The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
Lanzarote is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is located 125 kilometres off the north coast of Africa and 1,000 kilometres from the Iberian Peninsula. Covering 845.94 square kilometres, Lanzarote is the fourth-largest of the islands in the archipelago. With 149,183 inhabitants, it is the third most populous Canary Island, after Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Located in the centre-west of the island is Timanfaya National Park, one of its main attractions; the island was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in 1993. The island's capital is Arrecife; the first recorded name for the island, given by Italian-Majorcan cartographer Angelino Dulcert, was Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus, after the Genoese navigator Lancelotto Malocello, from which the modern name is derived. The island's name in the native language was Tyterogaka or Tytheroygaka, which may mean "one, all ochre". Lanzarote is located 11 kilometres north-east of Fuerteventura and just over 1 kilometre from Graciosa.
The dimensions of the island are 60 kilometres from north to south and 25 kilometres from west to east. Lanzarote has 213 kilometres of coastline, of which 10 kilometres are sand, 16.5 kilometres are beach, the remainder is rocky. Its landscape includes the mountain ranges of Famara in Ajaches to the south. South of the Famara massif is the El Jable desert, which separates Montañas del Fuego; the highest peak is Peñas del Chache. The "Tunnel of Atlantis", the largest underwater volcanic tunnel in the world, is part of the Cueva de los Verdes lava tube. Called the "Island of Eternal Spring", Lanzarote has a subtropical-desert climate according to the Köppen climatic classification; the small amount of precipitation is concentrated in the winter. Rainfall during summer is a rare phenomenon and several summers are dry without any precipitation. On average the island receives 16 days of precipitation between December and February. Sometimes, the hot sirocco wind prevails, causing dusty conditions across the island.
Average precipitation in June and August is less than 0.5 millimetres. It borders on a tropical climate, with winter means of 18 °C and summer means of 25 °C. Lanzarote is the northernmost and easternmost island of the Canary Islands and has a volcanic origin, it was born through fiery eruptions and has solidified lava streams as well as extravagant rock formations. The island emerged about 15 million years ago as product of the Canary hotspot; the island, along with others, emerged after the breakup of the African and the American continental plates. The greatest recorded eruptions occurred between 1730 and 1736 in the area now designated Timanfaya National Park; as of 2018, 149,183 people live on Lanzarote, an increase of 9.4% from 2006. The seat of the island government is in the capital, which has a population of 59,000. According to the census of 2006, the majority of the inhabitants are Spanish with a sizeable number of residents from other nations, notably Colombians, Moroccans and Irish.
Other populous groups include Chinese people and Indians, which constitute a large proportion of the remaining 15.6% of the population. The island has an international airport, Arrecife Airport, through which 5,438,178 passengers travelled in 2008. Tourism has been the mainstay of the island's economy for over 40 years, the only other industry being agriculture. Lanzarote is part of the province of Las Palmas, is divided into seven municipalities: Arrecife Haría San Bartolomé Teguise Tías Tinajo Yaiza There are five hundred different kinds of plants on the island, of which 17 species are endemic; these plants have adapted to the relative scarcity of water in the same way as succulents. They include the Canary Island date palm, found in damper areas of the north, the Canary Island pine and wild olive trees. Laurisilva trees, which once covered the highest parts of Risco de Famara, are found today. After winter rainfall, the vegetation comes to a colourful bloom between March; the vineyards of La Gería, Lanzarote DO wine region, are a protected area.
Single vines are planted in pits 4–5 metres wide and 2–3 metres deep, with small stone walls around each pit. This agricultural technique is designed to harvest rainfall and overnight dew and to protect the plants from the winds. There are 180 different species of lichen-forming fungi; these survive in the suitable areas like rock surfaces, promote weathering. Apart from the native bats and the mammals which accompanied humans to the island, there are few vertebrate species on Lanzarote; these include reptiles. Some interesting endemic animals are the Gallotia lizards and the blind Munidopsis polymorpha crabs found in the Jameos del Agua lagoon, formed by a volcanic eruption; the island is home to one of two surviving populations of the threatened Canarian Egyptian vulture. The official natural symbols associated with Lanzarote are Munidopsis polymorpha and Euphorbi
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C. The structures resulting from subsequent solidification and cooling are sometimes described as lava; the molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption; when it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is shortened to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties. Explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows; the word lava comes from Italian, is derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide.
The first use in connection with extruded magma was in a short account written by Francesco Serao on the eruption of Vesuvius in 1737. Serao described "a flow of fiery lava" as an analogy to the flow of water and mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain; the composition of all lava of the Earth's crust is dominated by silicate minerals feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles and quartz. Igneous rocks, which form lava flows when erupted, can be classified into three chemical types: felsic and mafic; these classes are chemical, the chemistry of lava tends to correlate with the magma temperature, its viscosity and its mode of eruption. Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and dacite form lava spines, lava domes or "coulees" and are associated with pyroclastic deposits. Most silicic lava flows are viscous, fragment as they extrude, producing blocky autobreccias; the high viscosity and strength are the result of their chemistry, high in silica, potassium and calcium, forming a polymerized liquid rich in feldspar and quartz, thus has a higher viscosity than other magma types.
