Dr. Leonard H. "Bones" McCoy is a character in the American science fiction franchise Star Trek. First portrayed by DeForest Kelley in the original Star Trek series, McCoy appears in the animated Star Trek series, six Star Trek movies, the pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, in numerous books and video games. Karl Urban assumed the role of the character in the 2009 Star Trek film and its sequels: Star Trek Into Darkness and Star Trek Beyond. McCoy was born in Atlanta, Georgia on January 20, 2227; the son of David, he attended the University of Mississippi and is a divorcé. McCoy married Natira, the priestess of Yonada, characterized in the episode, "For the World Is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky". In 2266, McCoy was posted as chief medical officer of the USS Enterprise under Captain James T. Kirk, who calls him "Bones". McCoy and Kirk are good friends "brotherly"; the passionate, sometimes cantankerous McCoy argues with Kirk's other confidante, science officer Spock, is prejudiced against Spock's Vulcan heritage.
McCoy plays the role of Kirk's conscience, offering a counterpoint to Spock's logic. McCoy is suspicious of technology the transporter; as a physician, he prefers less intrusive treatment and believes in the body's innate recuperative powers. The character's nickname, "Bones", is a play on sawbones, an epithet for physicians qualified as surgeons; when Kirk orders McCoy's commission reactivated in Star Trek: The Motion Picture. Spock transfers his katra—his knowledge and experience—into McCoy before dying in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan; this causes mental anguish for McCoy, who in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock helps restore Spock's katra to his reanimated body. McCoy continues to serve on Kirk's crew aboard the captured Klingon ship in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. In Star Trek V: The Final Frontier, McCoy reveals that he helped his father commit suicide to relieve him of his pain. Shortly after the suicide, a cure was found for his father's disease, McCoy had carried the guilt about it with him until Sybok's intervention.
In Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, McCoy and Kirk escape from a Klingon prison world, the Enterprise crew stops a plot to prevent peace between the United Federation of Planets and the Klingon Empire. Kelley reprised the role for the "Encounter at Farpoint" pilot episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, insisting upon no more than the minimum Screen Actors Guild payment for his appearance. In the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "The Survivor", McCoy mentions he has a daughter, Joanna. Although Chekov's friend Irina in the original series episode "The Way to Eden" was written as McCoy's daughter, it was changed before the episode was shot. In the 2009 Star Trek film, which takes place in an "alternate, parallel" reality, McCoy and Kirk become friends at Starfleet Academy, which McCoy joins after a divorce that he says "left nothing but bones." This line, improvised by Urban, explains. McCoy helps get Kirk posted aboard the USS Enterprise, he becomes the chief medical officer after Doctor Puri is killed during an attack by Nero.
McCoy remains aboard to see the Enterprise defeat Nero and his crew, with Kirk becoming the commanding officer of the ship. The Guardian called Urban's portrayal of McCoy in the 2009 film an "unqualified success", The New York Times called the character "wild-eyed and funny". Slate.com said Urban came closer than the other actors to impersonating a character's original depiction. Kelley had worked with Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry on previous television pilots, he was Roddenberry's first choice to play the doctor aboard the USS Enterprise. However, for the rejected pilot "The Cage", Roddenberry went with director Robert Butler's choice of John Hoyt to play Dr. Philip Boyce. For the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", Roddenberry accepted director James Goldstone's decision to have Paul Fix play Dr. Mark Piper. Although Roddenberry wanted Kelley to play the character of ship's doctor, he did not put Kelley's name forward to NBC. Kelley's first broadcast appearance as Doctor Leonard McCoy was in "The Man Trap".
Despite his character's prominence, Kelley's contract granted him only a "featuring" credit. Kelley was apprehensive about Star Trek's future, telling Roddenberry that the show was "going to be the biggest hit or the biggest miss God made". Kelley portrayed McCoy throughout the original Star Trek series and voiced the character in the animated Star Trek. Kelley, who in his youth wanted to become a doctor like his uncle, but whose family could not pay for a medical education, in part drew upon his real-life experiences in creating McCoy: a doctor's "matter-of-fact" delivery of news of Kelley's mother's terminal cancer was the "abrasive sand" Kelley used in creating McCoy's demeanor. Star Trek writer D. C. Fontana said that while Roddenberry created the series, Kelley created McCoy. Kirk and science officer Spock, respectively. Nichelle Nichols, who played Uhura, referred to Kelley as her "sassy gentleman friend".
