Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t
Miss World 2009
Miss World 2009, the 59th edition of the Miss World pageant, was held on 12 December 2009 at the Gallagher Convention Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa. 112 contestants from all over the world competed for the crown, marking the biggest turnout in the pageant's history. Ksenia Sukhinova of Russia crowned her successor Kaiane Aldorino of Gibraltar at the end of event, it is the first time. In the past, people from mainland Britain have won. Julia Morley – Chairwoman of the Miss World Organization Priyanka Chopra – Miss World 2000 from India Zhang Zilin – Miss World 2007 from China PR Mike Dixon – Musical Director JJ Schoeman – Designer Lindiwe Mahlangu-Kwele – CEO Johannesburg Tourism Company Graham Cooke – MD World Travel Group Warren Batchelor – Executive Producer of Miss World 2009 England – Due to the media attention following the allegations against her, Rachel Christie has now decided to withdraw from the Miss World competition and relinquish her Miss England crown. Katrina Hodge replaced her to participate in Miss World 2009.
Germany – Alessandra Alores was disqualified due to several nude pictures of her on the Internet. Stefanie Peeck replaced her to participate in Miss World 2009. Russia – Sofia Rudieva was allowed to compete in Miss Universe 2009 by the Miss Universe Organization, but the Miss World Organization did not accept her as a contestant due several nude pictures of her on the Internet. Ksenia Shipilova replaced her to participate in Miss World 2009. Singapore – The original winner, Ris Low, backed out of the finals at Miss World 2009, her decision came after a slew of negative media reports in which she incurred the ire of the public for her poor English. News of her conviction for credit card fraud in May surfaced, after she stole credit cards worth $6000, she was sentenced to two years' probation for credit card fraud. There was a national petition for her to step down. Ris Low was diagnosed with bipolar disorder; the first runner-up Claire Lee, declined to represent Singapore due to a back injury which prevents her from standing for long periods of time, as Ris Low accused her of backstabbing her, she withdrew from the pageant immediately.
Claire Lee rebutted Ris Low's allegations on her blog. On 9 October, ERM World Marketing announced Pilar Carmelita Arlando as the new Miss Singapore World 2009, who represented Singapore at the Miss World contest. Before that, she was the second runner-up at Miss Singapore World 2009. However, Pilar was criticised by many netizens for not knowing who's the first president of Singapore, not knowing how many years Singapore has been independent, claiming that the Merlion, a symbol of Singapore, became extinct in 1965, unaware that the Merlion is a fictitious animal. Uruguay – Cinthia D'Ottone was the original Uruguayan representative to Miss World 2009, but she was replaced at the last minute by Claudia Vanrell due to Cinthia's health related issues. Vietnam – Trần Thị Hương Giang was appointed to represent Vietnam at Miss World 2009, she is the 2nd runner-up of Miss Vietnam Global 2009. Antigua & Barbuda – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship Cayman Islands – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship for the national pageant Chile – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship for the national pageant Chinese Taipei – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship Congo DR – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship St. Kitts & Nevis – Venetta Zakers, the winner of the Miss World Saint Kitts and Nevis 2009 pageant, did not compete in Miss World 2009 due to communication problems between her and the national pageant organisation.
However, the pageant was held again in 2010 to select the representative for Miss World 2010. St. Lucia – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship Seychelles – Due to lack of funding and sponsorship Pageantopolis – Miss World 2009
Neanderthals in Gibraltar
The Neanderthals in Gibraltar were among the first to be discovered by modern scientists and have been among the most well studied of their species according to a number of extinction studies which emphasize regional differences claiming the Iberian Peninsula acted as a “refuge” for the shrinking Neanderthal populations and the Gibraltar community of Neanderthals as having been one of many dwindling communities of archaic human populations, existing just until around 42,000 years ago. Many other Neanderthal communities went extinct around the same time; the skull of a Neanderthal woman, discovered in a quarry in 1848, was only the second Neanderthal skull found and the first adult Neanderthal skull to be discovered, eight years before the discovery of the skull for which the species was named in Neandertal, Germany. The skull of a Neanderthal child was discovered nearby in 1926; the Neanderthals are known to have occupied ten sites on the Gibraltar peninsula at the southern tip of Iberia, which may have had one of the densest areas of Neanderthal settlement of anywhere in Europe, although not the last place of possible habitation.
