Pulse code cab signaling
Pulse code cab signaling is a form of cab signaling technology developed in the United States by the Union Switch and Signal corporation for the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1920s. The 4-aspect system adopted by the PRR and its successor railroads has become the dominant railroad cab signaling system in North America with versions of the technology being adopted in Europe and rapid transit systems. In its home territory on former PRR successor Conrail owned lines and on railroads operating under the NORAC Rulebook it is known as Cab Signaling System or CSS. In 1922 the Interstate Commerce Commission issued a ruling requiring trains to be equipped with automatic train stop technology to operate at 80 mph or greater; the Pennsylvania Railroad decided to use this as an opportunity to implement a signaling technology that could improve both safety and operational efficiency by displaying a signal continuously in the locomotive cab. The task was assigned to Signal corporation, the PRR's preferred signal supplier.
The first test installation between Sunbury and Lewistown, PA in 1923 used the tracks as an inductive loop coupled to the locomotive’s receiver. The system had two 60 Hz signals; the break-sensing “track” signal was fed down one rail towards the oncoming train and crossed through its wheels, returning in the other rail. The pickup just ahead of the wheels would sum the approaching current from one side with the returning current on the other; the externally returned ”loop” signal was fed into and out of the mid tap of a resistor across each end of the track circuit. The pickup would sum the approaching current on each side as it carried on past to the far end of the track; this signal was shifted 90 degrees from the other. The signals were applied one or both continuously to give Approach or Clear aspects while no signal was a Restricting aspect; the test installation eliminated wayside block signals, trains relied on cab signals. For its next installation, on the Northern Central line between Baltimore, MD and Harrisburg, PA in 1926, the PRR tested another variation of cab signals which dropped the loop signal and switched to 100 Hz for the track signal.
The pivotal change was that now it would come on above Restricting as a carrier and 1.25 to 3 Hz on-off pulsing of it would be used as a code to convey the aspects. The presence of the carrier alone was not meaningful, no pulsing would still mean a Restricting aspect; this new system allowed four signal aspects: Restricting. The cab signaling system only acted as a form of automatic train stop where the engineer would have to acknowledge any drop in the cab signal to a more restrictive aspect to prevent the brakes from automatically applying. Passenger engines were upgraded with speed control which enforced the rulebook speed associated with each cab signal. Over time the PRR installed cab signals over much of its eastern system from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia, New York to Washington; this system was inherited by Conrail and Amtrak and various commuter agencies running on former PRR territory such as SEPTA and New Jersey Transit. Because all trains running in cab signal territory had to be equipped with cab signals, most locomotives of the aforementioned roads were equipped with cab signal equipment.
Due to the effect of interoperability lock in, the 4-aspect PRR cab signal system has become a de facto standard and all new cab signaling installations have been of this type or a compatible type. Pulse code cab signals work by sending metered pulses along an existing AC track circuit operating at some chosen carrier frequency; the pulses are detected via induction by a sensor hanging a few inches above the rail before the leading set of wheels. The codes are measured in pulses per minute and for the 4-aspect PRR system are set at 180 ppm for Clear, 120 ppm for Approach Medium, 75 ppm for Approach and 0 for Restricting; the pulse rates are chosen to avoid any one rate being a multiple of another leading to reflected harmonics causing false indications. The system is failsafe in; the codes would be transmitted to the train from the block limit in front of it. This way if the rail was broken or another train entered the block, any codes would not reach the onrushing train and the cab signal would again display Restricting.
