Vekoma Rides Manufacturing is a Dutch amusement ride manufacturer. Vekoma is an abbreviation of Veld Koning Machinefabriek and was established in 1926 by Hendrik op het Veld, they manufactured farm equipment and made steel constructions for the coal mining industry in the 1950s, After the closure of Dutch mines in 1965, they manufactured steel pipes for the petrochemical industry. Since the 1970s, they have manufactured amusement rides; as of May 2018, there are over 349 roller coasters around the world from Vekoma, some of which are either under construction or have been removed. Other Vekoma coaster models include Swinging Turns, Hurricane, Family Boomerang, Tilt Coaster, powered coasters. In 2013, Vekoma signed a deal with Idaho-based Rocky Mountain Construction; the agreement allows Vekoma to sell Rocky Mountain Construction's roller coasters outside the North American market. In 2008, Vekoma Rides Manufacturing acquired the Wheels of Excellence range of Ferris wheels from Ronald Bussink, to be handled by a new Vekoma division, Dutch Wheels BV.
The Dutch Wheels product range includes the R40, R50, R60 models, each available in three different types. A madhouse is a flat ride that gives the impression that the rider is upside-down, when in reality the room they are in rotates around them. Official website Vekoma at the Roller Coaster DataBase
Olinda, is a historic city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, located on the country's northeastern Atlantic Ocean coast, in Greater Recife. It has a population of 389,494 people, covers 41.681 square kilometres, has a population of 9 inhabitants per square kilometer. It is noted as one of the best-preserved colonial cities in Brazil. Olinda features a number of major tourist attractions, such as a historic downtown area and the Carnival of Olinda, a popular street party similar to traditional Portuguese carnivals, with the addition of African influenced dances. Unlike in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador, in Olinda, admission to Carnival is free. All the festivities are celebrated on the streets, there are no bleachers or roping. There are hundreds of small musical groups in many genres. Several indigenous tribes occupied the coast of Northeastern Brazil for several thousand years, the hills of the present day municipality of Olinda had settlements of Caetés and Tupinambá tribes, which were at war.
French mercenaries are thought to be the first Europeans to get to the region, but the Portuguese exploited intertribal rivalries and managed to build a stronghold on the former Caeté village in the higher hill. Recent studies by the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco have uncovered new evidence of the pre-colonial population of the area; the settlement of Olinda was founded in 1535 by Duarte Coelho Pereira. It was made the seat of the Territorial Prelature of Pernambuco in 1614, becoming the Diocese of Olinda in 1676; the economy of the region was dominated by the production of sugarcane. The importation of slaves from Africa to support the economy made Olinda a colonial stronghold. By 1600 its economy was based on sugar, imported African slave labor had made it a colonial stronghold. Slavery existed in Olinda until the Lei Áurea, or Golden Law, abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888. Olinda was burned by Dutch invaders; the Portuguese built their town on the hill, for practical purposes. In the 17th century the Kingdom of Portugal was united with Spain.
Taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the area around Olinda and Recife was occupied by the Dutch who gained access to the Portuguese sugarcane plantations. John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen was appointed as the governor of the Dutch possessions in Brazil in 1637 by the Dutch West India Company on recommendation of Frederick Henry, he landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January 1637. By a series of successful expeditions, he extended the Dutch possessions from Sergipe on the south to São Luís de Maranhão in the north, he conquered the Portuguese possessions of Saint George del Mina, Saint Thomas, Luanda, Angola, on the west coast of Africa. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in 1640, Portugal would reestablish its authority over the lost territories of the Portuguese Empire. Olinda declined in importance after the Dutch invasion. Recife became the capital of Pernambuco in 1827; the city now serves as a suburb to the greater Recife metropolitan area.
