Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Bataguassu is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Its population was 19,171 and it's area is 2,417 km²; the town was founded by Jan Antonín Baťa, the king of shoes, in 1932. Compared to Anaurilândia and Bataiporã, Bataguassu is a larger settlement. Besides housing, there are various buildings built to support the town's people. Other towns in Brazil linked to Bata: Mariápolis Anaurilândia Batatuba Bataiporã
Mato Grosso do Sul
Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the Midwestern states of Brazil. Its total area of 357,125 square kilometers, or 137,891 square miles, is the same size as Germany. Neighboring Brazilian states are Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná, it borders the countries of Paraguay, to the southwest, Bolivia, to the west. The economy of the state is based on agriculture and cattle-raising. Crossed in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul has a warm, sometimes hot, humid climate, is crossed by numerous tributaries of the Paraná River; the state is known for its natural environment, is a destination for domestic and international tourism. The Pantanal lowlands cover 12 municipalities and presents a variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, open pasture and bushes; the city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caves, natural rivers, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cave. The name Mato Grosso do Sul is Portuguese for "Thick Bushes of the South".
It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as "Mato Grosso". Other names that were proposed, at the time of the split and afterwards, include "Pantanal" and "Maracaju". Mato Grosso do Sul has humid tropical climates; the average annual rainfall is 1471.1 mm. January is the warmest month, with minimum of 24 °C and more rain; the "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found. Alpine pastures occur at mesophytic forests on more fertile soils; the "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, leaves which are broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients; the plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.
The state is located in western Brazil, in a region occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande; the first peoples or indigenous peoples of Mato Grosso do Sul occupying the Nhande Ru Marangatu tropical rainforested area, are the Guarani-Kaiowá, first contacted by non-indigenous peoples in the 1800s. In October 11, 1977, the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso, its status as a state went into full effect two years on January 1, 1979. The new state incorporated the former territory of Ponta Porã and the northern part of the former territory of Iguaçu. According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 2,372,000 people residing in the state; the population density was 6.4 hab./km². Urbanization: 84.7%. In the Cerrado areas in the south and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of Spanish, Portuguese and Slavic descent. According to an autosomal DNA study from 2008, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is 73,60% European, 13,90% African and 12,40% Native American.
According to a 2013 DNA study, the ancestral composition of Mato Grosso do Sul is: 58.8% European, 25.9% African and 15.3% Amerindian ancestries, respectively. The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector at 22.7%. Agriculture represents 31.2%, of GDP. Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean 34.9%, pork and chicken 20.9%, beef 13.7%, ores 8%, leather 7.4%, timber 5.1%. Share of the Brazilian economy: 1%. Vehicles: 835,259, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Brazil a country of all, in the Center-West Region does not have structure to have large tourist port much less is well positioned. There are more than 44 universities in whole state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados Universidade Católica Dom Bosco Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal It's a film festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004.
It focuses on the independent cinema presenting foreign films as well. It presents regional films and short films; as of 2011 the festival is suspended. "Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Boni
Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil, it has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people. The region where the city is located was in the past a waypoint for travellers who wanted to go from São Paulo or Minas Gerais to northern Mato Grosso by land. In the early 1900s a railway was completed connecting Campo Grande to Corumbá, on the Bolivian border, to Bauru, São Paulo. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Western Brazilian Army Headquarters was established in Campo Grande, making it an important military center. With a population growth from 140,000 people in 1970 to 750,000 people in 2008, Campo Grande is the third largest urban center of the Center-West region, the 23rd largest city in the country. In 1977, the State of Mato Grosso was split into two, Campo Grande became the capital of the new state of Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising the southern portion of the former state.
By that time, Campo Grande had long surpassed the latter's capital city of Cuiabá in population, unusual in Brazil, where most capitals are the states' largest cities. Today, the city has its own culture, a mixture of several ethnic groups, most notably immigrants from the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, Middle Easterners, Portuguese people, Italians and Paraguayans mixed with Asian and White Brazilians from the Brazilian Southern and Southeast regions, its native Amerindian peoples and Afro-Brazilians. Campo Grande started as a small village founded in 1877 by farmers José Antônio Pereira and Manoel Vieira de Sousa, who came from Minas Gerais just after the end of the Paraguayan War, they founded the village, known at that time as Santo Antônio de Campo Grande, near the Serra de Maracaju cliffs, at the confluence of two streams named Prosa and Segredo, whose courses now coincide with two of the city's most important avenues. In the end of 1877, the founder built the village's first church.
The aligned houses formed the first street, known as Rua Velha, today Rua 26 de Agosto. This street ended where today one finds a square in honor of the immigrants that came to the city; the city started to develop fast because of its privileged climate and location. These factors drew people from other regions of the country the South, the Southeast and the Northeast regions; the settlement was recognized as a municipality by the State Government on August 26, 1899 and renamed Campo Grande. Campo Grande has a tropical savanna climate, with a mild appearance of cold air masses on the southern edge of the tropics, it has semi-humid, hot summers, notably seasonal, with a dry winter season from June through September, but without major irregularities. In the precipitation, its altitude a few hundred meters higher than in the surrounding swamps and its location in the interior of South America, gives a much more extreme climate than several Brazilian cities, although still moderate. In addition, the flood is one of the problems seen in the city, the result of intense rains that occur in a short period.
