The term Hispanic broadly refers to the people and cultures that have a historical link to the Spanish language or the country of Spain, depending on the context. It applies to countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire following Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. Principally, what are today the countries of Hispanic America, the Spanish Philippines, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara where Spanish may or may not be the predominant or official language and their cultures are derived from Spain although with strong local indigenous or other foreign influences, it could be argued that the term Hispanic should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word pertain to the Iberian region. It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs and art forms vary by country and region; the Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main distinctions.
Hispanus was used to define people of ancient Roman Hispania, which comprised the Iberian Peninsula, including the contemporary states of Spain and Andorra, the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The term Hispanic derives from Latin Hispanicus, the adjectival derivation of Latin Hispania and Hispanus/Hispanos probably of Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century; the words Spain and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately. Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used; the Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different indigenous tribes, in addition to Italian colonists. Some famous Hispani and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, or the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families.
Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic: Hispania was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire province and thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century. Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania. Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world the Americas, Pacific Islands and Asia, such as the Philippines and Guam. Spanish is used to refer to the people, culture and other things of Spain. Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain. Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula; this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In 27 B. C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis; this division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.
Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, the Kingdom of Navarre—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote; the word Lusitanian, relates to Lusitania or Portugal in reference to the Lusitanians one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, Lusitania remains the name of Portugal in Latin; the terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. Spain was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms, with separate governments, languages and customs, was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity. Spain was not a political entity until much and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today.
The term The Spains referred to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation. Although colloquially and the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-state, it was only in the constitution of 1812, adopted the name Españas for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain"; the expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements in the Americas, but in other distant parts of the world, producing
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chicano or Chicana is a chosen identity of some Mexican Americans in the United States. The term Chicano is sometimes used interchangeably with Mexican-American. Both names are chosen identities within the Mexican-American community in the United States; the term became used during the Chicano Movement by Mexican Americans to express pride in a shared cultural and community identity. The term Chicano had negative connotations before the Chicano Movement, still is viewed negatively and archaic by more conservative members of this community. Over time, it has gained some acceptance as an identity of pride within the Mexican-American community in the United States; the pro-indigenous/Mestizo nature of Chicano nationalism is cemented in the idea of mestizaje. It was the experience of Mexican Americans in the United States which culminated in the creation of a Chicano identity; the Chicano poet and writer Tino Villanueva traced the first documented use of the term as an ethnonym to 1911, as referenced in a then-unpublished essay by University of Texas anthropologist José Limón.
Linguists Edward R. Simmen and Richard F. Bauerle report the use of the term in an essay by Mexican-American writer, Mario Suárez, published in the Arizona Quarterly in 1947. In 1857, a gunboat, the Chicana, was sold to Jose Maria Carvajal to ship arms on the Rio Grande; the King and Kenedy firm submitted a voucher to the Joint Claims Commission of the United States in 1870 to cover the costs of this gunboat's conversion from a passenger steamer. No particular explanation of the boat's name is known; the origin of the word "chicano" is disputed. Some claim; the name Mexica as spoken in its original Nahuatl, Mexico by the Spaniards at the time of the Conquistadors, was pronounced with a and was transcribed with an x during this time period. According to this etymological hypothesis, the difference between the pronunciation and spelling of chicano and mexicano stems from the fact that the modern-day Spanish language experienced a change in pronunciation regarding a majority of words containing the x.
In most cases the has been a change of spelling. The word Chicano would have been affected by this change. Many Chicanos replace the ch with the letter x, forming Xicano, due to the original spelling of the Mexica Empire. In the United States, some Mexican-Americans choose the Xicano spelling to emphasize their indigenous ancestry. In Mexico's indigenous regions and Westernized natives are referred to as mexicanos, referring to the modern nation, rather than the pueblo identification of the speaker, be it Mayan, Mixtec, Huasteco, or any of hundreds of other indigenous groups. Thus, a newly emigrated Nahuatl speaker in an urban center might referred to his cultural relatives in this country, different from himself, as mexicanos, shortened to chicanos; the Handbook of Texas combines the two ideas: According to one explanation, the pre-Columbian tribes in Mexico called themselves Meshicas, the Spaniards, employing the letter x, spelled it Mexicas. The Indians referred to themselves as Meshicanos and as Shicanos, thus giving birth to the term Chicano.
