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A mire, peatland or quagmire is a wetland type, dominated by living peat-forming plants. Mires arise because of incomplete decomposition of organic matter litter from vegetation, due to water-logging and subsequent anoxia. All types of mires share the common characteristic of being saturated with water at least seasonally with forming peat, while having its own set of vegetation and organisms. Like coral reefs, mires are unusual landforms in that they derive from biological rather than physical processes, can take on characteristic shapes and surface patterning. A quagmire is a floating mire, bog or any peatland being in a stage of hydrosere or hydrarch succession, resulting in pond-filling yields underfoot. Ombrotrophic types of quagmire may be called quaking bog. Minerotrophic types can be named with the term quagfen. There are four types of mire: bog, fen and swamp. A bog is a mire that due to its location relative to the surrounding landscape obtains most of its water from rainfall, while a fen is located on a slope, flat, or depression and gets most of its water from soil- or groundwater.

Thus while a bog is always acidic and nutrient-poor, a fen may be acidic, neutral, or alkaline, either nutrient-poor or nutrient-rich. Although marshes are wetlands within which vegetation is rooted in mineral soil, some marshes form shallow peat deposits: these should be considered mires. Swamps are characterised by their forest canopy and, like fens, are of higher pH and nutrient availability than bogs; some bogs and fens can support limited tree growth on hummocks. The formation of mires today is controlled by climatic conditions, such as precipitation and temperature, although terrain relief is a major factor, as water-logging occurs more on flatter ground. However, there is a growing anthropogenic influence in the accumulation of peat and peatlands around the world. Topographically, mires elevate the ground surface above the original topography. Mires can reach considerable heights above the underlying mineral soil or bedrock: peat depths of above 10 m have been recorded in temperate regions, above 25 m in tropical regions.

When the absolute decay rate in the catotelm matches the rate of input of new peat into the catotelm, the mire will stop growing in height. A simplistic calculation, using typical values for a Sphagnum bog of 1 mm new peat added per year and 0.0001 proportion of the catotelm decaying per year, gives a maximum height of 10 m. More advanced analyses incorporate expectable nonlinear rates of catotelm decay. For botanists and ecologists, the term peatland is a more general term for any terrain dominated by peat to a depth of at least 30 cm if it has been drained. Mires, although at their greatest extent at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, are found around the globe. Estimating the extent of mire land cover worldwide is difficult due to the varying accuracy and methodologies of land surveys from many countries. However, mires occur wherever conditions are right for peat accumulation: where organic matter is waterlogged; the distribution of mires therefore depends on topography, parent material and time.

The type of mire - bog, fen or swamp - depends on each of these factors. The largest accumulations of mires, constituting around 64% of global peatlands, are found in the temperate and subarctic zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In polar regions, mires are shallow, because of the slow rate of accumulation of dead organic matter, contain permafrost. Large swathes of Canada, northern Europe and northern Russia are covered by boreal mires. In temperate areas mires are more scattered due to historical drainage and peat extraction, but can cover large areas. One example is blanket bog where precipitation is high. In the sub-tropics, mires are restricted to the wettest areas. In the tropics, mires can again be extensive underlying tropical rainforest, although tropical peat formation occurs in coastal mangroves, as well as in areas of high altitude. Tropical mires form where high precipitation is combined with poor conditions for drainage. Tropical mires account for around 11% of peatlands globally, are most found at low altitudes, although they can be found in mountainous regions, for example in South America and Papua New Guinea.

The world's largest tropical mire was found in the Central Congo Basin, covering 145,500 square kilometres and may store up to 30 petagrams of Carbon. Mires have declined globally due to drainage for agriculture and forestry, for peat harvesting. For example, more than 50% of original European mire area, more than 300000 km2, has been lost; some of the largest losses have been in Russia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Belarus. Mires have unusual chemistry, which influences inter alia their biota and the chemistry of the water outflow. Peat has high cation-exchange capacity due to its high organic matter content: cations such as Ca2+ are preferentially adsorbed onto the peat in exchange for H+ ions. Water passing through peat declines in nutrients and in pH; therefore mires are nutrient-poor and acidic unless the inflow of groundwate