Due to the historic position of the city, its Cathedral, a World Heritage Site, São Salvador do Mundo, remains the primary seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Olinda e Recife, with a co-cathedral in Recife, while Olinda has a Minor Basilica, again World Heritage Site: Basílica Abacial do Mosteiro de São Bento de Olinda. Besides its natural beauty, Olinda is one of Brazil's main cultural centers. Declared in 1982 a Historical and Cultural Patrimony of Humanity by the UNESCO, Olinda relives the magnificence of the past every year during the Rio-style Carnival, on the rhythms of frevo and others rhythms; the main economic activities in Olinda are based in tourism, transportation industry and artcraft. The tourist sector has a boom every Carnival when thousands of people are in the old historic town center. Economy by Sector List of museums in Pernambuco Olinda travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website https://web.archive.org/web/20130407002251/http://olindavirtual.org/ https://web.archive.org/web/20060614045202/http://www.olinda.com.br/ Commercial site Video Olinda, Pernambuco Video Olinda street Carnival
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Giant Inverted Boomerang
A Giant Inverted Boomerang is a type of steel shuttle roller coaster manufactured by Vekoma. The ride is a larger, inverted version of Vekoma's popular Boomerang sit down roller coasters; as of April 2019, five installations of the model are operating, with another one under construction Giant Inverted Boomerangs were slated to open for the start of the 2001 season at three Six Flags parks, sudden errors and malfunctions occurred during testing and caused the openings to be delayed. The first to open was Déjà Vu at Six Flags Magic Mountain on August 25, 2001. Déjà Vu at Six Flags Magic Mountain has since been removed and relocated to Six Flags New England as Goliath; this was followed by the opening of a further two Giant Inverted Boomerangs named Déjà Vu on September 1, 2001, at Six Flags Over Georgia and on October 7, 2001, at Six Flags Great America. The opening of the fourth Giant Inverted Boomerang was delayed more after the problems were discovered with the first three. Stunt Fall opened on August 2002, at Parque Warner Madrid.
In 2007, Six Flags announced the removal of Déjà Vu from both Six Flags Over Georgia and Six Flags Great America. They announced that the Six Flags Over Georgia ride would be replaced with a new themed area called Thomas Town. After the Six Flags Great America ride gave its last rides on October 28, 2007, it was removed and replaced with the Buccaneer Battle ride. In January 2008, Silverwood Theme Park in Idaho announced on its website that it would install the Déjà Vu from Six Flags Great America with a projected opening date of July that year, they announced Déjà Vu would operate as Aftershock. Before opening at its new location, the ride was overhauled by Vekoma in order to make the ride more reliable; the ride opened July 21, 2008. Rocky Mountain Construction, an Idaho-based manufacturing firm, assisted with the construction of the ride. In November 2009 it was announced that Mirabilandia in Brazil had purchased Six Flags Over Georgia's Déjà Vu; the ride is yet to open, but remains in storage at the park.
On August 16, 2011, Masslive reported that Six Flags New England was planning on building a Giant Inverted Boomerang for the park's 2012 season where the Shipwreck Falls attraction was located. On August 18, 2011, the ride was approved by the Agawam Planning Board, with the Los Angeles Times confirming one day that Déjà Vu from Six Flags Magic Mountain would be relocated to Six Flags New England and would begin operation under a new name in 2012. An official announcement from Six Flags representatives was made on September 1, 2011, confirming previous reports and announcing that the relocated ride's name would be Goliath. On October 16, 2011, Déjà Vu operated for the final time. At around the same time, Shipwreck Falls was removed from Six Flags New England to make way for Goliath. Goliath at Six Flags New England was topped off on February 29, 2012. Goliath opened to the public on May 25, 2012. In 2011, the first new Giant Inverted Boomerang since 2002 was constructed. Jinjiang Action Park opened the aptly named Giant Inverted Boomerang in September 2011.