Some believe that the early 20th-century Hispanic Texan epithet chicamo shifted into chicano to reflect the grammatical conventions of Spanish-language ethno- and demonyms, such as americano and peruano. However, Chicanos do not agree that chicamo was a word used within the culture, as its assertion is thus far unsubstantiated. Therefore, most self-identifying Chicanos do not agree that Chicano was derived from the word chicamo. Another hypothesis is that chicano derives from the indigenous population of Guanajuato, the Chichimecas, combined with the word Mexicano. An alternative idea is that it is an altered form of Chilango, meaning someone from Mexico City or Central Mexico. A similar notion is that the word derives from Chichen Itza, the Mayan temple ruin and its associated culture in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. Chicano would thus be a Hispanized word for Chichen and Mayans, rather than the Aztec or Nahua people. Chicanos, like many Mexicans, are Mestizos who have heritage of both indigenous American cultures and European Spanish, through colonization and immigration.
The term Latino refers to a native or inhabitant of Latin America or a person of Latin American origin living in the U. S. Hispanic refers to Spain, but, in effect, to those of Spanish-speaking descent; the term was first brought up in the 1970s but it was not until the 1990s that the term was used on the U. S. Census. Since it has been used by politicians and the media; the correct amalgamation is Latin American or Latin Americans, as coined by the Portuguese in the 17th century. The term's meanings are debatable, but self-described Chicanos view the term as a positive, self-identifying social construction. Outside of Mexican-American communities, within them, Chicano has sometimes been considered pejorative by those who do not prefer the term. Regardless, its implications are subjective, but usually
The Pacific Northwest, sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common conception includes the Canadian province of British Columbia and the U. S. states of Idaho and Washington. Broader conceptions reach north into Southeast Alaska and Yukon, south into northern California, east to the Continental Divide to include Western Montana and parts of Wyoming. Narrower conceptions may be limited to the coastal areas west of the Coast mountains; the variety of definitions can be attributed to overlapping commonalities of the region's history, geography and other factors. The Northwest Coast is the coastal region of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Plateau is the inland region; the term "Pacific Northwest" should not be confused with the Northwest Territory or the Northwest Territories of Canada. The region's largest metropolitan areas are Greater Seattle, with 3.8 million people.
A key aspect of the Pacific Northwest is the US–Canada international border, which the United States and the United Kingdom established at a time when the region's inhabitants were composed of indigenous peoples. The border—in two sections, along the 49th parallel south of British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle west of northern British Columbia—has had a powerful effect on the region. According to Canadian historian Ken Coates, the border has not influenced the Pacific Northwest—rather, "the region's history and character have been determined by the boundary". Definitions of the Pacific Northwest region vary, Pacific Northwesterners do not agree on the exact boundary; the most common conception includes the U. S. states of Idaho and Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader definitions of the region have included the U. S. states of Alaska and parts of the states of California and Wyoming, the Canadian territory of the Yukon. Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide, thus including all of Idaho and parts of western Montana and western Wyoming.
Sometimes, the Pacific Northwest is defined as being the Northwestern United States excluding Canada. Note that these types of definitions are made by government agencies whose scope is limited to the United States; the Pacific Northwest has been occupied by a diverse array of indigenous peoples for millennia. The Pacific Coast is seen by some scholars as a major coastal migration route in the settlement of the Americas by late Pleistocene peoples moving from northeast Asia into the Americas; the coastal migration hypothesis has been bolstered by findings such as the report that the sediments in the Port Eliza Cave on Vancouver Island indicate the possibility of survivable climate as far back as 16 kya in the area, while the continental ice sheets were nearing their maximum extent. Other evidence for human occupation dating back as much as 14.5 kya is emerging from Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon. However, despite such research, the coastal migration hypothesis is still subject to considerable debate.
Due in part to the richness of Pacific Northwest Coast and river fisheries, some of the indigenous peoples developed complex sedentary societies, while remaining hunter-gatherers. The Pacific Northwest Coast is one of the few places where politically complex hunter-gatherers evolved and survived to historic contacts, therefore has been vital for anthropologists and archaeologists seeking to understand how complex hunter and gatherer societies function; when Europeans first arrived on the Northwest Coast, they found one of the world's most complex hunting and fishing societies, with large sedentary villages, large houses, systems of social rank and prestige, extensive trade networks, many other factors more associated with societies based on domesticated agriculture. In the interior of the Pacific Northwest, the indigenous peoples, at the time of European contact, had a diversity of cultures and societies; some areas were home to egalitarian societies. Others along major rivers such as the Columbia and Fraser, had complex, sedentary societies rivaling those of the coast.