Trains with an insufficient number of axles will not short out all of the cab signal current so that following trains might receive an incorrect aspect. Trains of this type must be given absolute block protection to the rear. Where DC and 25 Hz AC electrification co-exist, the standard 100 Hz frequency is changed to 91⅔ Hz; this avoids harmonics created by the return rail's DC traction current offsetting the AC return sine wave in the same rail. 70 years after pulse code cab signals had been introduced, the 4 speed design was found to be insufficient for speeds not envisioned when the system was designed. The two most pressing problems were the use of high speed turnouts, which allowed trains to take a diverging route faster than the normal 30 or 45 mph covered by the existing cab signals; the introduction of Amtrak's Acela Express service with its 135 mph to 150 mph maximum speeds would exceed the capabilities of the legacy signaling system and its 125 mph design speed. To address the problem and avoid a complete rebuild of the signaling system, impair lower speed service, break backwards compatibility with existing cab signals or place too high a reliance on the human operator, an overlay pulse code system was devised for use on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor.
Conshohocken is a borough on the Schuylkill River in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in suburban Philadelphia. A large mill town and industrial and manufacturing center, after the decline of industry in recent years Conshohocken has developed into a center of riverfront commercial and residential development. In the regional slang, it is sometimes referred to by the colloquial nickname Conshy; the name "Conshohocken" comes from the Unami language, from either Kanshi'hak'ing, meaning "Elegant-ground- place", or, more Chottschinschu'hak'ing, which means "Big-trough-ground-place" or "Large-bowl-ground-place", referring to the big bend in the Tulpe'hanna. The sister community of West Conshohocken is located on the opposite side of the Schuylkill River. Conshohocken is located at 40°4′38″N 75°18′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.0 square mile, of which, 1.0 square mile of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Conshohocken fronts the Schuylkill River.
A rather sharp bend in the river at Conshohocken gives the Schuylkill Expressway, which hugs the far bank, a curve, well known to regional radio listeners as the Conshohocken curve. Railroad tracks line both river banks, reflecting the valley's heavy industrial past as well as its continuing rail activity including CSX and SEPTA. A rail trail portion of the Schuylkill River Trail passes through; the place was first settled about 1820, was for several years known as Matson’s Ford. The mayor is Yaniv Aronson; the borough is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 148th State House District and the 7th State Senate District. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 88.7% White, 6.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 1.7% were two or more races. 3.5% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,589 people, 3,329 households, 1,834 families residing in the borough; the population density was 7,720.4 people per square mile.
There were 3,518 housing units at an average density of 3,578.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 89.88% White, 7.77% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.34% of the population. There were 3,329 households, out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.5% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.9% were non-families. 36.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.02. In the borough the population was spread out, with 20.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 35.9% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.1 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $43,599, the median income for a family was $50,601. Males had a median income of $36,299 versus $30,541 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $22,128. About 4.2% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 12.7% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimate, the median household income in the borough had risen to $73,750; the median income for a family was $88,049, the per capita income was $41,144. 5.3% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of children under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 and over. Conshohocken is in the outer rim of a Humid subtropical climate. January is on average the coldest month, July is on average the hottest. Conshohocken is served by two SEPTA regional railroad stations, both of which are along the Manayunk/Norristown Line; the main one is located at Washington and Harry Streets, the other is at Spring Mill at the end of East North Lane, south of Hector Street.
The area is served by two interstate highways: I-76 and I-476. Residents of Conshohocken are served by the Colonial School District. Private schools in the area include AIM Academy and The Miquon School Allied Universal headquarters East Coast AmerisourceBergen headquarters IKEA US headquarters Kynetic The NBOME National Center for Clinical Skills Testing National Lacrosse League headquarters Da'Rel Scott Dragonfly Forest Borough website Conshohocken News/Gossip
Ivy Ridge station
Ivy Ridge station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Located at Umbria Street and Parker Avenue in Northwest Philadelphia, it serves the Manayunk/Norristown Line; the initial station was built in a minimalist design similar to that of Norristown. The current station has a 204-space parking lot. In FY 2013, Ivy Ridge station had a weekday average of 582 alightings. SEPTA constructed Ivy Ridge in 1980 when service was extended an additional 0.8 miles past Manayunk West station, the passenger terminus of the Pennsylvania Railroad's Schuylkill Branch since 1960. Up until the 0.8 miles of track had been used by Manayunk trains to change direction within a remotely controlled interlocking where the Schuylkill Branch went from two tracks to one. The single-platform Ivy Ridge station was constructed within the space occupied by the abandoned second track, removed in the early 1960s after the PRR discontinued passenger service to Norristown. A moderate-sized park-and-ride lot was included.
