The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
Their traditional territory spreads from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north. In the traditional language, Awaba is the word for Lake Macquarie, meaning flat or plain surface, the Awabakal were bounded to the north–west by the Wonnarua, the Worimi to the north–east, and the Darkinjung peoples to the west and south. The Awabakal people, like most of the Aboriginal Australian tribes in Australia, awabagal is a common alternate name for the Awabakal people. Awaba is now the name of a town in the region. Tindale claims that the Ninyowa clan were from the Newcastle area, the Awabakal language was used by the Awabakal people and by the Wonnarua people. Oral historians and linguists are reviewing the language in order to develop a dictionary of the language of the Hunter River. The eaglehawk or wedge-tailed eagle has special significance for the Awabakal people, their celestial entity, looks like an Aboriginal man, but in flight resembles an eagle-hawk.
The Awabakal people played a significant part in shaping the environment of their region and they practised fire-stick farming extensively, which helped them to hunt and to navigate through dense prickly scrub along the coast. Tracks and paths were maintained, including a path from the shore to the top of a hill which became Watt Street in Newcastle, particularly for shellfish, was a significant part of the Awabakal peoples diet and culture pre-colonisation. Academic research by Webb indicates east coast Australia tribes were violent, the Awabakal Newcastle Aboriginal Cooperative Limited is a not-for-profit community controlled organisation operating in the Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Hunter Region with 195 members. In 2014 financial year, Awabakal had income of $10. 7million, approximately half of the income is used on employee benefits expenses, being $5. 87million in 2014. Total assets for both 2013 and 2014 were ca, in 1976, the Awabakal Environmental Education Centre began operating.
It is a NSW Department of Education and Communities facility, the centre provides opportunities for teachers and students in the Hunter Region to learn about the environment and human interactions with the natural world. The Centre contains examples of habitats including perched lagoons, creek catchments and wet sclerophyll forest. Being located on Awabakal land, the centre provides the opportunity for students to learn about Aboriginal perspectives, knowledge. There is a significant Awabakal presence at the Wollotuka Institute at the University of Newcastle, Wollotuka is an Awabakal word meaning eating and meeting place. Attempts by the Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council to claim native title over land within Newcastle, biraban – a recognised headman of the Awaba clan who assisted the Rev Lancelot Threlkeld compile the first grammar of an Aboriginal language in Australia
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Germaine Greer is an Australian-born writer, regarded as one of the major voices of the second-wave feminist movement in the latter half of the 20th century. She lives in the United Kingdom, where she has held academic positions, specializing in English literature, at the University of Warwick, Greers ideas have created controversy ever since her first book, The Female Eunuch, became an international best-seller and made her a household name. Her work since has focused on literature and the environment, books include Sex and Destiny, The Politics of Human Fertility, The Change, Women and the Menopause, The Whole Woman, Shakespeares Wife and White Beech, The Rainforest Years. She owns and finances Stump Cross Books, which publishes the work of 17th-, Greer is a liberation rather than equality feminist. Her goal is not equality with men, which she sees as assimilation, Womens liberation, she wrote in The Whole Woman, did not see the females potential in terms of the males actual. She argues instead that liberation is about asserting difference and insisting on it as a condition of self-definition and self-determination and it is a struggle for the freedom of women to define their own values, order their own priorities and decide their own fate.
Greer was born in Melbourne, the eldest of three children, to South Africa born Eric Reginald Greer and Margaret Mary Lafrank, peggy, a milliner, had married Reg in March 1937. He was an advertising representative, who served as a wartime RAAF officer. According to Greer, her mother had what was probably Aspergers Syndrome, Greer left home because of it when she was 18. She gave up the Catholic faith a year after leaving school, from 1956 she attended the University of Melbourne, graduating in 1959 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English and French language and literature. After graduation Greer moved to Sydney, where she became involved with the Sydney Push and the anarchist Sydney Libertarians. Her first teaching post was at the University of Sydney, where she earned a first-class Master of Arts degree in poetry in 1963. The thesis won her a Commonwealth Scholarship, which she used to fund her doctorate, arriving in 1964 at Newnham College, Cambridge, a women-only college. Lisa Jardine, who was at Newnham at the time, recalled the first time she met Greer, at a formal dinner in college.