Felsic magmas can erupt at temperatures as low as 650 to 750 °C. Unusually hot rhyolite lavas, may flow for distances of many tens of kilometres, such as in the Snake River Plain of the northwestern United States. Intermediate or andesitic lavas are lower in aluminium and silica, somewhat richer in magnesium and iron. Intermediate lavas form andesite domes and block lavas, may occur on steep composite volcanoes, such as in the Andes. Poorer in aluminium and silica than felsic lavas, commonly hotter, they tend to be less viscous. Greater temperatures tend to destroy polymerized bonds within the magma, promoting more fluid behaviour and a greater tendency to form phenocrysts. Higher iron and magnesium tends to manifest as a darker groundmass, occasionally amphibole or pyroxene phenocrysts. Mafic or basaltic lavas are typified by their high ferromagnesian content, erupt at temperatures in excess of 950 °C. Basaltic magma is high in iron and magnesium, has lower aluminium and silica, which taken together reduces the degree of polymerization within the melt.
Owing to the higher temperatures, viscosities can be low, although still thousands of times higher than water. The low degree of polymerization and high temperature favors chemical diffusion, so it is common to see large, well-formed phenocrysts within mafic lavas. Basalt lavas tend to produce low-profile shield volcanoes or "flood basalt fields", because the fluidal lava flows for long distances from the vent; the thickness of a basalt lava on a low slope, may be much greater than the thickness of the moving lava flow at any one time, because basalt lavas may "inflate" by supply of lava beneath a solidified crust. Most basalt lavas are of pāhoehoe types, rather than block lavas. Underwater, they can form pillow lavas, which are rather similar to entrail-type pahoehoe lavas on land. Ultramafic lavas such as komatiite and magnesian magmas that form boninite take the composition and temperatures of eruptions to the extreme. Komatiites contain over 18% magnesium oxide, are thought to have erupted at temperatures of 1,600 °C.
At this temperature there is no polymerization of the mineral compounds, creating a mobile liquid. Most if not all ultramafic lavas are no younger than the Proterozoic, with a few ultramafic magmas known from the Phanerozoic. No modern komatiite lavas are known, as the Earth's mantle has cooled too much to produce magnesian magmas; some lavas of unusual composition have erupted onto the surface of the Earth. These include: Carbonatite and natrocarbonatite lavas are known from Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, the sole example of an active carbonatite volcano. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the source of the iron ore at Kiruna, Sweden which formed during the Proterozoic. Iron oxide lavas of Pliocene age occur at the El Laco volcanic complex on the Chile-Argentina border. Iron oxide lavas are thought to be the result of immiscible separation of iron oxide magma from a parental magma of calc-alkaline or alkaline composition. Sulfur lava flows up to 250 metres 10 metres wide occur at Lastarria volcano, Chile.
They were formed by the melting of sulfur deposits at temperatures as low as 113 °C
A strait is a formed, narrow navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most it is a channel of water that lies between two land masses; some straits are not navigable, for example because they are too shallow, or because of an unnavigable reef or archipelago. The terms channel, pass or passage, can be synonymous and used interchangeably with strait, although each is sometimes differentiated with varying senses. In Scotland firth or kyle are sometimes used as synonyms for strait. Many straits are economically important. Straits can be important shipping wars have been fought for control of them. Numerous artificial channels, called canals, have been constructed to connect two bodies of water over land, such as the Suez Canal. Although rivers and canals provide passage between two large lakes or a lake and a sea, these seem to suit the formal definition of strait, they are not referred to as such; the term strait is reserved for much larger, wider features of the marine environment.
There are exceptions, with straits being called Pearse Canal, for example. Straits are the converse of isthmuses; that is, while a strait lies between two land masses and connects two larger bodies of water, an isthmus lies between two bodies of water and connects two larger land masses. Some straits have the potential to generate significant tidal power using tidal stream turbines. Tides are more predictable than wind power; the Pentland Firth may be capable of generating 10 GW. Cook Strait in New Zealand may be capable of generating 5.6 GW though the total energy available in the flow is 15 GW. Straits used for international navigation through the territorial sea between one part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone and another part of the high seas or an exclusive economic zone are subject to the legal regime of transit passage; the regime of innocent passage applies in straits used for international navigation that connect a part of high seas or an exclusive economic zone with the territorial sea of coastal nation and in straits formed by an island of a state bordering the strait and its mainland if there exists seaward of the island a route through the high seas or through an exclusive economic zone of similar convenience with respect to navigational and hydrographical characteristics.