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction. It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads: the ovaries in a girl, the testes in a boy. In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth and transformation of the brain, muscle, skin, hair and sex organs. Physical growth—height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when an adult body has been developed; until the maturation of their reproductive capabilities, the pre-pubertal physical differences between boys and girls are the external sex organs. On average, girls begin puberty around ages 10–11 and end puberty around 15–17; the major landmark of puberty for females is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages 12 and 13. In the 21st century, the average age at which children girls, reach puberty is lower compared to the 19th century, when it was 15 for girls and 16 for boys.
This can be due to any number of factors, including improved nutrition resulting in rapid body growth, increased weight and fat deposition, or exposure to endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, which can at times be due to food consumption or other environmental factors. Puberty which starts earlier than usual is known as precocious puberty, puberty which starts than usual is known as delayed puberty. Notable among the morphologic changes in size, shape and functioning of the pubertal body, is the development of secondary sex characteristics, the "filling in" of the child's body. Derived from the Latin puberatum, the word puberty describes the physical changes to sexual maturation, not the psychosocial and cultural maturation denoted by the term adolescent development in Western culture, wherein adolescence is the period of mental transition from childhood to adulthood, which overlaps much of the body's period of puberty. Comprehensive sexuality education can contribute to teenagers' better understanding of this process.
Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins, the major sex steroids involved, the androgens and the estrogens. Although there is a wide range of normal ages, girls begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11. Girls complete puberty by ages 15–17, while boys complete puberty by ages 16–17. Girls attain reproductive maturity about four years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. In contrast, boys accelerate more but continue to grow for about six years after the first visible pubertal changes. Any increase in height beyond the post-pubertal age is uncommon. For boys, the androgen testosterone is the principal sex hormone. A substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol; the conversion of testosterone to estradiol depends on the amount of body fat and estradiol levels in boys are much lower than in girls. The male "growth spurt" begins accelerates more and lasts longer before the epiphyses fuse.
Although boys are on average 2 centimetres shorter than girls before puberty begins, adult men are on average about 13 centimetres taller than women. Most of this sex difference in adult heights is attributable to a onset of the growth spurt and a slower progression to completion, a direct result of the rise and lower adult male levels of estradiol; the hormone that dominates female development is an estrogen called estradiol. While estradiol promotes growth of the breasts and uterus, it is the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure. Estradiol levels reach higher levels in women than in men; the hormonal maturation of females is more complicated than in boys. The main steroid hormones, testosterone and progesterone as well as prolactin play important physiological functions in puberty. Gonadal steroidgenesis in girls starts with production of testosterone, quickly converted to estradiol inside the ovaries; however the rate of conversion from testosterone to estradiol during early puberty is individual, resulting in diverse development patterns of secondary sexual characteristics.
Production of progesterone in the ovaries begins with the development of ovulatory cycles in girls, before puberty low levels of progesterone are produced in the adrenal glands of both boys and girls. Puberty is preceded by adrenarche, marking an increase of adrenal androgen production between ages 6–10. Adrenarche is sometimes accompanied by the early appearance of pubic hair; the first androgenic hair resulting from adrenarche can be transient and disappear before the onset of true puberty. The onset of puberty is associated with high GnRH pulsing, which precedes the rise in sex hormones, LH and FSH. Exogenous GnRH pulses cause the onset of puberty. Brain tumors which increase GnRH output may lead to premature puberty; the cause of the GnRH rise is unknown. Leptin might be the cause of the GnRH rise. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. Individuals who are deficient in leptin fail to initiate puberty; the levels of leptin increase with the onset of puberty, decline to adult levels when puberty is completed.
The rise in GnRH might be caused by genetics. A study disco
Star Trek: The Original Series
Star Trek is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry that follows the adventures of the starship USS Enterprise and its crew. It acquired the retronym of Star Trek: The Original Series to distinguish the show within the media franchise that it began; the show is set in the Milky Way galaxy during the 2260s. The ship and crew are led by Captain James T. Kirk, First Officer and Science Officer Spock, Chief Medical Officer Leonard McCoy. Shatner's voice-over introduction during each episode's opening credits stated the starship's purpose: The series was produced from September 1966 to December 1967 by Norway Productions and Desilu Productions, by Paramount Television from January 1968 to June 1969. Star Trek aired on NBC from September 8, 1966, to June 3, 1969, was seen first on September 6, 1966, on Canada's CTV network. Star Trek's Nielsen ratings while on NBC were low, the network canceled it after three seasons and 79 episodes. Several years the series became a bona fide hit in broadcast syndication, remaining so throughout the 1970s, achieving cult classic status and a developing influence on popular culture.
