Gelatin desserts or jellies are desserts made with sweetened and flavored gelatin. This kind of dessert is first recorded by Hannah Glasse in her 18th century book The Art of Cookery and they can be made by combining plain gelatin with other ingredients or by using a premixed blend of gelatin with additives. Fully prepared gelatin desserts are sold in a variety of forms, before gelatin became widely available as a commercial product, the most typical gelatin dessert was calfs foot jelly. As the name indicates, this was made by extracting and purifying gelatin from the foot of a calf and this gelatin was used for savory dishes in aspic, or was mixed with fruit juice and sugar for a dessert. It was flavored with sugar, lemon juice and mixed spices and this preparation was called jelly, Hannah Glasse was the first to record the use of this jelly in trifle in her book The Art of Cookery, first published in 1747. To make a dessert, gelatin is dissolved in hot liquid with the desired flavors. Because the collagen is processed extensively, the product is not categorized as a meat or animal product by the US federal government.
Prepared commercial blends may be sold as a powder or as a concentrated gelatinous block, either type is mixed with sufficient hot water to completely dissolve it, and mixed with enough cold water to make the volume of liquid specified on the packet. The solubility of powdered gelatin can be enhanced by sprinkling it into the several minutes before heating, blooming the individual granules. The fully dissolved mixture is refrigerated, slowly forming a colloidal gel as it cools. Some types of fruit and their unprocessed juices are incompatible with gelatin desserts. When fully chilled, the most common ratios of gelatin to liquid usually result in a custard-like texture which can retain detailed shapes when cold but melts back to a viscous liquid when warm. A recipe calling for the addition of gelatin to regular jelly gives a rubbery product that can be cut into shapes with cookie cutters. Higher gelatin ratios can be used to increase the stability of the gel, the Bloom Strength of a gelatin mixture is the measure of how strong it is.
It is defined by the force in grams required to press a 12.5 mm diameter plunger 4 mm into 112 g of a standard 6. 67% w/v gelatin gel at 10 °C. The Bloom Strength of a gel is useful to know when determining the possibility of substituting a gelatin of one Bloom Strength for a gelatin of another. One can use the equation, C x B½ = k or C1½÷½ = C2 Where C = concentration, B = Bloom strength. For example, when making gummies, its important to know that a 250 Bloom gelatin has a shorter texture than a 180 Bloom gelatin
Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. Roads that are available for use by the public may be referred to as parkways, freeways, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a function as urban space easement. Modern roads are normally smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel, historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In the United Kingdom there is ambiguity between the terms highway and road. The Highway code details rules for road users and this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, and road and driveways on private land and many car parks. Vehicle Excise Duty, a use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway, in the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, and private roads, which are privately controlled.
The assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted, others believe that some roads originated from following animal trails. The Icknield Way is given as an example of type of road origination. By about 10,000 BC, rough roads/pathways were used by human travelers, the worlds oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone-paved streets are found in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC, corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in Glastonbury, England. The Sweet Track, a timber causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, tree-ring dating enabled very precise dating and it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6, 000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets were used in India as early as 3000 BC, in 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for Persia, including the Royal Road, which was one of the finest highways of its time.
The road remained in use after Roman times, a hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, at its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire, the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved with tar
A blackboard is a reusable writing surface on which text or drawings are made with sticks of calcium sulfate or calcium carbonate, when used for this purpose, as chalk. Blackboards were originally made of smooth, thin sheets of black or dark grey slate stone, a blackboard can simply be a piece of board painted with matte dark paint. Black plastic sign material, using the trade name sintra is used to create custom chalkboard art, a more modern variation consists of a coiled sheet of plastic drawn across two parallel rollers, which can be scrolled to create additional writing space while saving what has been written. The highest grade blackboards are made of a rougher version porcelain enamelled steel, porcelain is very hard wearing and blackboards made of porcelain usually last 10–20 years in intensive use. Manufacturing of slate blackboards began by the 1840s, green chalkboards, generally made of porcelain enamel on a steel base, first appeared in the 1960s. Lecture theatres may contain a number of blackboards in a grid arrangement, the lecturer moves boards into reach for writing and moves them out of reach, allowing a large amount of material to be shown simultaneously.
The chalk marks can be wiped off with a damp cloth. However, chalk marks made on some types of wet blackboard can be difficult to remove, sticks of processed chalk are produced especially for use with blackboards in white and in various colours. These are often not from chalk rock but from calcium sulfate in its dihydrate form. Chalk sticks containing calcium carbonate typically contain 40-60% of CaCO3, as compared to whiteboards, blackboards have a variety of advantages, Chalk requires no special care, whiteboard markers must be capped or else they dry out. Chalk is an order of magnitude cheaper than whiteboard markers for a amount of writing. It is easier to draw lines of different weights and thicknesses with chalk than with whiteboard markers, dashed lines can be drawn very quickly using a technique involving the friction of the chalk and blackboard. Chalk has a smell, whereas whiteboard markers often have a pungent odor. Chalk writing often provides better contrast than whiteboard markers, Chalk can be easily erased, writing which has been left on a whiteboard for a prolonged period may require a solvent to remove.