The caves in the Rock of Gibraltar that the Neanderthals inhabited have been excavated and have revealed a wealth of information about their lifestyle and the prehistoric landscape of the area. The peninsula stood on the edge of a fertile coastal plain, now submerged, that supported a wide variety of animals and plants which the Neanderthals exploited to provide a varied diet. Unlike northern Europe, which underwent massive swings in its climate and was uninhabitable for long periods, the far south of Iberia enjoyed a stable and mild climate for over 125,000 years, it became a refuge from the ice ages for animals and Neanderthals, the latter of which most did not survive there for thousand years longer than any other habitation site. Around 42,000 years ago, the climate underwent cycles of abrupt change which would have disrupt the Gibraltar Neanderthals' food supply and may have stressed their population beyond recovery, leading to their aggregated extinction in areas of Europe with similar climates.
In Gibraltar, but in other less well studied areas, did the Homo Neanderthalensis leave its last footprint of existence circa 40,000 BCE. The Gibraltar Neanderthals first came to light in 1848 during excavations in the course of the construction of a fortification called Forbes' Barrier at the northern end of the Rock of Gibraltar; the skull of a Neanderthal was discovered in Forbes' Quarry by Lieutenant Edmund Flint, though its exact provenance is unknown, was the subject of a presentation to the Gibraltar Scientific Society by Lieutenant Flint in March 1848. It was not realised at the time that the skull, now known as Gibraltar 1, was of a separate species and it was not until 1862 that it was studied by palaeontologists George Busk and Hugh Falconer during a visit to Gibraltar, they gave a report on it to the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1864 and proposed that the species be called Homo calpicus after Mons Calpe, the ancient name for Gibraltar. It was only realised that the skull was a specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, named for the Neanderthal 1 skull found in Germany in 1856.
Busk described it as "characteristic of a race extending from the Rhine to the Pillars of Hercules", highlighting its importance as confirmation that the Neanderthal 1 specimen was genuinely a member of a distinct species and not a deformed Homo sapiens. The skull was the first Neanderthal adult cranium to be discovered and, although small, is nearly complete. In 1926, a second Neanderthal skull was found by Dorothy Garrod at a rock shelter named Devil's Tower close to Forbes' Quarry; this fossil, known as Gibraltar 2, is much less complete than the Gibraltar 1 skull and has been identified as that of a four-year-old child. Further excavations at the two sites are infeasible. Quarrying at Forbes' Quarry has meant that it has been denuded of Pleistocene sediments while Devil's Tower is directly under the North Front of the Rock of Gibraltar and is one of the most dangerous places on the entire peninsula due to frequent rockfalls; the limestone massif of the Rock of Gibraltar is riddled with caves – its ancient name, means "hollow" – and it was here that archaeologists focused their efforts to find sites of Neanderthal occupation.
Ten such sites have been discovered so far, of which the most important are five caves on the eastern side of the Rock: Ibex Cave, high up on the east side, only discovered in 1975 due to being buried under the wind-blown sands of the Great Gibraltar Sand Dune, four sea caves near sea level on the south-eastern flank, Boathoist Cave, Vanguard Cave, Gorham's Cave and Bennett's Cave. Large-scale excavations in 1947–54 by John d'Arcy Waechter showed that Gorham's Cave had been occupied for over 100,000 years during the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and Holocene epochs. Further excavations have been carried out in Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves since 1994 as part of the Gibraltar Museum's Gibraltar Caves Project; the excavations have revealed the best evidence of a Neanderthal landscape found anywhere, buried under many metres of sand, fallen stalactites, bat guano and other debris that has fortuitously preserved an abundance of palaeontological evidence on the cave floors. The finds have enabled palaeontologists to reconstruct the lifestyles of the occupants and their environment in considerable detail.
The finds in Gorham's Cave include charcoal, stone tools and burnt
Great Siege of Gibraltar
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence. The British garrison under George Augustus Eliott were blockaded from June 1779 by the Spanish alone, led by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor; the blockade failed because two relief convoys entered unmolested—the first under Admiral George Rodney in 1780 and the second under Admiral George Darby in 1781—despite the presence of the Spanish fleets. The same year, a major assault was planned by the Spanish, but the Gibraltar garrison sortied in November and destroyed much of the forward batteries. With the siege going nowhere and constant Spanish failures, the besiegers were reinforced by French forces under de Crillon, who took over command in early 1782. After a lull in the siege, during which the allied force gathered more guns and troops, a "Grand Assault" was launched on 18 September 1782; this involved huge numbers—60,000 men, 49 ships of the line and ten specially designed, newly invented floating batteries—against the 5,000 defenders.