Annual rainfall averages 1,465 millimetres. January is the warmest and rainiest month, with mean highs of 29 °C and lows of 20 °C. July brings on sunny days but cooler temperatures, with mean highs of 25 °C and lows of 4 °C. Occasional near-freezing temperatures can occur on winter's coldest nights; the vegetation in Campo Grande and Central Brazil is a tropical savanna called "Cerrado" that varies from pure grassland to a nearly closed canopy of medium height trees overlying grass. Since forest is the expected climax vegetation there, several theories have been given to explain the types of grassland present; the most promising of these involve differences in soil properties, but only a few sites have been used for evaluation. The 1960s marked the beginning of the expansion of large-scale agriculture across the Cerrado; the state is one of the largest producers of soy beans in the world. The municipality contains the 178 hectares Matas do Segredo State Park, created in 2000 to protect an area of cerrado forest.
It contains the 135 hectares Prosa State Park, created in 2002. Most of the city's active labor is absorbed by the tertiary sector. In spite of that, the primary and secondary sectors agribusiness, still play an important role in the local economy; the farming of bovine livestock supplies local slaughterhouses, which in turn allows Campo Grande to export meat to other states in Brazil and abroad. In addition to food processing and agribusiness and non-metallic mineral processing are important; the area's most important crops are soy and manioc. Sugar cane is becoming important as well. According to IBGE, Campo Grande has a total of 11,657 1,300 industrial enterprises; the city's GDP was R$20,7 billion in 2013, ranks as the richest city in the state, the third in the Central-West region of the country, the 33rd richest in Brazil. Per capita income was R$24.839 in 2013. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
The city has several universities. The most notable ones are: Universida
Cassilândia is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Its population was 21,491 and its area is 3,650 km². Cassilândia is located in the northeastern part of the state, in the border with Goiás State and is surrounded by beautiful landscapes, it has two universities, a private and a state one. The city is known by its famous rodeo party which takes place in late July, early August
Central-West Region, Brazil
The Central-West or Center-West Region of Brazil is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18.86% of the national territory. With the move of the country's federal capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília in the 1960s, the construction of roads and railways to the interior of the country made access to the region easier, speeding up population growth and contributing to the region's development. Mato Grosso do Sul was created in 1979, materializing the decision of the government to divide the called state of Mato Grosso in two states to facilitate to the administration and the development of the region. Today, Center-West is attracting much investment for agriculture and industries, people from Southeast and Southern Brazil. Brasília International Airport, Marechal Rondon International Airport, Campo Grande International Airport and Santa Genoveva Airport connects the Center-West region with many Brazilian cities and operates some international flights.
The Center-West is home to the University of Brasília, University Center of Brasília, Federal University of Goiás, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul and Federal University of Mato Grosso. The Center-West region is the least populated from Brazil. Mato GrossoA state with a flat landscape, alternating great chapadas and plain areas, Mato Grosso presents three different ecosystems: Cerrado and the Amazon Rainforest; the vegetation of the open pasture covers 40% of the state and the National Park Chapada dos Guimarães, with its caves, grottos and waterfalls. In the north is the Amazonian Rainforest, with a huge biodiversity covering half of the state and the Xingu National Park and the river Araguaia. Further south, the Pantanal, the world largest plain covered with water, is the habitat for a thousand species of animals, with many aquatic birds. Mato Grosso do SulThe Pantanal covers 12 municipalities and presents an enormous variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, open pasture and bushes.
The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caverns, natural rivers, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cavern. Mato Grosso do Sul has tropical climate; the annual rainfall is 1,500 mm. January is the warmest month, with minima of 24 °C and more rain; the "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. GoiásThe most populous state of the region, Goiás presents a landscape of chapadões. In the height of the drought, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the River Araguaia go down and brings up 2 km of beaches. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Chapadão do Céu, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and the flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás, at 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of the 18th century, Caldas Novas, known for its hot springs.
Federal DistrictLocated in the State of Goiás in a region called Planalto Central, the Federal District is divided in 31 administrative regions. Brasília - a place where the three branches of the Federal Government are located - is the main attraction of this dry area and climate with only two seasons; the rainy season is from October to March. During the dry season, the humidity can reach critical levels in the peak hours of the hottest days; the artificial lake of Paranoá, with 40 km² and 500 million m³ of water, was built to minimize the severe climatic conditions of the winter. The region attracts mystics and in its surroundings you find many temples of different religions and sectarian groups; the Central-West Region has 237 cities. The most populated are the following: The economy in the Central-West Region is based on cattle breeding, which took the place of gold and precious stone prospecting, which were local activities in the past. Brazil's largest manganese reserve is found in the Central-West Region in Urucum Woods and'political business' and tourism are very important to the region.
Vehicles: 3,944,768. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. University of Brasília Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Universidade Federal de Goiás Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul Tourism has grown at impressive speed in the last decades there, attracting visitors from several parts of Brazil and the world. Located in the middle of the vast Central Upland, the Central-West Region reveals how attractive the tours in the interior of the country can be. Starting in the west part of Mato Grosso do Sul State and the southeast part of Mato Grosso State, we have Pantanal Mato-grossense, its fauna and flora riches draw the attention of the world. In the same state, it's possible to take tours through pleasant places, such as Alta Floresta, where ecotourism is the greatest attraction.
Três Lagoas is a municipality in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. It is the third most populous city in that state. Founded in 1915, colonization began in 1880 by Luís Correia Neves Filho, Antônio Trajano dos Santos e Protásio Garcia Leal, it is named for three lakes in the region. The city itself has a population of 113,619 according to 2015 estimates; the city does not have pockets of poverty. Culturally different close to southern cultures, such as Gaucho and Catarinense. Large festivals are held here as well as rodeos; the city is served by Plínio Alarcom Airport. Roman Catholic Diocese of Três Lagoas José Luiz Barbosa