Chalk can be removed from most clothing, whiteboard markers often permanently stain fabric. On the other hand, chalk produces dust, the amount depending on the quality of chalk used, the dust precludes the use of chalk in areas shared with dust-sensitive equipment such as computers. The writing on chalkboards is difficult to read in the dark, Chalk sticks are notorious for shrinking through use, and breaking in half unless inserted in a writing utensil designed to store chalk. According to a run by Michael Oehler, a professor at the University of Media and Communication in Cologne, Germany
Jell-O is a registered trademark of Kraft Foods for varieties of gelatin desserts, including fruit gels, puddings and no-bake cream pies. Jell-O is sold prepared or in form, and is available in various colors and flavors. The powder contains powdered gelatin and flavorings, including sugar or artificial sweeteners and it is dissolved in hot water and allowed to set. Fruit and whipped cream can be added to make elaborate snacks that can be molded into shapes, Jell-O must be put in a refrigerator until served, and once set, it can be eaten. There are non-gelatin pudding and pie filling products sold under the Jell-O brand, Pudding is cooked on the stove top with milk, eaten warm or chilled until firmly set. Jell-O has an instant pudding product which is mixed with cold milk, to make pie fillings, the same products are prepared with less liquid. Gelatin, a protein produced from collagen extracted from boiled bones, connective tissues, gelatin was popularized in Bellows Falls in the Victorian era with spectacular and complex jelly moulds.
Gelatin was sold in sheets and had to be purified, which was time-consuming, gelatin desserts were the province of royalty and the relatively well-to-do. In 1845, a patent for powdered gelatin was obtained by industrialist Peter Cooper, who built the first American steam-powered locomotive and this powdered gelatin was easy to manufacture and easier to use in cooking. In 1897, in LeRoy, New York and cough syrup manufacturer, Pearle Bixby Wait trademarked a gelatin dessert and he and his wife May added strawberry, raspberry and lemon flavoring to granulated gelatin and sugar. Then in 1899, Jell-O was sold to Orator Francis Woodward, part of the legal agreement between Woodward and Wait dealt with the similar Jell-O name. Various elements were key to Jell-O becoming a product, new technologies, such as refrigeration, powdered gelatin and machine packaging, home economics classes. Initially Woodward struggled to sell the powdered product, beginning in 1902, to raise awareness, Woodwards Genesee Pure Food Company placed advertisements in the Ladies Home Journal proclaiming Jell-O to be Americas Most Famous Dessert.
Jell-O was a success until 1904, when Genesee Pure Food Company sent armies of salesmen into the field to distribute free Jell-O cookbooks. Within a decade, three new flavors, chocolate and peach, were added, and the brand was launched in Canada, celebrity testimonials and recipes appeared in advertisements featuring actress Ethel Barrymore and opera singer Ernestine Schumann-Heink. Some Jell-O illustrated advertisements were painted by Maxfield Parrish, in 1923, the newly rechristened Jell-O Company launched D-Zerta, an artificially sweetened version of Jell-O. Two years later and Genesee merged, and in 1927 Postum acquired Clarence Birdseyes frozen foods company to form the General Foods Corporation, popular Jell-O recipes often included ingredients like cabbage, green peppers, and even cooked pasta. By the 1950s, salads would become so popular that Jell-O responded with savory and vegetable such as celery, mixed vegetable
Keswick is an English market town and civil parish, historically in Cumberland, and since 1974 in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria. The town, in the Lake District National Park, just north of Derwentwater, among the towns annual events is the Keswick Convention, an Evangelical gathering attracting visitors from many countries. Keswick became widely known for its association with the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge, together with their fellow Lake Poet William Wordsworth, based at Grasmere,12 miles away, they made the scenic beauty of the area widely known to readers in Britain and beyond. The town is first recorded in Edward Is charter of the 13th century, among the scholars supporting the cheese farm toponymy are Eilert Ekwall and A D Mills, and Diana Whaley, for the English Place-Name Society. Evidence of prehistoric occupation in the area includes the Castlerigg stone circle on the fringe of the town. Neolithic-era stone tools were unearthed inside the circle and in the centre of Keswick during the 19th century, the antiquary W G Collingwood, commenting in 1925 about finds in the area, wrote that they showed Stone Age man was fairly at home in the Lake District.
In Roman Britain Cumbria was the territory of the Carvetii, as the site of the western part of Hadrians Wall, it was of strategic importance. Such nearby settlements as can be traced from the era of the Romans, many local place names from the period, including that of the River Derwent, are Celtic, some closely related to Welsh equivalents. The former, the pupil and friend of St Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, lived as a hermit on an island in Derwentwater, now named after him. Kentigern, who lived and preached in the area before moving to Wales, is held to have founded Crosthwaite Church. Keswicks recorded history starts in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria in the seventh century, but Northumbria was destroyed by the Vikings in the late ninth. In the early tenth century the British Kingdom of Strathclyde seized the area, and it remained part of Strathclyde until about 1050, when Siward, Earl of Northumbria, conquered Cumbria. In 1181 Jocelyn of Furness wrote of a new church at Crosthwaite, founded by Alice de Romilly, the Lady of Allerdale, in 1189, Richard I granted the rectory of Crosthwaite to the Cistercian order of Fountains Abbey.
During the 13th century, agricultural land around the town was acquired by Fountains, the latter, already prosperous from the wool trade, wished to expand its sheep farming, and in 1208 bought large tracts of land from Alice de Romilly. She negotiated with Fountains Abbey, to which she sold Derwent Island in Derwentwater, land at Watendlath, Keswick was at the hub of the monastic farms in the area, and Fountains based a steward in the town, where tenants paid their rents. Furness enjoyed profitable rights to the extraction of iron ore, Keswick was granted a charter for a market in 1276 by Edward I. This market has a history lasting for more than 700 years. According to local tradition these stout walls and the entrances to the yards were for defence against marauding Scots
A Panama hat is a traditional brimmed straw hat of Ecuadorian origin. Traditionally, hats were made from the leaves of the Carludovica palmata plant, known locally as the toquilla palm or jipijapa palm. Panama hats are light-colored and breathable, and often worn as accessories to summer-weight suits, beginning around the turn of the 20th century, panamas began to be associated with the seaside and tropical locales. The art of weaving the traditional Ecuadorian toquilla hat was added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists on 6 December 2012. Beginning in the early to mid-1600s, hat weaving evolved as an industry along the Ecuadorian coast as well as in small towns throughout the Andean mountain range. Hat weaving and wearing grew steadily in Ecuador through the 17th and 18th centuries, even then, the best quality hats were being made in what is now the province of Manabí. One of the first towns to start weaving the hats in the Andes is Principal, the term was being used by at least 1834.
The popularity of the increased in the mid-19th century when many miners of the California Gold Rush traveled to California via the Isthmus of Panama. In 1904, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited the site of the Panama Canal and was photographed wearing a Panama hat. Tamsui hat The tamsui hat was a hat made in Formosa to directly compete with the Panama in the early 20th century. Tamsui hats were made from Pandanus odorattssimus fibre, which grew plentifully on the island, as they retained their whiteness, were washable, and could be folded and carried about without damage, Tamsui hats replaced the rather costlier Panama in East Asia in the early 20th century. The two main processes in the creation of a Panama hat are weaving and blocking, hats are commercially graded with numeric degrees to indicate quality, but these vary by seller. The best quality hats are known as Montecristis, after the town of Montecristi, the Montecristi Foundation has established a grading system based on a figure called the Montecristi Cuenta, calculated by measuring the horizontal and vertical rows of weave per inch.
The rarest and most expensive Panama hats are hand-woven with up to 3000 weaves per square inch, according to popular lore, a superfino Panama hat can hold water and, when rolled up, pass through a wedding ring. Although the Panama hat continues to provide a livelihood for thousands of Ecuadorians, production in Ecuador is dwindling, due to economic problems in Ecuador and competition from Chinese hat producers. Fedora Trilby Buchet, Hamani, Panama, A Legendary Hat. de Tamariz, Leonor, María. El sombrero de paja toquilla – historia y economía, the History of Panama Hat Style Qualities and how to recognize a genuine Panama Hat Panama Hat, A Legend, a Lifestyle
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, nonmagnetic, ductile metal, Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite, Aluminium is remarkable for the metals low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium, despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts abundance, the potential for a role for them is of continuing interest. Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, ductile. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite, a fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector of visible light and an excellent reflector of medium and far infrared radiation.
The yield strength of aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel and it is easily machined, cast and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a cubic structure. Aluminium has an energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper. Aluminium is capable of superconductivity, with a critical temperature of 1.2 kelvin. Aluminium is the most common material for the fabrication of superconducting qubits, the strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is reduced by aqueous salts, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. In highly acidic solutions, aluminium reacts with water to form hydrogen, primarily because it is corroded by dissolved chlorides, such as common sodium chloride, household plumbing is never made from aluminium
Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a metal in group 14 of the periodic table. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide, Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, and has two main oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, metallic tin is not easily oxidized in air. The first alloy used on a scale was bronze, made of tin and copper. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced, which is an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder commonly consisting of copper and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century. In modern times, tin is used in alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel, inorganic tin compounds are rather non-toxic. Because of its low toxicity, tin-plated metal was used for packaging as tin cans.
However, overexposure to tin may cause problems with metabolizing essential trace elements such as copper and zinc, Tin is a soft, malleable and highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When a bar of tin is bent, a sound known as the tin cry can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at the low temperature of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14, the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. β-tin, which is stable at and above room temperature, is malleable, in contrast, α-tin, which is stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. α-tin has a cubic crystal structure, similar to diamond. α-tin has no properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely. It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications and these two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more commonly known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 °C, in cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as tin pest.
Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the effect of the small amounts of bismuth, lead
Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels. Two types of technology share the name sonar, passive sonar is essentially listening for the sound made by vessels, active sonar is emitting pulses of sounds, Sonar may be used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of targets in the water. Acoustic location in air was used before the introduction of radar, Sonar may be used in air for robot navigation, and SODAR is used for atmospheric investigations. The term sonar is used for the equipment used to generate. The acoustic frequencies used in sonar systems vary from low to extremely high. The study of sound is known as underwater acoustics or hydroacoustics. In the 19th century a bell was used as an ancillary to lighthouses to provide warning of hazards. The use of sound to locate underwater in the same way as bats use sound for aerial navigation seems to have been prompted by the Titanic disaster of 1912. S.
Revenue Cutter Miami on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland Canada, in that test, Fessenden demonstrated depth sounding, underwater communications and echo ranging. The so-called Fessenden oscillator, at ca.500 Hz frequency, was unable to determine the bearing of the due to the 3 metre wavelength. The ten Montreal-built British H class submarines launched in 1915 were equipped with a Fessenden oscillator, during World War I the need to detect submarines prompted more research into the use of sound. Although piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers superseded the electrostatic transducers they used, lightweight sound-sensitive plastic film and fibre optics have been used for hydrophones, while Terfenol-D and PMN have been developed for projectors. By 1918, both France and Britain had built prototype active systems, the British tested their ASDIC on HMS Antrim in 1920, and started production in 1922. The 6th Destroyer Flotilla had ASDIC-equipped vessels in 1923, an anti-submarine school, HMS Osprey, and a training flotilla of four vessels were established on Portland in 1924.
The US Sonar QB set arrived in 1931, by the outbreak of World War II, the Royal Navy had five sets for different surface ship classes, and others for submarines, incorporated into a complete anti-submarine attack system. The effectiveness of early ASDIC was hamstrung by the use of the charge as an anti-submarine weapon. This required a vessel to pass over a submerged contact before dropping charges over the stern. The hunter was effectively firing blind, during which time a commander could take evasive action
Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 and symbol Pb. When freshly cut, it is bluish-white, it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air and it is a soft and heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials. Lead has the second-highest atomic number of the stable elements. Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal and its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature and tendency to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are found in the +2 oxidation state. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds, like the lighter members of the group, lead exhibits a tendency to bond to itself, it can form chains and polyhedral structures. Lead is easily extracted from its ores and was known to people in Western Asia. A principal ore of lead, often bears silver, Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels again until the Industrial Revolution. Nowadays, global production of lead is about ten million tonnes annually, Lead has several properties that make it useful, high density, low melting point and relative inertness to oxidation.
In the late 19th century, lead was recognized as poisonous, Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, damaging the nervous system and causing brain disorders and, in mammals, blood disorders. A lead atom has 82 electrons, arranged in a configuration of 4f145d106s26p2. The combined first and second ionization energies—the total energy required to remove the two 6p electrons—is close to that of tin, leads upper neighbor in group 14. This is unusual since ionization energies generally fall going down a group as an elements outer electrons become more distant from the nucleus, the similarity is caused by the lanthanide contraction—the decrease in element radii from lanthanum to lutetium, and the relatively small radii of the elements after hafnium. The contraction is due to shielding of the nucleus by the lanthanide 4f electrons. The combined first four ionization energies of lead exceed those of tin, for this reason lead, unlike tin, mostly forms compounds in which it has an oxidation state of +2, rather than +4.
Relativistic effects, which become particularly prominent at the bottom of the periodic table, as a result, the 6s electrons of lead become reluctant to participate in bonding, a phenomenon called the inert pair effect. A related outcome is that the distance between nearest atoms in crystalline lead is unusually long, the lighter group 14 elements form stable or metastable allotropes having the tetrahedrally coordinated and covalently bonded diamond cubic structure. The energy levels of their outer s- and p-orbitals are close enough to allow mixing into four hybrid sp3 orbitals