In 2014, Sochi Park Adventureland opened another Giant Inverted Boomerang. The Giant Inverted Boomerang is a departure from Vekoma's earlier Boomerang designs; this model features a vertical cable lift hill that lifts the train up a vertical tower. This model is larger than previous Boomerang designs. From above, the track layout looks like an'X'; as a Giant Inverted Boomerang is a shuttle roller coaster, each installation only operates with a single train. Each of these trains has 8 cars, each utilising 4-across seating, similar to that on Bolliger & Mabillard's inverted roller coasters. However, the seats on Giant Inverted Boomerangs are "staggered" such that the outside seats are pushed back behind the middle two seats in each row. Train caters for a total of 32 riders. Goliath at Six Flags New England was set to feature new a train by Premier Rides; this train will have 4-across seating like that on Bolliger & Mabillard's inverted roller coasters. The new train design was chosen in an attempt to make the lines in the station less complicated to navigate and to give the ride a higher capacity.
The ride begins when the train backs out of the station and up the vertical lift, pulled by a catch car. Once reaching the top of the lift, with riders facing straight down, their legs dangling in the air, the train is released and zooms through the station heading into a 110-foot tall boomerang; this element contains two of the three inversions found on the ride going forward. After twisting through the Boomerang, riders go through a 102-foot tall vertical loop which crosses over the station and hit the second vertical tower of the ride. A catch car there pulls the train up the second vertical tower, this time with riders facing the sky. After the train reaches the top of the tower, it is released to cycle backward through the layout; the train goes through the station and heads up the first vertical lift again, where it is caught once more by the catch car and very lowered back into the station. Six Flags had ordered four Giant Inverted Boomerangs in 2001. However, following the installation of the 3 Déjà Vu coasters and the discovery of several problems, Six Flags allowed Vekoma to resolve these problems before installation of their fourth coaster, Stunt Fall.
Vekoma has since upgraded the original three rides to use this system. One problem was clearance between the track overhead. After th
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane, it was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean, it is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs; the many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco. With fiscal incentives by the government, many industrial companies were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial hub of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil, with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife plus 32,500 in the Metro Area, totaling more than 85,000. A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical hub. Recife stands out as a major tourist attraction of the Northeast, both for its beaches and for its historic sites, dating back to both the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization of the region; the beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers south of the city, has been awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists. The Historic Centre of Olinda, 7 kilometers north of the city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982, both cities' Brazilian Carnival are among the world's most famous.
The city is an education hub, home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife for their studies. Recife and Natal are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, a World Heritage Site; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Recife hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup; the city, despite having a higher crime rate than the southern region of Brazil, is considered the safest state capital in northeastern region. It has a much lower crime than other regional capitals, such as Salvador or São Luís, yet despite that crime rose 440% in 2015. Recife began as a collection of fishing shacks and warehouses on the delta between the Capibaribe and Beberibe Rivers in the captaincy of Pernambuco, sometime between 1535 and 1537 in the earliest days of Portuguese colonisation of Terra de Santa Cruz called Brazil, on the northeast coast of South America.
It was way station for Portuguese sailors and passing ships. The first documented reference to the settlement with its "arrecife dos navios" was in the royal Charter Act of March 12, 1537, establishing Olinda, 6 kilometres to the north, as a village, with its port where the Beberibe River meets the sea. Olinda had been settled in 1536 by Captain General Duarte Coelho, a Portuguese nobleman and administrator of the captaincy of Pernambuco; the city is named for the long reef recife running parallel to the shoreline which encloses its harbour. The reef is not as sometimes stated, a coral reef, but a consolidated ancient beach, now as firm and hard as stone. In 1541, Coelho returned from the Kingdom of Portugal with the machinery for an engenho, with it, his brother-in-law established the first mill named Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, in the floodplain of the Beberibe River at Recife. At that time the banks of the Capibaribe River were covered by sugar cane. Recife was capital of the 17th century New Holland established by the Dutch West India Company and was called Mauritsstad.
The Mascate War of 1710–1711 pitted merchants of Recife against those of nearby Olinda. Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife's weather is warm, it has a number of islands, rivers and bridges that crisscross the city and has been called "The Venice of Brazil". The city is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels, resulting in poor soil quality as the heavy dense rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and the area enjoys a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the South Atlantic Ocean to the east. Recife has a tropical climate, more a tropical monsoon climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by pleasant westwardly trade winds blowing in from the ocean. January and February are the warmest months, with mean temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 22 °C, with sun. July