Great Barr Hall

Great Barr Hall is an 18th-century mansion situated at Pheasey, Walsall, on the border with Great Barr, West Midlands, England. It is a Grade II * listed building, it is, however, in a poor state of repair and is on the Buildings at Risk Register. In the mid-17th century, Richard Scott acquired the house standing on the site and known as Nether House. In about 1777, Joseph Scott replaced the old house with a two-storey, nine-bay mansion in the Strawberry Hill Gothic Revival style; the house was much altered and extended about 1840 and in 1863, an adjacent chapel was erected to a design of architect George Gilbert Scott, a friend – but not a relation – of Sir Francis Scott. Two of the extant lodge houses are believed to be by George Gilbert Scott. Outside the chapel are the burial plots of several of Lady Bateman Scott's pets, inscribed with poems she wrote for them. Financial problems led the Scott Family, to lease out the hall from about 1788 to Samuel Galton, for some years the Hall became a venue for meetings of the Lunar Society.

It is said to be the'favourite place of meeting' of this illustrious body. In 1999, stone memorials to the Lunar Society, the "Moonstones", were erected at the nearby Asda supermarket. In 1791, Sir Francis Scott, 3rd Baronet, inherited the manor of Great Barr from his maternal uncle Thomas Hoo and was able to return to live in the house on the expiry of the lease, he died in 1863. His widow Mildred lived on in the Hall until her death in 1909. In 1911, the estate was purchased by a local hospital board and, in 1918, became St Margaret's Mental Hospital. Many detached hospital buildings were erected near the hall, in the 1980s the grounds became a nature reserve, managed by the Staffordshire Nature Conservation Trust but the hall itself was abandoned in 1978 and, despite its 1971 Grade II* listing, was left to decay; the hospital began to close in phases from the late 1980s. The male department closed during 1992 but the female department closed in March 1997; the final residents, those with high dependency, left a newer part of the site in 2004.

This included a special school, The Queslett School, which closed in December 1988. Many years passed during which discussions and negotiations for the protection of the hall came to nothing. In 2006, Bovis Homes purchased the 40 hectare estate and obtained planning permission for the redevelopment of the site; as of 2011, Nether Hall Park a new residential housing development, occupying a substantial part of the estate, is in course of completion. In May 2011 the hall, still in ruins, was put up for sale for £2.2 million, by the Manor Building Preservation Trust, allowed to purchase it nine years earlier for £900,000. The trust had failed to bring it back into a safe state, it failed to sell, so was offered for sale by auction on 6 February 2012, by Van Weenan Estate Agents of London, with a guide price of £1,250,000. The highest bid was £1,140,000, so it again remained unsold. In May 2012, it was sold to a consortium of ten local residents, they have commissioned Lapworth Architects to consult with the public and investigate potential new uses for the hall.

The hall is on English Heritage's "Buildings at Risk Register". The Hall gatehouses. Three survive: Avenue Lodge, on Chapel Lane Handsworth Lodge, where Handsworth Drive meets Queslett Road Walsall Lodge, on Birmingham Road. A stream, the Holbook, leaves it at the southern end, runs, via Perry Reservoir, to the River Tame near the Zig Zag Bridge at Perry Barr. From there, its waters flow, to the Humber Estuary and the North Sea. Photos of the derelict Great Barr Hall and St Margaret's Hospital Great Barr Hall Action Committee the Scotts of Great Barr Great Barr Hall put up for sale Historic England. "Details from listed building database". National Heritage List for England. Heritage at Risk Register: Great+Barr+Hall grid reference SP056947

Jack Randall (boxer)

Jack Randall, nicknamed "The Nonpareil", was a professional boxing pioneer. Born in London and standing only 5'6" tall, the diminutive Randall was one of the dominant pugilists of his era, compiling a 16-0-1 record as a professional, with all of his wins coming by knockout. Credited as the inventor of the one-two punch, Randall battled with contemporaries such as Ned Turner and Jack Martin, starred in a stage version of his ring exploits at the Regency Theatre. Randall was admired by the foremost prizefighting reporter of the period, Pierce Egan, who delighted in Randall's Irish parentage:'JACK RANDALL, DENOMINATED The Prize-Ring does not boast of a more accomplished boxer than RANDALL. Randall struggled with alcoholism, died of alcohol-related causes at the early age of 34, he was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 2005, as a member of the "Pioneers" category. List of bare-knuckle boxers Randall's biography at the IBHOF


