Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Russian Federal State Statistics Service is the governmental statistics agency in Russia. Since 2017, it is again part of the Ministry of Economic Development, having switched several times in the previous decades between that ministry and being directly controlled by the federal government. Goskomstat was the centralised agency dealing with statistics in the Soviet Union. Goskomstat was created in 1987 to replace the Central Statistical Administration, while maintaining the same basic functions in the collection, analysis and distribution of state statistics, including economic and population statistics; this renaming amounted to a formal demotion of the status of the agency. In addition to overseeing the collection and evaluation of state statistics, Goskomstat was responsible for planning and carrying out the population and housing censuses, it carried out seven such censuses, in 1926, 1937, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1980, 1989. House No. 39, on Ulitsa Myasnitskaya, Tsentrosoyuz building, home to Goskomstat, was designed by the Swiss-born architect, Le Corbusier.
Interstate Statistical Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation
Soviet Census (1989)
The 1989 Soviet census, conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR. The census found the total population to be 286,730,819 inhabitants. In 1989, the Soviet Union ranked as the third most populous in the world, above the United States, although it was well behind China and India. In 1989, about half of the Soviet Union's total population lived in the Russian SFSR, one-sixth of them in Ukraine. Two-thirds of the population was urban, leaving the rural population with 34.3%. In this way, its gradual increase continued, as shown by the series represented by 47.9%, 56.3% and 62.3% of 1959, 1970 and 1979 respectively. The last two national censuses showed that the country had been experiencing an average annual increase of about 2.5 million people, although it was a slight decrease from a figure of around 3 million per year in the previous intercensal period, 1959-1970. This post-war increase had contributed to the USSR's partial demographic recovery from the significant population loss that the USSR had suffered during the Great Patriotic War, before it, during Stalin's Great Purge of 1936-1938.
The previous postwar censuses, conducted in 1959, 1970 and 1979, had enumerated 208,826,650, 241,720,134, 262,436,227 inhabitants respectively. In 1990, the Soviet Union was more populated than both the United States and Canada together, having some 40 million more inhabitants than the U. S. alone. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the combined population of the 15 former Soviet republics stagnated at around 290 million inhabitants for the period 1995-2000; this significant slowdown may in part be due to the remarkable socio-economic changes that followed the disintegration of the USSR, that have tended to reduce more the decreasing birth rates. The next census was planned for 1999. Demographics of the Soviet Union Republics of the Soviet Union Soviet Census First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Growth and diversity of the population of the Soviet Union", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 510, No.
1, 155-177, 1990. Ralph S. Clem, Ed. Research Guide to Russian and Soviet Censuses, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. John C. Dewdney, "Population change in the Soviet Union, 1979-1989," Geography, Vol. 75, Pt. 3, No. 328, July 1990, 273-277. Subjects of Russia, on the www.statoids.com website
Russian Census (2010)
The Russian Census of 2010 is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Preparations for the census began in 2007 and it took place between October 14 and October 25; the census was scheduled for October 2010, before being rescheduled for late 2013, citing financial reasons, although it was speculated that political motives were influential in the decision. However, in late 2009, Prime Minister Putin announced that the Government of Russia allocated 10.5 billion rubles in order to conduct the census as scheduled. Results showed the population to stand at 142.9 million. Since the previous 2002 census, population had decreased by 2.3 million. According to the 2010 census, urban population is 105.3 million, rural population is 37.5 million. The urbanisation rate is 73.7%. The median age is 38 years; the ethnic composition is dominated by Russians. Demographics of Russia Russian Census 2010 final results Results of 2010 All-Russia population census Official website of the 2010 Census
The Mir mine called the Mirny mine, is an open pit diamond mine located in Mirny, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian region of eastern Russia. The mine is >525 meters deep and has a diameter of 1,200 m, is one of the largest excavated holes in the world. Open-pit mining was discontinued in 2001. Since 2009, it has been active as an underground diamond mine; the diamond-bearing deposits were discovered on June 13, 1955, by Soviet geologists Yuri Khabardin, Ekaterina Elagina and Viktor Avdeenko during the large Amakinsky Expedition in Yakut ASSR. They found traces of the volcanic rock kimberlite, associated with diamonds; this finding was the second success in the search for kimberlite in Russia, after numerous failed expeditions of the 1940s and 1950s. For this discovery, in 1957 Khabardin was given the Lenin Prize, one of the highest awards in the Soviet Union; the development of the mine started in 1957, in harsh climate conditions. Seven months of winter per year froze the ground. During the brief summer months, the ground turned to slush.