Star Trek spawned a franchise, consisting of six television series, thirteen feature films, numerous books and toys, is now considered one of the most popular and influential television series of all time. The series contains significant elements of Space Western, as described by Roddenberry and the general audience. On March 11, 1964, Gene Roddenberry, a long-time fan of science fiction, drafted a short treatment for a science-fiction television series that he called Star Trek; this was to be set on board a large interstellar spaceship named S. S. Yorktown in the 23rd century bearing a crew dedicated to exploring the Milky Way Galaxy. Roddenberry noted a number of influences on his idea, some of which includes A. E. van Vogt's tales of the spaceship Space Beagle, Eric Frank Russell's Marathon series of stories, the film Forbidden Planet. Some have drawn parallels with the television series Rocky Jones, Space Ranger, a space opera which included many of the elements that were integral to Star Trek—the organization, crew relationships, part of the bridge layout, some technology.
Roddenberry drew from C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower novels that depict a daring sea captain who exercises broad discretionary authority on distant sea missions of noble purpose, he humorously referred to Captain Kirk as "Horatio Hornblower in Space". Roddenberry had extensive experience in writing for series about the Old West, popular television fare in the 1950s and 1960s. Armed with this background, the first draft characterized the new show as "Wagon Train to the stars." Like the familiar Wagon Train, each episode was to be a self-contained adventure story, set within the structure of a continuing voyage through space. Most future television and movie realizations of the franchise adhered to the "Wagon Train" paradigm of the continuing journey, with the notable exception of the serialized Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Discovery, the third season of Star Trek: Enterprise. In Roddenberry's original concept, the protagonist was Captain Robert April of the starship S. S. Yorktown.
This character was developed into Captain Christopher Pike, first portrayed by Jeffrey Hunter. April is listed in the Star Trek Chronology, The Star Trek Encyclopedia and at startrek.com as the Enterprise's first commanding officer, preceding Captain Christopher Pike. The character's only television/movie appearance is in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "The Counter-Clock Incident" In April 1964, Roddenberry presented the Star Trek draft to Desilu Productions, a leading independent television production company, he met with Desilu's Director of Production. Solow signed a three-year program-development contract with Roddenberry. Lucille Ball, head of Desilu, was not familiar with the nature of the project, but she was instrumental in getting the pilot produced; the idea was extensively revised and fleshed out during this time – "The Cage" pilot filmed in late 1964 differs in many respects from the March 1964 treatment. Solow, for example, added the "stardate" concept. Desilu Productions had a first look deal with CBS.
Oscar Katz, Desilu's Vice President of Production, went with Roddenberry to pitch the series to the network. They refused to purchase the show, as they had a similar show in development, the 1965 Irwin Allen series Lost in Space. In May 1964, who worked at NBC, met with Grant Tinker head of the network's West Coast programming department. Tinker commissioned the first pilot – which became "The Cage". NBC turned down the resulting pilot, stating that it was "too cerebral". However, the NBC executives were still impressed with the concept, they understood that its perceived faults had been because of the script that they had selected themselves. NBC made the unusual decision to pay for a second pilot, using the script called "Where No Man Has Gone Before". Only the character of Spock, played by Leonard Nimoy, was retained from the first pilot, only two cast members, Majel Barrett and Nimoy, were carried forward into the series; this second pilot proved to be satisfactory to NBC, the network selected Star Trek to be in its upcoming television schedule for the fall of 1966.
The second pilot introduced most of the other main characters: Captain Kirk, Chief Engineer Lt. Commander Scott and Lt. Sulu, who served as a physicist on the ship in the second pilot but subsequently became a helmsman throughout the rest of t
Janice Rand is a fictional character in the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Original Series during its first season, as well as three of the Star Trek films. She is the Captain's yeoman on board the USS Enterprise, first appeared in the episode "The Man Trap", she had significant roles in the episodes "The Enemy Within", where she fights off an evil version of Captain James T. Kirk. Rand was portrayed by American actress Grace Lee Whitney, who had worked with Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry in both The Lieutenant and a pilot for a show he created called Police Story. Whitney as Rand was involved in promoting Star Trek before it aired, but did not appear in the first two pilots. Roddenberry set out the role of Rand to Whitney, saying that she and Kirk were meant to have feelings for one another, but should never act on them. Part way through the first season, Whitney was released from her contract; the official explanation was that the production team wanted to free up Kirk to have relationships with other women, but it was necessitated because the series was over budget and was looking to cut costs.
