the name to the expression pas menus is Gottfried Taubert's Rechtschaffener Tantzmeister, published in Leipzig in 1717, but this source does not describe the steps as being small or dainty.

At the period when it was most fashionable it was controlled and graceful. The name of this dance is given to a musical composition written in the same time and rhythm, though when not accompanying an actual dance the pace was quicker. Stylistically refined minuets, apart from the social dance context, were introduced—to opera at first—by Jean-Baptiste Lully, who included no fewer than 92 of them in his theatrical works and in the late 17th century the minuet was adopted into the suite, such as some of the suites of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Händel. Among Italian composers the minuet was considerably quicker and livelier and was sometimes written in 38 or 68 time; because the tempo of a minuet was not standard, the tempo direction tempo di minuetto was ambiguous unless qualified by another direction, as it sometimes was. Before its adoption in contexts other than social dance, the minuet was in binary form, with two repeated sections of eight bars each, but the second section expanded, resulting in a kind of ternary form.

The second minuet provided form of contrast by means of different orchestration. On a larger scale, two such minuets might be further combined, so that the first minuet was followed by a second one and by a repetition of the first; the whole form might in any case be repeated as long. Around Lully's time it became a common practice to score this middle section for a trio; as a result, this middle section came to be called the minuet's trio when no trace of such an orchestration remains. The overall structure is called rounded binary or minuet form: After these developments by Lully, composers inserted a modified repetition of the first section or a section that contrasted with both the A section and what was thereby rendered the third or C section, yielding the form A–A′–B–A or A–B–C–A, respectively. A livelier form of the minuet developed into the scherzo; this term came into existence from Beethoven onwards, but the form itself can be traced back to Haydn. The minuet and trio became the standard third movement in the four-movement classical symphony, Johann Stamitz being the first to employ it thus with regularity.

An example of the true form of the minuet is to be found in Don Giovanni. A famous example of a more recent instrumental work in minuet form is Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Minuet in G. Scherzo, a musical form derived from the minuet Blatter, Alfred. 2007. Revisiting Music Theory: A Guide to the Practice. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97440-2; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Minuet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 564. Little, Meredith Ellis. 2001. "Minuet". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Rosen, Charles. 1988. Sonata Forms, revised edition. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30219-9. Russell, Tilden A. 2001. "Tempo di minuetto". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Russell, Tilden. 2006. "The Minuet According to Taubert".

Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research 24, no. 2: 138–62. Sutton, Julia. 1985. "The Minuet: An Elegant Phoenix". Dance Chronicle, no. 8:119–52. Caplin, William Earl. 1998. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn and Beethoven. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510480-3. Elson, Louis Charles. 1908. The Theory of Music as Applied to the Teaching and Practice of Voice and Instruments, 21st edition. Boston: New England Conservatory of Music.. Example of a Minuet Choreography: "Menuet à deux pour un homme et une femme", Raoul Auger Feuillet: Recueil de Dances

Jack Muller Danie Uys Park

The Jack Muller Danie Uys Park is a municipal park situated in Boston, Western Cape, South Africa. It's named after Daniel Uys, Mayor of Bellville, South Africa from 1975–1977 and from 1983–1985 and Jack Muller a Councillor of Bellville Municipality Formerly, the area was two adjacent, but separate parks; the municipality have set aside the park for its residents. Prof Kristo Pienaar a botanist and prevouis a mayor of Bellville selected the trees and plants for the park; the Park is managed by the Greater City of Cape Town, namely the City Parks Division and community based organization: "Friends of the Jack Muller Park", Greater Tygerberg Partnership and Boston Spirits. It indigenous plants and trees; the bird the Cape Weaver breeds in the park. It is a free entrance park, it is open from sunrise to sunset. The Bellville Parkrun is held here. Pets are allowed. Bellville Underwater Diving Club. Bellville Running Club

Lisbon (album)