Buildings had to be raised on piles, so that they would not sink from the warmth of the building melting the permafrost. The main processing plant had to be built on better ground, found 20 km away from the mine; the winter temperatures were so low that car tires and steel would shatter and oil would freeze. During the winter, workers used jet engines to thaw and dig out the permafrost or blasted it with dynamite to get access to the underlying kimberlite; the entire mine had to be covered at night to prevent the machinery from freezing. In the 1960s the mine was producing 10,000,000 carats of diamond per year, of which a high fraction were of gem quality; the upper layers of the mine had high diamond content of four carats per tonne of ore, with the high ratio of gems to industrial stones. The yield decreased to about 2 carats per tonne and the production rate slowed to 2,000,000 carats per year near the pit bottom; the largest diamond of the mine was found on 23 December 1980. The mine operation was interrupted in the 1990s at a depth of 340 m after the pit bottom became flooded, but resumed later.
The rapid development of the Mir mine had worried De Beers company, which at that time was distributing most of the world's diamonds. De Beers had to buy Russian diamonds in order to control the market price, therefore needed to know as much as possible about the Russian mining developments. In the 1970s, De Beers requested permission to visit the Mir mine. Permission was granted under condition that Russian experts would visit De Beers diamond mines in South Africa. De Beers executive Sir Philip Oppenheimer and chief geologist Barry Hawthorne arrived in Moscow in the summer of 1976, they were intentionally delayed in Moscow by the arrangement of a series of meetings and lavish banquets with Soviet geologists, mineralogists and mine managers. When Oppenheimer and Hawthorne reached the Mir mine, their visas were about to expire, so that they could only have 20 minutes at the Mir mine; that short time was sufficient to get some important details. For example, the Russians did not use water during the ore processing at all, astonishing to De Beers.
The reason was that water would freeze most of the year, dry crushing was used instead. De Beers overestimated the size of the mine's pit; the Mir mine was the largest diamond mine in the Soviet Union. Its surface operation lasted 44 years closing in June 2001. After the collapse of the USSR, in the 1990s, the mine was operated by the Sakha diamond company, which reported annual profits in excess of $600 million from diamond sales; the mine was operated by Alrosa, the largest diamond producing company in Russia, employed 3,600 workers. It had long been anticipated. Therefore, in the 1970s construction of a network of tunnels for underground diamond recovery began. By 1999, the project operated as an underground mine. In order to stabilize the abandoned surface main pit, its bottom was covered by a rubble layer 45 m thick. After underground operations began, the project had a mine life estimate of 27 years, based on a drilling exploration program to a depth of 1,220 m. Production ceased in 2004, the Mir mine was permanently closed in 2001.