Oldham is a town in Greater Manchester, amid the Pennines and between the rivers Irk and Medlock, 5.3 miles southeast of Rochdale and 6.9 miles northeast of Manchester. It is the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, which had a population of 230,800 in 2015. In Lancashire, with little early history to speak of, Oldham rose to prominence in the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture, it was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, among the first industrialised towns becoming "one of the most important centres of cotton and textile industries in England". At its zenith, it was the most productive cotton spinning mill town in the world, producing more cotton than France and Germany combined. Oldham's textile industry fell into decline in the mid-20th century; the demise of textile processing in Oldham depressed and affected the local economy. Today Oldham is a predominantly residential town, the improvement of the town centre is the focus of a project for transforming Oldham into a centre for further education and the performing arts.

It is, still distinguished architecturally by the surviving cotton mills and other buildings associated with that industry. As of 2001, the town had an area of around 26 square miles; the toponymy of Oldham seems to imply "old village or place" from Eald signifying oldness or antiquity, Ham a house, farm or hamlet. Oldham is however known to be a derivative of Aldehulme, undoubtedly an Old Norse name, it is believed to be derived from the Old English ald combined with the Old Norse holmi or holmr, meaning "promontory or outcrop" describing the town's hilltop position. It has alternatively been suggested that it may mean "holm or hulme of a farmer named Alda"; the name is understood to date during the period of the Danelaw. Cumbric alt, meaning "steep height, cliff", has been suggested for the first element; the earliest known evidence of a human presence in what is now Oldham is attested by the discovery of Neolithic flint arrow-heads and workings found at Werneth and Besom Hill, implying habitation 7–10,000 years ago.

Evidence of Roman and Celtic activity is confirmed by an ancient Roman road and Bronze Age archaeological relics found at various sites within the town. Placenames of Celtic origin are still to be found in Oldham: Werneth derives from a Celtic personal name identical to the Gaulish vernetum, "alder swamp", Glodwick may be related to the modern Welsh clawdd, meaning "dyke" or "ditch". Nearby Chadderton is pre-Anglo-Saxon in origin, from the Old Welsh cadeir, itself deriving from the Latin cathedra meaning "chair". Although Anglo-Saxons occupied territory around the area centuries earlier, Oldham as a permanent, named place of dwelling is believed to date from 865, when Danish invaders established a settlement called Aldehulme. From its founding in the 9th century until the Industrial Revolution, Oldham is believed to have been little more than a scattering of small and insignificant settlements spread across the moorland and dirt tracks that linked Manchester to York. Although not mentioned in the Domesday Book, Oldham does appear in legal documents from the Middle Ages, invariably recorded as territory under the control of minor ruling families and barons.

In the 13th century, Oldham was documented as a manor held from the Crown by a family surnamed Oldham, whose seat was at Werneth Hall. Richard de Oldham was recorded as lord of the manor of Werneth/Oldham, his daughter and heiress, married John de Cudworth, from whom descended the Cudworths of Werneth Hall who were successive lords of the manor. A Member of this family was James I's Chaplain Ralph Cudworth; the Cudworths remained lords of the manor until their sale of the estate to Sir Ralph Assheton of Middleton. Much of Oldham's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Oldham's soils were too thin and poor to sustain crop growing, so for decades prior to industrialisation the area was used for grazing sheep, which provided the raw material for a local woollen weaving trade. By 1756, Oldham had emerged as centre of the hatting industry in England; the rough felt used in the production process is the origin of the term "Owdham Roughyed" a nickname for people from Oldham.

It was not until the last quarter of the 18th century that Oldham changed from being a cottage industry township producing woollen garments via domestic manual labour, to a sprawling industrial metropolis of textile factories. The climate and topography of Oldham were unrelenting constraints upon the social and economic activities of the human inhabitants. At 700 feet above sea level and with no major river or visible natural resources, Oldham had poor geographic attributes compared with other settlements for investors and their engineers; as a result, Oldham played no part in the initial period of the Industrial Revolution, although it did become seen as obvious territory to industrialise because of its convenient position between the labour forces of Manchester and southwest Yorkshire. Cotton spinning and milling were introduced to Oldham when its first mill, Lees Hall, was built by William Clegg in about 1778, the beginning of a spiralling process of urbanisation and socioeconomic transformation.