There may be no suspension of innocent passage through such straits. List of straits Strait passage Media related to Straits at Wikimedia Commons
César Manrique was a Spanish artist, sculptor and activist from Lanzarote. Manrique was born in Arrecife, one of the Canary Islands, he fought in the Spanish Civil War as a volunteer in the artillery unit on Franco's side. He attended the University of La Laguna to study architecture, but after two years he quit his studies, he moved to Madrid in 1945 and received a scholarship for the Art School of San Fernando, where he graduated as a teacher of art and painting. Between 1964 and 1966 he lived in New York City, where a grant from Nelson Rockefeller allowed him to rent his own studio, he painted many works in New York, which were exhibited in the prestigious "Catherine Viviano" gallery. Manrique returned to Lanzarote in 1966, his legacy on the island includes his Volcano House, Taro de Tahiche, the restaurant at the restored Castillo de San José at Arrecife, his Palm Grove House at Haria, the art and tourism centre at Jameos del Agua, the Mirador del Rio and the Jardin de Cactus at Guatiza. He had a major influence on the planning regulations on Lanzarote following his recognition of its potential for tourism and lobbied to encourage the sustainable development of the industry.
One aspect of this is the lack of high rise hotels on the island. Those that are there are in keeping with the use of traditional colours in their exterior decoration. Manrique died in a car accident at Tahíche, Teguise near the Fundación, his Lanzarote home, in 1992, he was aged 73. The César Manrique foundation was set up in 1982 by César Manrique and a group of friends but wasn't opened until 1992 after Manrique died; the foundation, based at Manrique's home, following his move to a townhouse in the North of the Island, is a private, non-profit organisation set-up to allow tourists access to Manrique's home. The foundation is an art-gallery featuring art created by Manrique himself as well as Art that he acquired during his life; the gallery includes original sketches by Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró. The money the foundation takes from ticket sales goes toward raising awareness about the art of Lanzarote, as well as being used to fund the foundation's "artistic and environmental activities".
Manrique's home itself is built within a 3,000 m2 lot, on the site of the Lanzarote eruptions in the 18th century, was created upon Manrique's return from New York City in 1966. The rooms on the first floor, including the artist studios, were created with the intention of keeping with Lanzarote traditions, yet making them more modern with open spaces and large windows; the "ground floor", more appropriately titled the "basement", contains five areas situated within volcanic bubbles, the rooms bored into volcanic basalt. There is a central cave which houses a recreational area, including a swimming pool, a barbecue and a small dance floor. Once outside the main house, the visitor comes to the outside area, where there is a small square with a fountain in the middle before approaching a small café area and the visitor shop; this area was once César Manrique's garage. One of the foundation's fundamental missions is to oppose the spread of high-rise concrete across the Spanish coastline and her island.
The foundation brought attention to 24 illegally erected hotels in Lanzarote.. 1978 Weltpreis für Ökologie und Tourismus, Germany 1986 Europa Nostra Prize European parliament 1989 Art Prize, Canarian government 1989 Fritz Schumacher Prize at the University of Hanover, Germany In Lanzarote: Casa / Museo César Manrique. Mirador del Rio. Jameos del Agua. Jardín de Cactus. Taro de Tahíche. International Museum of Contemporary Arts in the Castillo de San José, Arrecife. Garden and swimming pools of the five-star hotel Las Salinas in Costa Teguise. El triunfador. Juguetes del viento. El Diablo, symbol of the Timanfaya National Park. El Diablo Restaurant. Outside Lanzarote: Lago Martiánez. Playa Jardin. La Peña. Mirador del Palmarejo. Canarian Pavilion. Parque Marítimo César Manrique, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife César, Manrique Arquitectura inédita Lancelot Internacional, Especial: César Manrique, Lanzarote, 3. Revisada 1996, Lanzarote. Idiomas: Español, Inglés y Alemán. Http://www.cesarmanrique.com http://www.fcmanrique.org Opening Timings 360° Panoramic vtour of the Lago Martiánez and pools
Graciosa, Canary Islands
Graciosa Island or La Graciosa is a volcanic island in the Canary Islands of Spain, located 2 km north of the island of Lanzarote across the strait named El Río. It was formed by the Canary hotspot; the island is part of the Chinijo Archipelago Natural Park. It is administrated by the municipality of Teguise; the only two settlements are Caleta de Sebo in the southeastern part of the island and summer-residence Casas de Pedro Barba. The population is about 600. Tourism is the main industry along with fishing; every year, tourists flock to the island for its sandy volcanic coasts. The island has a school, post office, medical center, pharmacy, a Bankia bank branch, beaches, bar-restaurants and a square. Streets and roads on La Graciosa are unpaved sand. Motor vehicles are prohibited and limited to a handful of licensed vehicles for special purposes. Access to the Island is by a 35-minute ferry crossing from Orzola on Lanzarote to the harbour in the village. There is a campsite on the Island situated on Playa del Salado at the western edge of Caleta del Sebo.
The island is arid and made up of bushes and dry soil. Its length is 8 km and the width is 4 km, making an area of 29 km2. There are no natural water sources on the island. There are several isolated mountains on the island, the tallest of, Agujas Grandes rising to 266 m; the second tallest is Agujas Chicas at 228 m. Playa de la Cocina is a well known beach in the southwestern part of the island. R. Pott, J. Hüppe, W. Wildpret de la Torre, Die Kanarischen Inseln. Natur- und Kulturlandschaften, Ulmer Eugen Verlag, 2003, ISBN 9783800132843