SEPTA suspended service beyond Cynwyd in March 1986 because of deteriorating track conditions and concerns about the Manayunk Bridge. In August SEPTA constructed the current platforms along the ex-Reading Norristown line down the bluff from the ex-Pennsylvania line. For a while, the park-and-ride lot sat unused until SEPTA erected a 39-step stairway connecting the derelict PRR upper level and RDG lower level station sites. In the beginning, the steep staircase discouraged ridership, but this changed as ridership grew in the 1990s. While the PRR platform was built to high level standards, was constructed before the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the hastily constructed RDG station platform are low level, remain so. SEPTA received criticism for what was seen as a "waste of taxpayer dollars" by building an extensive high-level platform that only saw six years of active service while sitting derelict and attracting vandalism for over 25; the derelict platform was demolished in April 2012.
As it became clear that SEPTA had no interest in reviving service to the upper Ivy Ridge station, the parking lot was expanded with sections of the PRR track being removed. All remaining Schuylkill Branch trackage in Manayunk was dismantled in June 2010 to make way for the Ivy Ridge Trail, a Philadelphia extension of the Cynwyd Heritage Trail over the Pencoyd Viaduct. SEPTA – Ivy Ridge Station
University City station
University City station is a train station in the University City section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the SEPTA Regional Rail system. The station serves the area around the University of Pennsylvania, is located at South Street and Convention Avenue. Located on the Media/Elwyn Line, it serves the Airport, Wilmington/Newark, Media/Elwyn, Manayunk/Norristown and West Trenton Regional Rail services. In 2013, this station saw 3091 boardings and 2950 alightings on an average weekday; the station is less than a block from the University of Pennsylvania's Franklin Field and the Palestra. In addition to the University of Pennsylvania campus, it is convenient to the medical campuses of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; the Drexel University campus, the Graduate Hospital campus and neighborhood across the Schuylkill River are nearby and accessible. University City station was conceived in 1979 by the City of Philadelphia as Civic Center, under which name it appeared on SEPTA informational maps of the 1980s.
That name was no longer relevant by the time construction began in 1991. The station instead opened with the regionally descriptive name of University City on April 24, 1995; the station has a nod to Penn's colors. Since its inception, the station has been a stop for all trains on the five SEPTA rail lines which pass through the station, including rush-hour express trains on the Wilmington/Newark and Media/Elwyn lines. Though not all lines serve it, University City is listed in timetables and other SEPTA literature as one of the five Center City Philadelphia stations, falls within the CCP/Zone 1 Regional Rail fare zone; the station is served by SEPTA bus route 40 which runs along South Street, bus routes 30, 42 and the LUCY Green Loop from the nearby corner of Convention Avenue and Health Sciences Drive. The station made a brief appearance in the movie Unbreakable as Elijah falls down the stairs to the platform, it is portrayed as a subway station with turnstiles in the movie, though in reality.
The Convention Avenue Entrance has ADA Gates. University City has one high-level island platform serving both tracks. SEPTA - University City Station Station House from Google Maps Street View
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
North Broad station
North Broad station, known as North Broad Street until 1992, is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is located at 2601 North Broad Street in the Cecil B. Moore section of Lower North Philadelphia, serves the Lansdale/Doylestown Line and the Manayunk/Norristown Line; the station has low-level platforms on the outside tracks, with "mini-high" platforms for wheelchair and ADA accessibility. North Broad station is within a few blocks of the North Philadelphia SEPTA-Amtrak station, which serves Amtrak's Keystone Service and Northeast Regional and SEPTA's Trenton Line and Chestnut Hill West Line, the North Philadelphia subway station on SEPTA's Broad Street Line; the Pennsylvania Railroad built the Connecting Railway in 1867 to connect its main line to the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad. By the early 1870s, New York Junction station was established where the Connecting Railway crossed over the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad mainline in North Philadelphia. By the early 1880s, the Reading established 16th Street station a block to the northwest.