In British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, the Tlingit and Haida erected large and elaborately carved totem poles that have become iconic of Pacific Northwest artistic traditions. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, thousands of indigenous people live, some continue to practice their rich cultural traditions, "organizing their societies around cedar and salmon". In 1579 the British captain and erstwhile privateer Francis Drake sailed up the west coast of North America as far as Oregon before returning south to land and make ship repairs. At this landing site near present-day San Francisco, Drake made a symbolic claim of the region for England, naming it New Albion. Juan de Fuca, a Greek captain sailing for the Crown of Spain found the Strait of Juan de Fuca around 1592; the strait was whether he discovered it or not has long been questioned. During the early 1740s, Imperial Russia sent the Dane Vitus Bering to the region. By the late 18th century and into the mid-19th century, Russian settlers had established several posts and communities on the northeast Pacific coast reaching a
Day of the Dead
The Day of the Dead is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico, in particular the Central and South regions, by people of Mexican heritage elsewhere. The multi-day holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died, help support their spiritual journey. In the Mexican culture death is viewed has a natural part of the human cycle, they view it has a day of celebration, they celebrate with them. They don't view it as a day of sadness but as a day of celebration. In 2008, the tradition was inscribed in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO; the holiday is sometimes called Día de los Muertos in Anglophone countries, a back-translation of its original name, Día de Muertos. It is celebrated in Mexico where the day is a public holiday. Prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century, the celebration took place at the beginning of summer, it was associated with October 31, November 1, November 2 to coincide with the Western Christianity triduum of Allhallowtide: All Saints' Eve, All Saints' Day, All Souls' Day.
Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars called ofrendas, honoring the deceased using calaveras, aztec marigolds, the favorite foods and beverages of the departed, visiting graves with these as gifts. Visitors leave possessions of the deceased at the graves. Scholars trace the origins of the modern Mexican holiday to indigenous observances dating back hundreds of years and to an Aztec festival dedicated to the goddess Mictecacihuatl; the holiday has spread throughout the world, being absorbed into other deep traditions in honor of the dead. It has become as such is taught in the nation's schools. Many families celebrate a traditional "All Saints' Day" associated with the Catholic Church; the Day of the Dead as such was not celebrated in northern Mexico, where it was unknown until the 20th century because its indigenous people had different traditions. The people and the church rejected it as a day related to syncretizing pagan elements with Catholic Christianity, they held the traditional'All Saints' Day' in the same way as other Christians in the world.
There was limited Mesoamerican influence in this region, few indigenous inhabitants from the regions of Southern Mexico, where the holiday was celebrated. In the early 21st century in northern Mexico, Día de Muertos is observed because the Mexican government made it a national holiday based on educational policies from the 1960s; the Mexican Day of the Dead celebration is similar to other societies' observances of a time to honor the dead. The Spanish tradition know as'All Saints Day' celebrates in similar ways, for instance they celebrate with festivals and parades, as well as gatherings of families at cemeteries to pray for their deceased loved ones at the end of the day; the Day of the Dead celebrations in Mexico developed from ancient traditions among its pre-Columbian cultures. Rituals celebrating the deaths of ancestors had been observed by these civilizations for as long as 2,500–3,000 years; the festival that developed into the modern Day of the Dead fell in the ninth month of the Aztec calendar, about the beginning of August, was celebrated for an entire month.
The festivities were dedicated to the goddess known as the "Lady of the Dead", corresponding to the modern La Calavera Catrina. By the late 20th century in most regions of Mexico, practices had developed to honor dead children and infants on November 1, to honor deceased adults on November 2. November 1 is referred to as Día de los Inocentes but as Día de los Angelitos. In the 2015 James Bond film, the opening sequence features a Day of the Dead parade in Mexico City. At the time, no such parade took place in Mexico City. Frances Ann Day summarizes the three-day celebration, the Day of the Dead: People go to cemeteries to be with the souls of the departed and build private altars containing the favorite foods and beverages, as well as photos and memorabilia, of the departed; the intent is to encourage visits by the souls, so the souls will hear the prayers and the comments of the living directed to them. Celebrations can take a humorous tone, as celebrants remember funny events and anecdotes about the departed.