It is unclear who made the final decision. Roddenberry blamed NBC for her release and said he regretted it. After Whitney was reintroduced to Star Trek through conventions, she came back into contact with Roddenberry who wanted to include her in the new series in development at the time, Star Trek: Phase II; this was subsequently cancelled. Whitney made further appearances as Rand in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, she returned to Star Trek for memory sequences set in the latter film, but shown as part of the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Flashback". Whitney made further appearances as Rand in Star Trek: New Voyages and Star Trek: Of Gods and Men, while Rand was portrayed by Meghan King Johnson in New Voyages. Prior to the start of The Original Series, Whitney was used to promote the series and was popular with the media. Critics called the character a stereotype in her initial appearances, but the expansion of the role in "Flashback" was praised. Gene Roddenberry's original pitch for Star Trek featured a female Captain's Yeoman named "Colt".
She was described as "blonde and with a shape that a uniform could not hide." In this first version of Star Trek, she worked as Captain Robert April's "secretary, reporter and undoubtedly wishes she could serve him in more personal departments." Roddenberry's description of her ended. This character was cast for the first pilot of the series, "The Cage", with Laurel Goodwin cast in that role. A similar character was created for the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", this time called "Smith", she was played by model Andrea Dromm. However, during discussions with the casting director on Star Trek, Roddenberry stood up in the casting process for three women he had worked with before – Majel Barrett, Nichelle Nichols and Grace Lee Whitney. Whitney had appeared in Roddenberry's The Lieutenant and was cast in his unsold pilot Police Story where she played Police Lieutenant Lily Monroe, she was available to appear in the series and was promptly cast in the role, being paid $750 per episode and being guaranteed to appear in seven episodes out of the first thirteen.
The casting led to rumours that she and Roddenberry had been involved romantically, something she strenuously denied saying that "I never had a romantic relationship with Gene Roddenberry before Star Trek, during Star Trek, or after Star Trek." She admitted that he had made numerous passes at her, but she wanted their relationship to remain professional only. Roddenberry explained to Whitney that he wanted Rand to be Captain Kirk's confidante but never wanted them to express their affection for one another, instead he wanted it to be played as an ongoing undercurrent. In the early publicity photos, Whitney was dressed in the same manner that the women had been in the two pilots – a loose gold colored tunic and black trousers, she complained to Roddenberry about them hiding her "dancer's legs", so he had William Ware Theiss design a short skirt and tunic for her to wear, a uniform, adopted by the other female characters on the series. She said the outfit was "sensational" and that "it stopped traffic".
Despite the outfit being designed for Whitney, Theiss was concerned and would tell her to lose weight. She was subsequently prescribed amphetamines for the purpose of weight loss. Whitney stated that this was the start of her addiction to them, in order to come down off them at night, she began drinking in the evening to take away the "edginess", he developed her hair styles for the series, which Roddenberry insisted must be unique and futuristic so that the viewers could believe they were seeing the future on television. She appeared with straight hair in promotion photos, but this was changed to a beehive, so solid looking that Bob Justman joked that "You could hit it with a sledgehammer and never make a dent." It was created by weaving two Max Factor wigs into a mesh cone. Whitney described the application of the wig, saying "they nailed it to my head every morning." It was created by placing a cone on her head and weaving the blonde hair from two separate wigs together resulting in such an unusual look that Whitney said she was unrecognizable without it.
In the press, she explained t
TrekMovie.com is a news blog website about the Star Trek media franchise. It features news reports about the feature films and web series, other related Star Trek fandom; the site was founded by Trek fan Anthony Pascale as a site focused on bringing accurate and up-to-date news and information about Star Trek. TrekMovie.com was launched as The Trek XI Report on July 15, 2006, the same day it was announced that J. J. Abrams would direct Paramount Pictures' new Star Trek. Over time, TrekMovie.com garnered a reputation for scooping Star Trek news and has been cited as a source by websites like Slashdot, SciFiWire, Yahoo! Movies and others. Pascale and his site have been cited on the G4TV, various local TV stations and in The Wall Street Journal. TrekMovie.com continued to grow as a range of editors and contributors—respected experts covering different areas of the Star Trek franchise—were brought on. The site was the highest ranked Star Trek news site in 2008. Beginning around May 2013, the site went weeks or months with no updates.
