Eastern Shore (Nova Scotia)
For the provincial electoral district, see Eastern Shore The Eastern Shore is a region of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It is the Atlantic coast running northeast from Halifax Harbour to the eastern end of the peninsula at the Strait of Canso; the Eastern Shore is a scenic, yet sparsely settled area, hosting dozens of small fishing harbours and communities. The shore hosts the majority of Nova Scotia's small islands; the tourism industry is concentrated near popular beaches and provincial parks such as Lawrencetown, Clam Harbour, Martinique, as well as the centrally-located service communities of Musquodoboit Harbour, Sheet Harbour, Canso and Mulgrave. Popular tourist attractions include the Liscombe Lodge resort and conference centre in Liscomb Mills and the Historic Sherbrooke Village in Sherbrooke; the Battle at Jeddore is one of the many historic events to occur along the shore. Politically, the Eastern Shore is part of three federal ridings: Cape Breton—Canso in Guysborough, Central Nova in the eastern areas Halifax Regional Municipality, Sackville—Preston—Chezzetcook at the western end.
The provincial ridings include Eastern Shore, Guysborough-Sheet Harbour, as well as several ridings in the eastern part of HRM's urban core. In the Halifax Regional Municipality, the Eastern Shore is represented on the Halifax Regional Council as District 1 Eastern Shore - Musquodoboit Valley and District 3 Preston - Lawrencetown - Chezzetcook; the area between Dartmouth and Cape Breton is sparsely populated. The decline in the fishing industry has meant an outflow of people to larger urban areas and to other fishing villages in the province. Guysborough and Canso, with populations of 922 and 820 are the largest communities. There are more than 300 communities along the Eastern Shore; the Eastern Shore is home to numerous historic gold mining areas near Port Dufferin, Tangier and Goldboro, as well as Nova Scotia's most historic seaport, Canso. Canso predates Halifax and Annapolis Royal as one of North America's earliest settlements. At Sherbrooke, the St. Mary's River empties into the Atlantic and is one of the province's famed Atlantic Salmon runs.
Numerous lumber mills operated here during the early 1900s as Nova Scotia entered the'industrial revolution'. A railway had been proposed during the 1880s to run east from Dartmouth, however the sparse settlement and lack of industrial economic activity saw the railway line swing north up the Musquodoboit River at Musquodoboit Harbour to access the fertile agricultural district of the Musquodoboit Valley. Another railway project was proposed to run between Pictou and the village of Guysborough and on to Canso during'the age of sail', when Canso rivalled Halifax as the most important first port of call in Nova Scotia for westbound trans-Atlantic vessels, as Canso was the same distance by rail from the New Brunswick–Nova Scotia border as Halifax. A rail line was graded and bridges constructed between Pictou and Guysborough during the 1930s, tracks were never laid and the project was abandoned, leaving most of the Eastern Shore without rail service. During the post-World War II period, the provincial government upgraded local roads, resulting in the present alignment of Trunk 7.
During the 1980s-90s, when the rail line was abandoned, the controlled-access Nova Scotia Highway 107 was built from the Burnside Industrial Park in Dartmouth to Musquodoboit Harbour, to assist commuters and truck traffic travelling to rural HRM and to Hwy. 102 via Hwy. 118. A 1990s regional development project saw the port of Sheet Harbour redeveloped into an important regional deep-water port; the facility is most used during the winter months, when the Northumberland Strait port of Pictou is iced in and industrial shippers from Pictou County truck shipments to Sheet Harbour. A large wharf and industrial greenhouse operation are located on site. Beaver Harbour was home to a trans-Atlantic cable station, operated by Teleglobe, but is now decommissioned. Most of the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia consists of sandstone and shale bedrock, forming rolling hills, which are up to 75 metres in elevation and many offshore islands, of which two of the largest are Wolfes Island and Barren Island; the Eastern Shore is forested.
12 kilometres inland from the coast is the Eastern Shore Granite Ridge. This is an expansive area of 350-million-year-old granite bedrock. Several major rivers flow into the coast along the Eastern Shore, including the Musquodoboit River, which flows into the Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Tangier River, which flows from Tangier Grand Lake to the Atlantic, West River Sheet Harbour, which flows into the Northwest Arm of Sheet Harbour, as well as East River Sheet Harbour into the Northeast Arm; the St. Mary's River flows into the Atlantic, passing through the community of Sherbrooke. There are many lakes, ponds and other types of freshwater bodies along the Eastern Shore; the largest of which are Porters Lake, which flows directly into the Atlantic Ocean, Lake Charlotte, which flows into Ship Harbour via the Ship Harbour River and Tangier Grand Lake, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean via the Tangier River. The largest water formation by far is the Chedabucto Bay, at the eastern end of the Eastern Shore.