As a hush descended, one continued to speak, too engrossed in her conversation to notice. The willingly suffered discomfort of the Sixties bra, she opined vigorously, was a symbol of male oppression. Greer joined the student acting company, the Cambridge Footlights in October 1964, on the day as Clive James. She was billed in 1965 as the first woman to be granted full membership and she received her Doctor of Philosophy in 1969 for a thesis entitled The Ethic of Love and Marriage in Shakespeares Early Comedies
Southport is a suburb and the central business district near the midpoint of Gold Coast, Queensland and has one of the citys largest communities. At the 2011 Census, Southport had a population of 28,315, originally known as Nerang Creek Heads, it was named Southport because it was the southernmost port of the colony of Queensland. Southport is recognised as the business district of the City of Gold Coast. It has the citys largest area of space at 103,818 m2. In the past, Southport was the central entertainment location of the Gold Coast, in current times it is set apart from the normal tourist hub of the Gold Coast. However, it has still experienced tourist-driven development and extraordinary growth, Southport has 18 high-rise towers either completed, under construction or awaiting commencement. In the 2011 Census the population of Southport is 28,315,51. 5% female and 48. 5% male, the median/average age of the Southport population is 36 years of age,1 year below the Australian average. 55. 2% of people living in Southport were born in Australia, the other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 7.
3%, England 4. 3%, Republic of 2. 9%, China 2. 7%, Japan 1. 7%. 69. 8% of people speak English as their first language 3% Korean,2. 7% Mandarin, a settlement was first surveyed in 1874 and the name Southport decided the following year. Southport was once the site of timber mills, a port was established to ship logs to Brisbane. Cutting timber opened up the area for settlement, early rural industries included sugar growing and livestock grazing. In 1883, the first Southport Pier was built to allow steamships to bring cargo, in the 1880s, the Southport became the chosen site for the holiday residence of the Queensland Governor Sir Anthony Musgrave and his wife Lady Musgrave. Following the death of the governor in 1888, the Summer Place continued to be a home for visitors to the area. In 1889 the South Coast railway from Beenleigh to Southport opened, the line was closed in 1964. By 1901 Federation Southport was well established as a tourist seaside spot with accommodation options. The construction of the Jubilee Bridge in 1925 between Southport and Main Beach replaced the service and facilitated further growth.
In 2010, renovation of the parklands required the relocation of the memorial, a cement jetty was built in 1914 to replace the earlier structure. In 1927, the Pier Theatre which included a cafe and indoor golf course was built on the jetty, a fire destroyed the structure in 1932 but it was rebuilt and open to the public for nearly forty years
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
At the 2011 census, Murwillumbah had a population of 8,523 people. The towns name is abbreviated to Mbah or Murbah. Murwillumbah sits on the eastern foothills of the McPherson Range in the Tweed Volcano valley. Many of the buildings are Art Deco in style and there are cafes, Murwillumbah is the eighth town mentioned in the original Australia version of the song Ive Been Everywhere. The area is used for filming of the British reality series, versions of the show for other countries are produced in the area. Murwillumbah was used as the location for the film Lou starring John Hurt, the ABC television series of the novel Pastures of the Blue Crane was filmed in the Tweed region in 1969. The first people to live in the area were Bundjalung people, the name Murwillumbah derives from an Aboriginal word meaning camping place – from Murrie, meaning aboriginal people, Wolli, a camp, and Bab, the place of. Nearby Mount Warning and its attendant national park are known as Wollumbin, meaning Cloud Catcher, timber-getters were drawn to the region in the 1840s.
The river port at Tumbulgum was initially the main settlement, in 1902, a local government municipality was declared with Murwillumbah as its centre. Most of the business district was destroyed by fire in 1907. Murwillumbah is the location for Australia’s largest-ever bank robbery which occurred in 1978 and has not been solved, Murwillumbah is protected by a series of levees, but they do not protect all parts of the town in major floods. The event exceeded previous major floods in 1954 and 1956, in 1974,200 people were evacuated from the town after floodwater from Tropical Cyclone Zoe inundated the area. In January 2008, Murwillumbah and surrounding areas were hit by severe flooding, may 2009 saw more evacuations in the town and surrounds after heavy rainfall. The town was bypassed by the Pacific Highway in August 2002, main road access from both north and south is via the scenic Tweed Valley Way, which was formerly a section of the original highway. There is a road that passes along the Numinbah Valley through the towns of Chillingham, Numinbah.
Another major road west of the heads to Kyogle via the town Uki. Murwillumbah station was the terminus of the Casino–Murwillumbah branch line, and had train services to Sydney until the line closed in 2004. Today, coaches to and from Casino provide connections to daily Countrylink trains servicing Sydney, Murwillumbah Bus Company offers regular services to major parts of the town, as well as Condong and Uki. Parsons Bus Service offers services to Pottsville, Cabarita Beach, and Stokers Siding