Lisbon is the sixth studio album by New York-based group The Walkmen, released on September 14, 2010 in the US. John Congleton engineered the album; the band recorded nearly thirty tracks before settling on the eleven tracks. The album is a tribute to the city of Lisbon in Portugal. Exclaim! named Lisbon as the No. 13 Pop & Rock Album of 2010. Pitchfork named it the No. 21 in their Top 50 Albums of 2010. As of 2011 it has sold 39,159 copies in United States according to Nielsen SoundScan. Credits adapted from AllMusic. Band Matt Barrick – Drums Peter BauerOrgan, Piano Walter MartinBass, Percussion Hamilton LeithauserGuitar, Vocals Paul Maroon – Guitar, ViolaAdditional musicians Alec Ounsworth – Vocals Greg GlassmanTrumpet Rachel Golub – Violin Clara Kennedy – Cello John KozanTrombone Dana Lyn – Violin Anna Stumpf – Trumpet Kenny Warren – Trumpet Alex Waterman – Cello, Transcription Mike Irwin – Trumpet Kevin Moehringer – Trombone Leyna Papach – Violin Paul Brandenburg – Trumpet Joe Ancowitz – TrumpetProduction Greg CalbiMastering John Congleton – Engineer, Producer Mark Endozo – Assistant Engineer Luigi Ghirri – Cover Photo Fred Maroon – Inside Photo Alex Aldi – Second Engineer Elizabeth Spiridakis – Design Chris Zane – Engineer, Mixing

1973–74 FC Dinamo București season

The 1973-74 season was FC Dinamo Bucureşti's 25th season in Divizia A. The competition with Universitatea Craiova for the title repeated, but this time the Craiova side won the championship by one point. In this season, Dinamo brought Dudu Georgescu from CSM Reşiţa the player that will become the best scorer in history for Dinamo. In the European Cup, they surpass Northern Ireland's Crusaders Belfast, but fail against Atlético Madrid, the team of Capon, Irueta and Ayala. First round Dinamo Bucureşti won 12-0 on aggregate Second round Atlético Madrid won 4-2 on aggregate Goalkeepers: Iosif Cavai, Mircea Constantinescu. Defenders: Florin Cheran, Augustin Deleanu, Cornel Dinu, Vasile Dobrău, Teodor Lucuță, Mircea Marian, Gabriel Sandu. Midfielders: Gheorghe Gojgaru, Radu Nunweiller, Panfil Radu, Alexandru Sătmăreanu. Forwards: Alexandru Custov, Florea Dumitrache, Florian Dumitrescu, Dudu Georgescu, Mircea Lucescu, Alexandru Moldovan, Viorel Sălceanu, Cristian Vrînceanu. Dudu Georgescu is brought from CSM Reşiţa.

Cristian Vrînceanu is promoted from the youth team. Www.labtof.ro www.romaniansoccer.ro

James A. Ford

James Alfred Ford was an American archaeologist. He was born in Water Valley, Mississippi, on February 12, 1911, he became interested in work on Native American mound research. In 1933 Ford built a tentative chronology of the cultures on the lower Mississippi River. Between 1933 and 1934, he worked at the Ocmulgee National Monument in Macon, under Arthur Randolph Kelly. In 1934, he investigated the Tabby ruins at Elizafield Plantation near Brunswick, Georgia. From August 1 to September 1, 1934, he worked for the Georgia State Parks Service. In 1937, he became involved in a restoration project of an earthen lodge at Ocmulgee National Monument for the National Park Service. In the winter of 1939-40 he excavated the Medora Site for the Louisiana State Archaeological Survey, a joint project of Louisiana State University and the Work Projects Administration; the excavations of the site were instrumental in defining the characteristics of the Plaquemine culture and period. In the early 1950s he led the first large scale excavations at Louisiana.

He discovered the ridge structure of the precolumbian earthworks as the unique features of that site. His experiments with loess soil to find the purpose of the hundreds of thousands Poverty Point objects were the beginnings of experimental archaeology in North America, his theories over the origin of the Poverty Point culture became obsolete, his samples and results of radiocarbon dating were inaccurate due to the early stages of that technology. In 1958 he excavated the Menard-Hodges Site in southeastern Arkansas. James A. Ford died of cancer on February 25, 1968 in Florida. Ford, James Alfred 1954 "The History of the Peruvian Valley." Scientific American.--NY, v.191 no.2.28-34. Ford, James Alfred 1961 "In Favor of Simple Typology." American Antiquity.--Salt Lake City, v.27,no.1 p. 113-114 Ford, James Alfred 1952 "Mound Builders of the Mississippi." Scientific American.--NY, v.186, no.3, p. 22-27 Ford, James Alfred 1954 "On the Concept of Types, an article by J. A. Ford with discussion by J. H. Steward."