There numerous, albeit much smaller, bays and other coastal features along the Eastern Shore, including but not limited to: Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbour, Count
The Musquodoboit River is a Canadian river located in central Nova Scotia in the northeastern part of Halifax Regional Municipality. The river is 97 kilometres in length with 88 kilometres being traversable by paddle, it has a watershed area of 1,409 square kilometres The name "Musquodoboit" is Mi'kmaq translated to "beautiful water". It rises in the extreme northeastern part of the county near the boundary with Pictou and Guysborough counties. Rising in the Cobequid Mountains, the river runs in a southwesterly direction along the Halifax-Colchester county line through the fertile Musquodoboit Valley. Near the halfway point, the river changes course at a right angle, running toward the southeast where it empties into a bay on the Atlantic Ocean called Musquodoboit Harbour. Other communities along its length include Middle Musquodoboit, Moose River, Meaghers Grant and Upper Musquodoboit. Dollar Lake flows into the Musquodoboit River; the river is a popular recreational destination in central Nova Scotia, as its calm and lack of rapids or waterfalls makes it ideal for paddling sports like canoeing and kayaking.
According to estimates by the Province of Nova Scotia, there were 27,846 people residing within the Musquodoboit River watershed in 2011. List of rivers of Nova Scotia Musquodoboit Harbour headwater lakes - watershed flow charts Musquodoboit Valley Tourism Association Musquodoboit Trailway
Cumberland Basin (Canada)
Cumberland Basin is an inlet and northeasternmost part of the Bay of Fundy, located on the border between the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The Isthmus of Chignecto lies directly northeast of the basin, Shepody Bay joins the Cumberland Basin near its entrance into the larger water body, Chignecto Bay. Along the Nova Scotia shore of Cumberland Basin at Joggins are seaside cliffs famous for fossils. Several coal seams are exposed; these were mined commercially for bituminous coal for nearly 140 years, between 1819 and 1958. The fishery in Cumberland Basin is limited to shad and lobster
The LaHave River is a 97 km river in Nova Scotia, running from its source in Annapolis County to the Atlantic Ocean. Along its way, it splits the communities of LaHave and Riverport and runs along the Fairhaven Peninsula and bisects the town of Bridgewater flowing into the LaHave River estuary. Tides affect. There are a number of tourist attractions along the river, it is well-used for recreational sailing; as well as two bridges at Bridgewater, the river can be crossed by a cable ferry at the town of LaHave. The river and various spots in the area were named after Cap de la Hève, in France, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts in 1604; the name was anglicized to LaHave. During the American Revolution, on March 18, 1780, the Lunenburg militia secured the American prisoners taken from the Kitty on the LaHave River, they sold it. A month on 15 April 1780, the Lunenburg militia and the British brigantine John and Rachael captured an American Privateer prize named Sally, off LaHave River, Nova Scotia. During the seizure, the privateers killed the head of the Militia and wounded two of the crew members of the John and Rachael.
On 1 September 1780, The Brig Observer under the command of John Crymes ran two small American privateer schooners - Dolphin and Dispatch - into the shore at LaHave. The crew of both vessels escaped through the woods; the river became a major lumbering and shipbuilding centre. The many large vessels constructed along the river include the famous clipper ship Stag; the river has since become a popular area for salmon fishing, attracting fisherman from mid-May to early July. According to estimates by the Province of Nova Scotia, there are 21,907 people resident within the LaHave watershed in 2011. In 2017, biologists reported that the salmon fishery was being threatened because chain pickerel, invasive species, were eating the salmon smolts. In 2017, government funding totalling $12 million was allocated to improving the quality of the river water by improving the processing of sewage, being piped into the river. However, in 2018, a broken sewage pipe in Bridgewater led to further contamination of the river.
List of rivers of Nova Scotia History of Bridgewater, NS History of Riverport, NS "LaHve River Estuary" The Canadian Encyclopedia The Columbia Gazetteer of North America
Marion Bridge, Nova Scotia
Marion Bridge is a Canadian rural community in Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Regional Municipality. The community is named for the eponymous bridge that crosses the Mira River, Marion Bridge being midway between the river's source in Grand Mira and its discharge point at Mira Gut; the current concrete highway bridge was constructed in 1982 as a replacement for an older bridge, which collapsed after an accident involving a snow plow. Marion Bridge was made famous through a popular song written by Allister MacGillivray. Entitled Song for the Mira, it contains the refrain: Can you imagine a piece of the universe,More fit for princes and kings? I'll trade you ten of your cities for Marion Bridge; the area is a setting for the 2002 film Marion Bridge. Marion Bridge plays host to the Mira Gala, an annual festival, held every summer in late June/early July and lasts 1 to 2 weeks. Events held at the Mira Gala include family square dances, a street parade, beef barbecues, music entertainment in the evenings, a canoe race, a bathtub race, dinner theatre, a strawberry social, an antique car show and a custom car show, a flea market, a roast beef dinner, hay rides, sports events, children's fun days, a boat parade along the waterfront followed by fireworks on Canada Day.
Marion Bridge on Destination Nova Scotia Borggreen, Jørn. Right to the Helm: Cape Breton Square Dances, third ed. Jyllinge, Denmark: The author
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe