A public aquarium is the aquatic counterpart of a zoo, which houses living aquatic animal and plant specimens for public viewing. Most public aquariums feature tanks larger than those kept by home aquarists, as well as smaller tanks. Since the first public aquariums were built in the mid-19th century, they have become popular and their numbers have increased. Most modern accredited aquariums stress conservation issues and educating the public; the first public aquarium was opened in London Zoo in May 1853. P. T. Barnum followed in 1856 with the first American aquarium as part of his established Barnum's American Museum, located on Broadway in New York City before it burned down. In 1859, the Aquarial Gardens were founded in Boston. A number of aquariums opened in Europe, such as the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris and the Viennese Aquarium Salon, the Marine Aquarium Temple as part of the Zoological Garden in Hamburg, as well as aquariums in Berlin and Brighton; the old Berlin Aquarium opened in 1869.
The building site was to be Unter den Linden, in the centre of town, not at the Berlin Zoo. The aquarium's first director, Alfred Brehm, former director of the Hamburg Zoo from 1863 to 1866, served until 1874. With its emphasis on education, the public aquarium was designed like a grotto, part of it made of natural rock; the Geologische Grotte depicted "the strata of the earth's crust". The grotto featured birds and pools for seals; the Aquarium Unter den Linden was a three-story building. Machinery and water tanks were on aquarium basins for the fish on the first floor; because of Brehm's special interest in birds, a huge aviary, with cages for mammals placed around it, was located on the second floor. The facility closed in 1910; the Artis aquarium at Amsterdam Zoo was constructed inside a Victorian building in 1882, was renovated in 1997. At the end of the 19th century the Artis aquarium was considered state-of-the-art, as it was again at the end of the 20th century. Prior to its closing on September 30, 2013, the oldest American aquarium was the National Aquarium in Washington, D.
C. founded in 1873. This was followed by the opening of other public aquariums: San Francisco, Woods Hole, New York, La Jolla, Detroit, San Francisco, Chicago. For many years, the Shedd Aquarium was the largest aquarium in the United States until the Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta opened 2005. Entertainment and aquatic circus exhibits were combined as themes in Philadelphia's Aquarama Aquarium Theater of the Sea and Camden's re-invented Adventure Aquarium 2005 the New Jersey State Aquarium; the first Japanese public aquarium, a small freshwater aquarium, was opened at the Ueno Zoo in 1882. In 2005, the Georgia Aquarium, with more than 8 million U. S. gallons of marine and fresh water, more than 100,000 animals of 500 different species opened in Atlanta, Georgia. The aquarium's notable specimens include whale sharks and beluga whales. Modern aquarium tanks can hold millions of litres of water and can house large species, including dolphins, sharks or beluga whales; this is accomplished through clear acrylic glass windows.
Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, including otters and seals are cared for at aquariums. Some establishments, such as the Oregon Coast Aquarium or the Monterey Bay Aquarium, have aquatic aviaries. Modern aquariums include land animals and plants that spend time in or near the water. For marketing purposes, many aquariums promote special exhibits, in addition to their permanent collections; some have aquatic versions of a petting zoo. The Monterey Bay Aquarium has a shallow tank filled with common types of rays which visitors are encouraged to touch; the South Carolina Aquarium lets visitors feed the rays in their Saltmarsh Aviary exhibit. Most public aquariums are located close to the ocean, for a steady supply of natural seawater. An inland pioneer was Chicago's Shedd Aquarium that received seawater shipped by rail in special tank cars; the early Philadelphia Aquarium, built in the city's disused water works, had to switch to treated city water when the nearby river became too contaminated. The opened Georgia Aquarium filled its tanks with fresh water from the city water system and salinated its salt water exhibits using the same commercial salt and mineral additives available to home aquarists.
The South Carolina Aquarium pulls the salt water for their exhibits right out of the Charleston harbor. In January 1985, Kelly Tarlton began construction of the first aquarium to include a large transparent acrylic tunnel, Kelly Tarlton's Underwater World in Auckland, New Zealand. Construction cost NZ$3 million; the 110-metre tunnel was built from one-tonne slabs of German sheet plastic that were shaped locally in an oven. A moving walkway now transports visitors through, groups of school children hold sleepovers there beneath the swimming sharks and rays. Public aquariums are affiliated with oceanographic research institutions or conduct their own research programs, sometimes specialize in species and ecosystems that can be found in local waters. For example, the Vancouver Aquarium in Vancouver, BC is a major center for marine research and marine animal rehabilitation, particularly
An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike birdcages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space. Aviaries contain plants and shrubbery to simulate a natural environment. Large aviaries are found in the setting of a zoological garden. Spacious walk-in aviaries exist in bird parks such as Jurong BirdPark in Singapore. Pittsburgh is home to the USA's National Aviary the most prominent example in North America of an aviary not set inside a zoo; the Tracy Aviary is an example of a bird park within a public urban park, Liberty Park in Salt Lake City, Utah. Some smaller sized aviaries can be found in European manorial gardens, such as Waddesdon Manor, UK, Versailles, France; some public aquaria, such as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, Oregon, or the Monterey Bay Aquarium, have aquatic aviaries. Home aviaries are popular with some bird fanciers. Many bird breeders list themselves as "aviaries", since most bird pairs breed best in aviaries in contrast to breeding cages. Home aviaries may be obtained from a commercial supplier.
There are two main subcategories of home aviaries: suspended aviaries. Grounded aviaries are affixed to the ground with a concrete base to prevent rats and other vermin from entering. Suspended aviaries are suspended in the air with only the'legs' of the aviaries affixed to the ground. Most grounded aviaries feature a woodwork or PVC frame unlike the metal frame of public aviaries. An aviary, a large cage to house and display birds, dates as far back and earlier than the 1500s found in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan as noted by Hernan Cortes when he and his men arrived in 1521; the Raven Cage, is regarded as one of the oldest structures in the London Zoo. The first large aviary inside a zoological garden was established in 1880 in the setting of the Rotterdam Zoo. Aviaries were an important aspect for the many Rothschild houses that proliferated across Europe in the 19th century; this was a recalling of the aristocratic custom from the late 1600s, which involved the elite society displaying their power and wealth through the exhibition of exotic birds and animals.
For instance, Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild built his aviary in 1889 at Waddesdon Manor, UK, erected in the style of Versailles' trelliswork pavilions. In 1902, a flying cage was completed in the setting of the National Zoological Park of the Smithsonian Institution. A new Great Flying Cage was built in 1964; the Saint Louis Zoo is home to the 1904 World's Fair Flight Cage. It is one of only two permanent structures built for the World's Fair. In 1904, it was the largest bird cage built, it remains one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. The 69 m long, 26 m wide, 15 m high cage was built by the Smithsonian Institution for the St. Louis World's Fair. Local pride in the giant cage motivated St. Louis to establish a zoo in 1910. In 1937, the San Diego Zoo's aviary designed by architect Louis John Gill opened; the mammoth steel structure, 55 m long, 18 m wide and more than 30 m high, funded by the Works Progress Administration at a cost of $50,000, had no beams, cross or guy-wires to impede the flight of the birds.
With the Antwerp cage system, birds are only separate from public with a light system used indoor the Bird Building at Antwerp Zoo. At the Frankfurt Zoo, the bird house was built in 1969, its Bird Halls presented birds for the first time in large glassed miniature habitats. In diving exhibits and kingfishers could be seen hunting under water, in the free-flight hall visitors still walk amongst tropical birds in dense vegetation. In 1963, the same principle was used outdoors to construct the Bird Thicket, ten aviaries surrounded by dense bushes and designed in various habitat settings, which visitors can enter through wire netted doors and curtains of cords; the Snowdon Aviary in London Zoo was designed by Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, Cedric Price and Frank Newby, built in 1962-1964. The Bronx Zoo's World of Birds, a two-story bird house completed in 1972, is a huge, indoor free-flight exhibit; the one-way flow pattern in the exhibit moves the visitors through twenty-five birds habitats, ranging from desert to tropical forest.
Each setting recreates with impressive fidelity the microculture of the birds that fly merrily about within their diorama world, complete with living plants. Five of the aviaries are open: in two of the largest the uncaged public walks through the habitat with birds overhead; the Henry Doorly Zoo's Simmons Aviary opened in 1983 and is one of the world's largest free-flight aviaries. About 500 birds from all parts of the world occupy the area of the aviary. In this 16,000-square-metre exhibit, visitors see flamingos, swans, cranes, spoonbills and egrets; the Aviary rises to 23 m at the center. The structure of two-inch nylon mesh is supported by a system of poles; the use of nylon instead of wire is a unique concept. Birds of Eden bird sanctuary, located in the Western Cape of South Africa, is the largest free flight aviary in the world; the aviary opened in 2005 and covers an area of 21,761 m2 with a total volume of 375,372 m3
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden
Budapest Zoo & Botanical Garden is the oldest zoo park in Hungary and one of the oldest in the world. It has 1,072 animal species and is located within Városliget Park, unusually for a zoo, it is in the centre of the city; the zoo opened its doors on 9 August 1866. The park has 1–1.1 million visitors every year. The area is a nature reserve, has some valuable art nouveau buildings designed by Kornél Neuschloss and Károly Kós. More than 1,000 species are living there; the most special animals that are present in the zoo are the Komodo dragon and from December 2011 the wombat. The zoo is located in the city centre and can be reached by Line 1 Official city card owners get a 25% discount for a single ticket into the zoo; the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden is one of the oldest in the world. The idea of the foundation dates back to 1820-30s but it opened only on 9 August 1866, it was an initiation of a group of patriots among others Ágoston Kubinyi, geologist József Szabó, Ágoston Kubinyi, the Director of the National Museum, József Gerenday, the Director of the Botanical Garden of Budapest, János Xántus, a zoologist and the first director of the zoo.
At that time, the zoo displayed Hungarian species and some rare species of monkeys, parrots and kangaroos, among others. Franz Joseph and Queen Elizabeth donated other animals to the zoo; the first lion house opened in 1876 with tigers. An elephant, a hippopotamus, a rhinoceros joined on. However, the initial enthusiasm waned and popularity of the zoo decreased; the new animals were expensive and the expenses of the company founded by the patriots exceeded the revenues. The management hired entertainers and comedians and the corporation was transformed into an animal and plant naturalizing company. In 1873, Károly Serák was mandated zoo director, he directed for more than 30 years and he managed to maintain the zoo. He hired several artists, such as fire eaters, sword swallowers, tightrope dancers in order to attract people; the revenues increased and the zoo was able to buy several special or rare animals, such as a hippopotamus and a Sumatran rhinoceros. The zoo housed about 2,000 species. However, as the authorities increased the rental fee and the financial situation of the zoo deteriorated.
The company went bankrupt after the Millennium in 1896. In 1907, the zoo was taken over by the capital city, Budapest. Supported by the mayor of Budapest, István Bárczy and his city developing program, a complete reconstruction took place between 1909 and 1912; the zoo was re-opened on 20 May 1912. The entertainers were separated from the zoo and a botanical garden was created; the historic buildings of the zoo are from this time too. Adolf Lendl, a zoologist, was mandated the zoo director; the institution was one of the most modern zoos in Europe. The development was interrupted by the First World War; the zoo was entirely destroyed in the Second World War. At the siege of Budapest, the zoo was bombed and most buildings and animals were destroyed. After the siege, the remaining animals were eaten by the starving people of Budapest. From 2,000 specimens only 15 survived. In 1945, the zoo re-opened with a few dozen animals; the damage was restored slowly. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a major modernization.
Between 1956 and 1967, the Director General of the zoo was Dr. Csaba Anghi. Under his guidance, the zoo became once again one of the most modern zoos of Europe. In 1994, Miklós Persányi was appointed Director General; the historic buildings were reconstructed. The animal habitats have been modernized and made to look more natural. In 2007, the first rhinoceros to be born with artificial insemination was born in the zoo. In 2012, the General Assembly of Budapest has decided, that the zoo will take over part of the Amusement Park’s territory and introduce Pony Park, a family game park and zoo. On 14 February 2013, the zoo welcomed its first elephant calf since 1961. In 2013, the zoo will acquire most of the Amusement Park’s territory and use it to display subtropical fauna and flora in a spacious glasshouse; the Magical HillThe newest attraction of the zoo is The Magical Hill, found in the Great Rock. It presents the diversity of flora and fauna, the evolving of the diversity and the relationship between humankind and nature.
It features more than 100 species, interactive games, illustrative models. America TropicanaAmerica Tropicana is the new name of the Palm-house, it presents the fauna of the tropical climate American continent. Savannah ZoneThe Savannah Zone displays giraffes, white rhinoceros, many species of birds; the building displays small mammals and insects. Australia ZoneAustralia Zone is found next to the Great Lake, it displays unique birds and amphibians of Australia. The showrooms of the northern part of the house presents animals active at night in reversed lighting scheme; the Hillhouse is a part of the Australia Zone. It displays cassowaries and wombats. India ZoneIndia House, the central building was built in 1912 by the plans of Károly Kós and Dezső Zrumeczky, it presents striped hyenae among others. János Xántus HouseThe building named after the first director of the zoo represents the wildlife of South-East Asian flora and fauna. Primates Near-at-HandThe zoo shows many species of primates group though not in the neighbourhood of each others.
In the South-America House, squirrel monkeys are on display. In the Xántus János house, visitors can see Javan surilis; the Madagascar House houses ring-tailed lemurs and white ruffed lemurs, red ruffed lemurs, black lemurs, red-fronted lemurs as well as one of Europa's oldest Siamangs. The Gr
A dolphinarium is an aquarium for dolphins. The dolphins are kept in a large pool, though they may be kept in pens in the open sea, either for research or for public performances; some dolphinariums consist of one pool where dolphins perform for the public, others are part of larger parks, such as marine mammal parks, zoos or theme parks, with other animals and attractions as well. While cetaceans have been held in captivity since the 1860s, the first commercial dolphinarium was opened only in 1938, their popularity increased until the 1960s. Since the 1970s, increasing concern for animal welfare led to stricter regulation, which in several countries resulted in the closure of some dolphinariums. Despite this trend, dolphinariums are still widespread in Europe and North America; the most common species of dolphin kept in dolphinariums is the bottlenose dolphin, as it is easy to train and has a long lifespan in captivity. While trade in dolphins is internationally regulated, other aspects of keeping dolphins in captivity, such as the minimum size and characteristics of pools, vary among countries.
Though animal welfare is perceived to have improved over the last few decades, many animal rights groups still consider keeping dolphins captive to be a form of animal abuse. Though cetaceans have been held in captivity in both North America and Europe since the by 1860—Boston Aquarial Gardens in 1859 and pairs of Beluga Whales in Barnum's American Museum in New York City museum— dolphins were first kept for paid entertainment in the Marine Studios dolphinarium founded in 1938 in St. Augustine, Florida, it was here. Recognizing the success of Marine Studios, more dolphinariums began keeping dolphins for entertainment. In the 1960s, keeping dolphins in zoos and aquariums for entertainment purposes increased in popularity after the 1963 Flipper movie and subsequent Flipper television series. In 1966, the first dolphin was exported to Europe. In these early days, dolphinariums could grow due to a lack of legislation and lack of concern for animal welfare. New legislation, most notably the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act in the United States, combined with a more critical view on animal welfare, forced many dolphinariums around the world to close.