In 1888, the Reading announced plans to add local stations on the line, including one next to the Baker Bowl, which had opened as the home of the Philadelphia Phillies in 1887. By 1891, the company offered service to Huntingdon Street station as well as 16th Street; the station had two side platforms serving the line's four tracks, with a small station building facing Broad Street and Huntingdon Street. 16th Street station was closed in the early 20th century. In 1928, facing competition from the impending completion of the Broad Street Line, the Reading decided to replace Huntingdon Street station with a larger station to rival the PRR's nearby North Philadelphia station. Groundbreaking for Broad Street station was held on July 31, 1928 and demolition of Huntingdon Street station began immediately; the classical revival station, designed by Horace Trumbauer, opened as North Broad Street in 1929. The station featured two island platforms which served all four tracks, connected by an underground walkway to the station and the Broad Street Line's North Philadelphia station.
Its grand design reflected pre-Great Depression optimism and plans for redevelopment of the surrounding neighborhood. However, the Great Depression took away passengers and prevented the planned development, the collapse of local industry after World War II further damaged the neighborhood. Ridership at the station dwindled as passengers opted for the more frequent subway; the station building was sold for use as a motel in the 1960s. In 1981, the station was damaged by fire. On April 5, 1992, SEPTA began their 18-month-long RailWorks project, which included two multi-month shutdowns of the Reading mainline from Wayne Junction to Market East for emergency bridge repairs; as part of the project, North Broad Street and Temple University stations were rebuilt. Within two weeks of the closure, demolition of the old platforms was under way; the rebuilt station has two side platforms serving only the outer tracks, which were chosen to straighten the curved tracks around the former island platforms and thus allow higher speeds through the station for express trains.
The pedestrian tunnel was filled. The station, renamed as North Broad, reopened at the end of Railworks on September 5, 1993. Before RailWorks, North Broad Street served 1,200 riders per day, many of whom were transferring to the Broad Street Line or changing for one of the few trains that stopped at Temple. With the addition of Regional Rail platforms at Fern Rock Transportation Center for RailWorks more service to Temple through the Center City tunnel after the conclusion of the project, reduced service due to only having two platform tracks rather than the previous four, the importance of North Broad declined after RailWorks. By 2001, under 300 riders used the station daily. In March 1996, the station building was added to the National Register of Historic Places; that September, Volunteers of America began a $8.3 million renovation to convert the structure into 108 housing units for people transitioning out of homeless shelters. The organization had used part of the first floor for adult rehabilitation and counseling programs, but the structure was so deteriorated that only 18% of the floor space was usable.
The first residents moved into Station House Apartments in August 1997. SEPTA - North Broad Station Broad Street entrance from Google Maps Street View
The Schuylkill River is an important river running northwest to southeast in eastern Pennsylvania, improved by navigations into the Schuylkill Canal. Several of its tributaries drain major parts of the center-southern and easternmost Coal Regions in the state. Originating from waters in the Anthracite Coal Region, millions of tons of coal enabling the iron and steel based industries of America's largest city of the day used the waterway to supply some of the growing American energy needs, it flows for 135 miles to Philadelphia, where it joins the Delaware River as one of its largest tributaries. In 1682 William Penn chose the left bank of the confluence upon which he founded the planned city of Philadelphia on lands purchased from the native Delaware nation, it is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River, its whole length was once part of the Delaware people's southern territories. The river's watershed of about 2,000 sq mi lies within the state of Pennsylvania, the upper portions in the Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains where the folding of the mountain ridges metamorphically modified bituminous into widespread anthracite deposits located north of the Blue Mountain barrier ridge.