The mine was commissioned again in 2009, is expected to remain operational for 50 more years. Udachnaya pipe Mirny Diamond Mine at Atlas Obscura United States Mine Rescue Association BBC News Photo journal: "Postcards from Russia" "A Face of Mirny"* Aerial view of the Mirny Diamond Mine from Airliners.net A Guided Excursion around the Mirny Sights Pictures of Mirny Diamond Mine Biggest Diamond Mines
Soviet Census (1979)
In January 1979, the Soviet Union conducted its first census in nine years. Between 1970 and 1979, the total Soviet population increased from 241,720,134 to 262,084,654, an increase of 8.42%. As in 1970, Ukrainians and Belarusians were the largest ethnic groups in the Soviet Union in 1979. There were 137,397,089 Russians, 42,347,387 Ukrainians, 12,455,978 Uzbeks, 9,462,715 Belarusians living in the Soviet Union in 1979. Meanwhile, the largest SSRs in the Soviet Union by population in 1979 were the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Uzbek SSR, the Russian-plurality Kazakh SSR, the Byelorussian SSR; the Tajik SSR, Uzbek SSR, Turkmen SSRs were the fastest-growing SSRs between 1970 and 1979. During this time, the Tajik SSR grew by 31% while the Uzbek SSR grew by 30% and the Turkmen SSR grew by 28%. Overall, other parts of the Caucasus and Central Asia experienced large growth between 1970 and 1979 while the slowest-growing SSRs during this time were the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR.
Between 1970 and 1979, the Soviet Union become more urban, with 62% of its total residents living in urban areas in 1979 in comparison to 56% in 1970. Indeed, there were 18 cities in the Soviet Union with over one million residents in 1979. In addition to this, the male to female ratio increased between 1970 and 1979. Indeed, while males only made up 46.1% of the Soviet Union's total population in 1970 (due to the continuing legacy of the massive Soviet casualties in World War II, this figure increased to 46.7% by 1979. Overall, between 1970 and 1979, the total Soviet population increased from 241,720,134 to 262,084,654, an increase of 8.42%. Between 1970 and 1979, the Soviet Jewish population fell by over 300,000, decreasing from 2,167,000 in 1970 to 1,833,000 in 1979; this fall was caused at least in part by the 1970s Soviet Union aliyah. Meanwhile, the ethnic German population in the Soviet Union increased from 1,846,317 in 1970 to 1,936,214 in 1979
Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. Yakutsk, with an average temperature of −8.8 °C, is the second coldest city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the world after Norilsk, although Yakutsk experiences colder temperatures in the winter. Yakutsk is the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River, it is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. The Yakuts known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia; when they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area. The Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as an ostrog by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo; the Voyevoda of Yakutsk soon became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south. With an extreme subarctic climate, Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any major city on Earth.
Average monthly temperatures in Yakutsk range from +19.5 °C in July to −38.6 °C in January, only Norilsk has a lower mean annual temperature than any other settlement of over 100,000. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost, many houses there are built on concrete piles; the lowest temperatures recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest major city in the world. Although winters are cold and long – Yakutsk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between 10 November and 14 March inclusive – summers are warm, with daily maximum temperatures exceeding +30 °C, making the seasonal temperature differences for the region the greatest in the world at 105 °C; the lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C on 5 February 1891 and the highest temperatures +38.4 °C on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 °C on 15 July 1943. The hottest month in records going back to 1834 has been July 1894, with a mean of +23.2 °C, the coldest, January 1900, which averaged −51.2 °C.
Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being 1,000 kilometres from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and lack of temperature moderation. July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this parallel, with the average being several degrees hotter than such more southerly Far East cities as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; the July daytime temperatures are hotter than some marine subtropical areas. The warm summers ensure; the climate is quite dry, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in the warmest months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the cold continental air during the winter. However, summer precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley. With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena delta.
Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city. There are several theaters in Yakutsk: the State Russian Drama Theater, named after A. S. Pushkin. There are a number of museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of the nature and beginning of a new year, it is accompanied by national Yakut rituals and ceremonies, folk dancing, horse racing, Yakut ethnic music and singing, national cuisine, competitions in traditional Yakut sports. There is a local punk scene in Yakutsk, with many bands. Shows can bring up to 300 people, young but older too. Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic; as an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug. The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug. Divisional source:Population source:*Administrative centers are shown in bold Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway; the city's connection to that highway is only usable by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, by driving directly over the frozen Lena River, since Yakutsk lies on its western bank, there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river is turbulent with spring f