When updates resumed, no explanation was given. After the release of 2013's Star Trek Into Darkness, the site posted an article about the film's second week of release, went for several weeks without any new updates. For a significant period of time Anthony Pascale did not write anything for the site. In September of that same year, the site was a source of controversy following the release of Into Darkness. Guest writer Joseph Dickerson's op-ed "Is Star Trek Broken?" opined that Into Darkness had moved too far from the themes that made Star Trek relevant and popular. The op-ed generated thousands of comments, including harsh reaction by the co-writer of the film Roberto Orci. Orci's comments—which criticized fans' negative reactions, dismissed the op-ed, suggested that detractors "fuck off"—were covered by multiple news sites. Orci apologized and stopped commenting on TrekMovie. Anthony Pascale has since returned to posting articles
Phil Morris (actor)
Phillip Morris is an American film and voice actor. He played Jackie Chiles in the NBC sitcom Seinfeld, John Jones in The CW series Smallville, Delroy Jones in Love That Girl! and voiced Doc Saturday in The Secret Saturdays. Morris was born in Iowa City, is the son of actor Greg Morris, he is the younger brother of actress Iona Morris. He is a practitioner of Wing Chun under Sifu Hawkins Cheung. Morris's first acting role was as a child when he appeared in the 1966 Star Trek episode "Miri". Star Trek was, at the time, shot at the same studio that produced Mission: Impossible, where his father was working, he made his feature film debut in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock in a small role and guest starred on Babylon 5, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager. In the mid-1980s, he portrayed law student Tyrone Jackson on the CBS daytime drama The Young and the Restless. During a major storyline, his character used heavy theatrical make-up to appear Caucasian, in order to go undercover to expose an organized crime organization.
In the 1990s, Morris played a recurring character, the Johnnie Cochran-inspired defense attorney Jackie Chiles, on the comedy Seinfeld. One story line as Chiles depicts him suing a tobacco company with great delight which rang true for the actor as his name Phillip Morris is that of a major U. S. based tobacco company. Morris co-starred in the TV remake of Mission: Impossible as tech wizard Grant Collier, he said in an interview that he grew up watching the original Mission: Impossible, with series' lead Peter Graves, whom Morris came to consider his acting mentor. Through his childhood, Morris knew Graves' real-life children; the friendship continued, until Peter Graves' death on March 2010, which devastated Morris. He voiced the supporting role of Dr. Sweet in Disney's 2001 film Atlantis: The Lost Empire as well as its 2003 sequel, Atlantis: Milo's Return, he played one of Will Smith's college professors on the NBC show The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air and played Dr. Clay Spencer on the then-UPN television show Girlfriends.
In the January 25, 2007 episode of the CW television series Smallville, Morris portrayed the DC Comics superhero Martian Manhunter, a recurring but small character in the series. He reprised that role on the show's sixth-season finale on May 17, 2007, as well as the episodes "Bizarro" and "Cure" in the seventh season and the episodes "Odyssey", "Prey" and "Bulletproof" in the eighth season, he reprised this role in the ninth-season episodes "Absolute Justice", "Checkmate" and "Salvation". As a voice actor, he portrayed the villains Imperiex on Legion of Superheroes, as the Immortal Caveman Vandal Savage on Justice League and Justice League: Doom, he voiced W'Kabi in the animated series Black Panther. He appeared on one episode each of the series CSI: Seven Days. Though unnoticed, Morris was the voice of Paul the Apostle in Zondervan's The Bible Experience. Morris made a cameo appearance as Miles Dyson in photographs in the television series Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, he provided the voice of the character Doc Saturday in the animated show The Secret Saturdays.
He played a major supporting role in the PlayStation 2 game Ratchet: Deadlocked, as Merc, one of the combat bots that accompany the main character Ratchet. He worked as a voice actor on The PJs, he did several voices in the animated film Dead Space: Downfall as Glenn. He played Delroy Jones on the TV One series Love That Girl!, Saint Walker on the Cartoon Network series Green Lantern: The Animated Series, Ultra Richard on the Cartoon Hangover series SuperF*ckers. He voices Plank in the Sofia the First episode "The Floating Palace", Green Arrow and Hawkman in the film Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League vs. Bizarro League and Vandal Savage in the film Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League: Cosmic Clash. Phil Morris on IMDb Phil Morris Interview at Abnormal Use
The Cry of the Onlies
The Cry of the Onlies is a 1989 Star Trek: The Original Series novel by Judy Klass. Boaco Six is caught up in revolution and Captain Kirk is sent in to re-establish diplomatic ties, his efforts are going well. In order to stop a war, Kirk attempts to uncover the secrets of the Federation ship; the Cry of the Onlies at Memory Alpha