Within a year, 11 other mills had been constructed, by 1818 there were 19 – not a large number in comparison with other local settlements. Oldham's small local p

World Series of Fighting 21: Palmer vs. Horodecki

World Series of Fighting 21: Palmer vs. Horodecki was a mixed martial arts event held on June 5, 2015 in Edmonton, Canada; this event aired NBCSN in the U. S and on Fight Network in Canada; the main event was scheduled to feature a middleweight fight between Yushin Okami and WSOF Canadian Welterweight Champion Ryan Ford. However, Ford was forced out of the bout due to an injury and the pairing was scrapped; the main event was changed to a WSOF Featherweight Championship fight between champion Lance Palmer and WEC & Bellator MMA veteran Chris Horodecki. The co-main event featured a WSOF Heavyweight Championship fight between champion Smealinho Rama and Bellator MMA veteran Blagoy Ivanov. List of WSOF champions List of WSOF events


A gordita in Mexican cuisine is a pastry made with masa and stuffed with cheese, meat, or other fillings. It is similar to the Colombian and Venezuelan arepa. Gordita means "chubby" in Spanish. There are two main variations of this dish, one, fried in a deep wok-shaped comal, consumed in central and southern Mexico, another one baked on a regular comal; the most common and representative variation of this dish is the "gordita de chicharrón", filled with chicharron, consumed throughout Mexico. Gorditas are eaten as a lunch meal and accompanied by several types of sauce. A gordita is prepared as a thick tortilla; the dough is most made of nixtamalized corn flour, as used for tortillas, but can be of wheat flour in northern Mexico close to the U. S border. An old variant of corn gorditas uses masa quebrada where the cornmeal is coarsely ground, leaving bits of broken grain. In the deep-fried version, once the masa has been prepared, it is separated in small portions each one is filled with meat, shaped like an oblong disc.

The pastry is immersed in boiling oil until crispy on the outside. After cooking, the gordita is allowed to stand to drain excess oil a small slit is cut into one side to allow vapor and excessive heat to release, lime juice and salsa are poured inside, which gives the gordita its characteristic flavor. In some regions of Mexico, the slit is used to stuff additional ingredients dressings such as fresh cheese, nopal salad, guacamole, beans or rajas. By tradition, gorditas are filled with chicharron, but there are local variations which substitute it by chicken stew, shredded beef, carne al pastor, eggs with chorizo sausage, carnitas or picadillo; the baked version is prepared identically to the preparation of a common tortilla, except it is thicker. When the masa is prepared, chicharrón is mixed directly in the dough, instead of being added later. Shaped like a flat circle it is placed in a comal until cooked, in most cases not adding additional oil; when slit and filled, this gordita looks like a sandwich made with tortillas instead of bread.

This variation is known as Gordita de migas. In central Mexico, gorditas range from being small, but bulky, to about the diameter of a "regular" tortilla. In northern Mexico they tend to be flatter. In most cases gorditas are shallow-fried with vegetable oil in a deep comal, but they can be deep-fried, making the outside crisper. In Durango and other states of Northern Mexico, gorditas are made from wheat flour and look like small pita breads; the dough is identical to that of a wheat flour tortilla. It is cooked on a comal with a hot piece of metal placed on top; the gordita fills with steam, a small slit is cut into one side where it can be filled with guisados. The Salvadoran dish pupusa is similar to a gordita, except sealed and served with curtido, a pickled cabbage relish. In Venezuela and Colombia an arepa is served stuffed with various ingredients, it is prepared in a similar way as a Mexican gordita, except the final dish is slimmer. The fast food restaurant chain Taco Bell offers a wheat flour gordita that has limited similarity to gorditas as served in Mexico and is more akin to a pita bread taco.

In eastern and central Mexico "gorditas de nata" are consumed as a breakfast dish or snack. It is a sweet cake similar to a tiny but thick pancake made with milk cream or clotted cream, called nata in Mexico, cinnamon and white wheat flour, they are named "gordita" too, due to their appearance, similar to the original fried gordita, but their taste is sweet, not salty. Besides their appearance, this snack is not related to the original one; the same flour preparation used to prepare gorditas de nata is used to cook a flat cookie variation, which by extension it is called "gordita", but in contrast, it is thin and crispy, not thick. To differentiate them, these flat cookies are called "sugar gorditas" instead. Arepa Pupusa Antojito List of Mexican dishes List of stuffed dishes food portal Media related to Gorditas at Wikimedia Commons