A prominent example is the United Kingdom. The last dolphinarium in Hungary was closed in 1992. In 2005 both Chile and Costa Rica prohibited keeping cetaceans captive. However, around 60 dolphinariums exist across Europe, of which 34 are within the EU. Japan and the United States are home to a large number of dolphinariums. Many varied designs exist, but basic dolphinarium design for public performances consists of stands for the public around a semi-circular pool, sometimes with glass walls which allow underwater viewing, a platform in the middle from which the trainers direct and present the show; the water in the pools has to be filtered to keep it clean for the dolphins and the spectators, the temperature and composition of the water has to be controlled to match the conditions dolphins experience in the wild. In the absence of a common international regulation, guidelines regarding the minimum size of the pools vary between countries. To give an indication of pool sizes, the European Association for Aquatic Mammals recommends that a pool for five dolphins should have a surface area of 275 m2 plus an additional 75 m2 for every additional animal, have a depth of 3.5 m and have a water volume of at least 1,000 m3 with an additional 200 m3 for every additional animal.
If two of these three conditions are met, the third is not more than 10% below standard, the EAAM considers the pool size to be acceptable. Various species of dolphins are kept in captivity as well as several other small whale species such as Harbour Porpoises, Finless Porpoises and Belugas, though in those cases the word dolphinarium may not be fitting as these are not true dolphins. Bottlenose Dolphins are the most common species of dolphin kept in dolphinariums as they are easy to train, have a long lifespan in captivity and a friendly appearance. Hundreds if not thousands of Bottlenose Dolphins live in captivity across the world, though exact numbers are hard to determine. Orcas are well known for their performances in shows, but the number of Orcas kept in captivity is small when compared to the number of bottlenose dolphins, with only 44 captive orcas being held in aquaria as of 2012. Of all Orcas kept in captivity, the majority are located in the various SeaWorld parks in the United States.
Other species kept in captivity are Spotted Dolphins, False Killer Whales, Pilot Whales and Common Dolphins, Commerson's Dolphins, as well as Rough-toothed Dolphins, but all in much lower numbers than the Bottlenose Dolphin. There are fewer than ten Amazon River Dolphins, Risso's Dolphins, or Tucuxi in captivity. There are few to no Spinner Dolphins in captivity at the time. Two unusual and rare hybrid dolphins known as Wolphins are kept at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii, which are a cross between a Bottlenose Dolphin and a False Killer Whale. Two Common/Bottlenose hybrids reside in captivity: one at Discovery Cove and the other SeaWorld San Diego. In the early days, many Bottlenose dolphins were wild-caught off the coast of Florida. Though the Marine Mammal Protection Act, established in 1972, allows an exception for the collection of dolphins for public display and research purposes when a permit is obtained, Bottlenose dolphins have no
Bükk National Park
Bükk National Park is a national park in the Bükk Mountains of Northern Hungary, near Miskolc. It was founded in 1976 as the third national park in the country, it contains 431.3 km². Mountainous and forested, Bükk is Hungary's largest national park and is situated in the northern mountains, between Szilvásvárad and Lillafüred. Bükk's important geological features include various karst formations within its limestone mountains - caves, swallow-holes, ravines; the country's longest and deepest cave, Istvánlápa, is located in the park. Bükk National Park contains ninety species of nesting birds, some considered endangered; the Vatican Climate Forest was to be located within the Park. KlimaFa was started by a San Francisco promoter, Russ George, who promised a carbon offsetting project, intended to offset the Vatican's carbon dioxide emissions. However, no trees have been planted. In an interview with the Christian Science Monitor, Lajos Kiss, mayor of the village of Tiszakeszi pointed out an empty area along the Tisza River where the trees were supposed to be planted.
The Monitor said the Vatican was considering "legal action in order to defend the Vatican’s reputation." List of national parks of Hungary Bükk culture Media related to Bükk National Park at Wikimedia Commons Official website of the park Description of geology and flora Bukk Mountains Britannica.com