Plans for the day are made throughout the year, including gathering the goods to be offered to the dead. During the three-day period families clean and decorate graves. In modern Mexico the marigold is sometimes called Flor de Muerto; these flowers are thought to attract souls of the dead to the offerings. It is believed the bright petals with a strong scent can guide the souls from cemeteries to their family homes. Toys are brought for dead children, bottles of tequila, mezcal or pulque or jars of atole for adults. Families
Mexican Americans are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent. As of July 2016, Mexican Americans made up 11.2% of the United States' population, as 36.3 million U. S. residents identified as being of partial Mexican ancestry. As of July 2016, Mexican Americans comprised 63.2% of all Latinos in Americans in the United States. Many Mexican Americans reside in the American Southwest; as of 2016, Mexicans make up 53% of total percent population of Latin foreign-born. Mexicans are the largest foreign-born population, accounting for 25% of the total foreign-born population, as of 2017; the United States is home to the second-largest Mexican community in the world, second only to Mexico itself, comprising more than 24% of the entire Mexican-origin population of the world. Mexican American families of indigenous heritage have been in the country for at least 15,000 years, mestizo Mexican American history spans more than 400 years, since the 1598 founding of Spanish New Mexico. Spanish subjects of New Spain in the Southwest included New Mexican Hispanos and Pueblo Indians and Genizaros, Tejanos and Mission Indians have existed since the area was part of New Spain.
The majority of these primarily Hispanophone populations adopted English as their first language as part of their overall Americanization. Ten percent of the current Mexican-American population are descended from the early colonial settlers who became U. S. citizens in 1848 via the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican–American War. Although most of the original Mexican American population were deemed white citizens by the treaty, they have faced and continue to face discrimination in the form of Anti-Mexican sentiment and Hispanophobia rooted in the idea that Mexicans were "too Indian" to be citizens. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were not honored by the U. S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty. Continuous large-scale migration after the 1910 Mexican Revolution, added to this original population. During the Great Depression, Mexican Americans were scapegoated and subjected to an ethnic cleansing campaign of mass deportation which affected an estimated 500,000 to two million people.
In violation of immigration law, the federal government allowed state and local governments to unilaterally deport citizens without due process. An estimated 85% of those ethnically cleansed were United States citizens, with 60% being birthright citizens; the remaining population became more homogenous and politically active during the New Deal — which excluded Mexican Americans — and World War II era, which brought about the guest-worker Bracero Program. The 1965 Delano grape strike, sparked by Filipino American farmworkers, became an intersectional struggle when labor leaders and voting rights and civil rights activists Dolores Huerta, founder of the National Farm Workers Association, her co-leader César Chávez united with the strikers to form the United Farm Workers. Huerta's slogan "Sí, se puede", was popularized by Chávez's fast and became a rallying cry for the Chicano Movement, or Mexican American civil rights movement; the Chicano movement aimed for a variety of civil rights reforms, was inspired by the civil rights movement.
The Chicano walkouts of antiwar students is traditionally seen as the start of the more radical phase of the Chicano movement. Immigration from Mexico increased in the 1980s and 1990s, peaking in the mid-2000s. In 2008, "Sí, se puede" was adopted as the 2008 campaign slogan of Barack Obama, whose election and reelection as the first African American president underlined the growing importance of the Mexican American vote; the Great Recession led to a severe loss in Mexican American wealth, immigration from Mexico decreased. The failure of presidents of both parties to properly enact immigration reform in the United States led to an increased polarization of how to handle an diverse population as Mexican Americans spread out from traditional centers in the Southwest and Chicago. In 2015, the United States admitted 157,227 Mexican immigrants, as of November 2016, 1.31 million Mexicans were on the waiting list to immigrate to the United States through legal means. In 1900, there were more than 500,000 Hispanics of Mexican descent living in New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado and Texas.
Most were Mexican Americans of Spanish descent and other Hispanicized European settlers who settled in the Southwest during Spanish colonial times, as well as local and Mexican Indians. As early as 1813, some of the Tejanos who colonized Texas in the Spanish Colonial Period established a government in Texas that desired independence from Spanish-ruled Mexico. In those days, there was no concept of identity as Mexican. Many Mexicans were more loyal to their states/provinces than to their country as a whole, a colony of Spain; this was true in frontier regions such as Zacatecas, Yucatán, New Mexico, etc. As shown by the writings of colonial Tejanos such as Antonio Menchaca, the Texas Revolution was a colonial Tejano cause. Mexico encouraged immigration from the United States to settle east Texas and, by 1831, English-speaking settlers outnumbered Tejanos ten to one in the re