American Anthropologist.--Menasha, Wis. n.s. v.56, p. 42-57 Ford, James Alfred 1952 "Reply to'The Viru Valley sequence: a critical review'." American Antiquity.--Salt Lake City, v. XVII, p. 250 O'Brien, Michael John & R. Lee Lyman. 1998. James A. Ford and the Growth of Americanist Archaeology. University of Missouri Press. Evans, Clifford. 1968. "James A. Ford 1911-1968". American Anthropologist vol. 70, pp. 1162–1167 Register to the Papers of James Alfred Ford Robert Montgomey, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution November 2000

José Pablo Arellano

José Pablo Arellano Marin is an economist, researcher, company director and Chilean politician, a member of the Christian Democrats. He was Minister of Education under the governments of Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and of Michelle Bachelet, Chief Executive Officer of Codelco-Chile, a state-owned company and the largest company in the country, his father was José Arellano, a Falangist former mayor of Cartagena and former president of the Association of Municipalities of the time. He died, he has been married since 1975 to the preschool teacher and landscape designer María Elena Recabarren, they have four children, José Pablo, Andrés and Francisca. Arellano studied at Colegio San Ignacio in Santiago. After graduating with a degree in economics from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile as the best student in his class, he received a masters in economics from Harvard University and a doctorate in 1979. After having worked as a researcher at the Corporation of Studies for Latin America, CIEPLAN, Arellano was executive director of the organization from 1984 to 1989, hence his proximity to economists like Alejandro Foxley, Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, Pablo Piñera and René Cortázar.

He has sat on the boards of several nonprofit educational corporations, including the Fundación Belén Educa, the Maipú Educational Corporation and the Peñalolén Municipal Corporation. He is a director of Hogar de Cristo, Fundación Opportunidad and Belén Educa, he has been a professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, the University of Chile, Adolfo Ibáñez University and the University of Notre Dame. Arellano was the Budget Director of the Ministry of Finance from 1990 to 1996. During the same period, he was the alternate governor for Chile to the World Bank. In September 1996, amid a huge teachers' strike, President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle entrusted him with the post of Minister of Education, a position he held until 2000, when the administration left office, he is the longest-serving Minister of Education in the history of Chile. During his term, he pushed education reform, one of the major initiatives being the introduction of the full school day; as minister, he was president of the National Monuments Council.

He was president of the Assembly of the Organization for Education in Iberoamerica, was Chairman of the Council of Presidents of Chilean Universities and president of the Higher Education Council. He served as president of Fundación Chile and has participated on the boards of Televisión Nacional de Chile and BancoEstado. In March 2006, he was appointed by President Bachelet as CEO of Codelco, a position in which he had to face challenges ranging from union pressures to criticism of increased costs from various sectors. During his term, he won the approval of Codelco's new corporate governance law, he left this position in May 2010. Arellano has been a consultant to the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations, he has served as a consultant and participated in technical assistance missions in Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Philippines, Lithuania and Romania. He was a member of the board of Viña Santa Rita, Empresas Iansa, Seguros de Vida la Construcción and the Self-Regulatory Council for the Insurance Industry, among others.

He was chairman of the Justice and Peace Commission of the Chilean Episcopal Conference. He is the author of five books. Políticas sociales Chile 1990-2009 Reforma educacional: prioridad que se consolida Políticas Macroeconómicas Políticas sociales y desarrollo Las desigualdades económicas y la acción del Estado Public Sector Deficits and Macroeconomic Stability in Developing Economies Structural change in Chile:From fiscal deficits to surpluses Copper Mining and its Impact on Chile’s Development Francisco Orrego Vicuña. Chile en la perspectiva de un nuevo milenio: ideas clave para alcanzar un pleno desarrollo. Academia Chilena de Ciencias Sociales Politicas y Morales. ISBN 978-956-13-1647-8. Top of class Catholic University business and economics majors 1974 Fundación Futuro award for public service 1996 Distinguished alumnus of the Catholic University 2008 "Alumnus of the year" 2011, Fundación Ingenieros Comerciales, Catholic University Corporation of Studies for Latinamerica, CIEPLAN "Most held works by José Pablo Arellano".

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