The source of its eastern branch is in lands now mined situated one ridgeline south of Tuscarora Lake along a drainage divide from the Little Schuylkill about a mile east of the village of Tuscarora and about a mile west of Tamaqua, at Tuscarora Springs in Schuylkill County. Tuscarora Lake is one source of the Little Schuylkill River tributary; the West Branch starts near Minersville and joins the eastern branch at the town of Schuylkill Haven. It combines with the Little Schuylkill River downstream in the town of Port Clinton; the Tulpehocken Creek joins it at the western edge of Reading. Wissahickon Creek joins it in northwest Philadelphia. Other major tributaries include: Maiden Creek, Manatawny Creek, French Creek, Perkiomen Creek; the Schuylkill joins the Delaware at the site of the former Philadelphia Navy Yard, now the Philadelphia Naval Business Center, just northeast of Philadelphia International Airport. The Leni Lenape were the original inhabitants of the area around this river, which they called Tool-pay Hanna or Tool-pay Hok Ing.
The river was discovered by European explorers from the Netherlands and England. It was through historical documents called various names, including Manayunk, Manajungh and Lenni Bikbi; the Swedish explorer called it Menejackse alternately Skiar kill or the Linde River. The headwaters of the river, up near Reading, was called "Tulpehocken" by the English; the river was given the Dutch name Schuylkill. As kil means "creek" and schuylen means "to hide, skulk" or "to take refuge, shelter", one explanation given for this name is that it translates to "hidden river", "skulking river" or "sheltered creek" and refers to the river's confluence with the Delaware River at League Island, nearly hidden by dense vegetation. Another explanation is that the name properly translates to "hideout creek" in one of the Algonquian languages spoken by a Leni Lenape in their confederation; the mighty Susquehannock confederation claimed the area along the Schuylkill as a hunting ground, as they did to the lands down along the Chesapeake Bay to the left bank Potomac River, across from the Powhatan Confederacy when traders first stopped in the Delaware and settlers arrived in the first decade of the 1600s.
With ample tributary streams, the Schuylkill was ground zero during the early years of the Beaver Wars, during which the Delaware peoples became tributary to the victorious Susquehannocks, an Iroquoian people often in contention with their relatives, both the Erie people west and northwest through the gaps of the Allegheny in Eastern Ohio and Northwestern Pennsylvania (between the upper Allegheny River and Lake Erie, the Five Nations of the Iroquois, another Amerindian confederation eastwards from the right bank Genessee River through the finger lakes region of upper New York down the Saint Lawrence. The Lenape had settlements on the river, including Nittabakonck, a village on the east bank just south of the confluence of the Wissahickon Creek, the Passyunk site, on the west bank where the Schuylkill meets the Delaware River. Patriot paper maker Frederick Bicking owned a fishery on the river prior to the Revolution, Thomas Paine tried in vain to interest the citizens in funding an iron bridge over this river, before abandoning "pontifical works" on account of the French Revolution.
In the next decades, pioneering industrialists Josiah White and protege & partner Erskine Hazard built iron industries at the Falls of the Schuylkill in Jefferson's administration, where White built a suspension bridge with cables made from their wire mill. During the war of 1812 the two took delivery of an ark of anthracite coal, notoriously difficult to combust reliably and experimented with ways to use it industrially, providing the knowledge to begin resolving the ongoing decades long energy crises around eastern cities; the two heavily backed the flagging effort to improve navigation on the Schuylkill, which efforts date back to legislation measures as early as 1762. Needing energy resources and by 1816 disenchanted with the lack of urgency found in other investors to accelerate the anemic construction rate of the Schuylkill Canal, the two jumped to option the mining rights of the Lehigh Coal Mine Company which disenchanted stockholders were giving up on waited until a charter to improved the Lehigh went delinquent, resulting in t