The assault was a disastrous failure. The siege settled down again to more of a blockade, but the final defeat for the allies came when a crucial British relief convoy under Admiral Richard Howe slipped through the blockading fleet and arrived at the garrison in October 1782; the siege was lifted on 7 February 1783 and was a decisive victory for the British forces, being a vital factor in the Peace of Paris, negotiated towards the end of the siege. This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers the "Grand Assault". At three years and seven months, it is the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces and one of the longest sieges in history. In 1738 a dispute between Spain and Great Britain arose over commerce between Europe and the Americas. Both sides intended to sign an agreement at the Spanish Royal Palace of El Pardo, but in January of the following year, the British Parliament rejected the advice of Foreign Minister Robert Walpole, a supporter of the agreement with Spain.
A short time the War of Jenkins' Ear began, both countries declared war on 23 October 1739, each side drawing up plans to establish trenches near Gibraltar. Seeing these first movements, Britain ordered Admiral Vernon to sail from Portobello and strengthen the squadron of Admiral Haddock, stationed in the Bay of Gibraltar; the passage of years failed to break the hostilities in the region. On 9 July 1746, King Philip V of Spain died in Madrid, his successor, Ferdinand VI, soon began negotiations with Britain on trade. The British Parliament was amenable to such negotiations, looked favourably upon lifting the British embargo on Spain and ceding Gibraltar; the neutrality adopted by Ferdinand VI ended with his death in 1759. The new king, Charles III, was less willing to negotiate with Great Britain. Instead, he signed a Family Compact with Louis XV of France on 15 August 1761. At that time France was at war with Britain, so Britain responded by declaring war on Spain and capturing the Spanish colonial capitals of Manila and Havana.
Two years after cessation of hostilities, Spain recovered Manila and Havana in exchange for Spanish holdings in Florida as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In the years of peace that followed both France and Spain hoped for an opportunity to launch a war against Britain on more favourable terms and recover their lost colonial possessions. Following the outbreak of the American War of Independence, both states supplied funding and arms to the American rebels, drew up a strategy to intervene on the American side and defeat Britain. In October 1778 France entered the war and on 12 April 1779, both France and Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez wherein they agreed to aid one another in recovering lost territory from Britain. France and Spain sought to secure Gibraltar, a key link in Britain's control of the Mediterranean Sea, expected its capture to be quick—a precursor to a Franco-Spanish invasion of Great Britain; the Spanish blockade was to be directed by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor. Spanish ground forces were composed of 16 infantry battalions, which included the Royal Guards and the Walloon Guards, along with artillery and 12 squadrons of cavalry.
This yielded a total of about 14,000 men in all. The artillery was commanded by Rudesindo Tilly, while the cavalry and the French dragoons were headed by the Marquis of Arellano. Antonio Barceló commanded the maritime forces responsible for blockading the bay, he established his base with a fleet of several xebecs and gunboats. A fleet of 11 ships of the line and two frigates were placed in the Gulf of Cadiz under the command of Luis de Córdova y Córdova to block the passage of British reinforcements; the British garrison in 1778 consisted of 5,382 soldiers. All the defences were strengthened; the most prominent new work was the King's Bastion designed by Sir William Green and built by the Soldier Artificer Company on the main waterfront of the town in Gibraltar. The King's Bastion comprised a stone battery holding 26 heavy guns and mortars, with barracks and casemates to house a full battalion of foot; the Grand Battery protected the Land Port Gate, the main entrance to Gibraltar from the isthmus connecting to the Spanish mainland.
Other fortifications and batteries crowded on the Rock. Eliott began a programme of increasin
Port of Gibraltar
Port of Gibraltar known as Gibraltar Harbour, is a seaport in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It was a strategically important location during the Napoleonic Wars and after 1869 served as a supply point for ships travelling to India through the Suez Canal; the harbour of Gibraltar was transformed as a result of the British Government's plans to ensure that the Royal Navy could not just defeat any other navy, but any two other navies combined. Both Gibraltar and Malta were to be made torpedo proof, as a result the North and South Mole were extended and the Detached Mole was constructed. Three large dry docks were constructed and plans were available by 1894. Over 2,000 men were required and they had to be billeted in old ships which had not been required since convict labour was abandoned; the demand for stone and sand necessitated building the Admiralty Tunnel right through the Rock of Gibraltar. In 1903 Edward VII arrived to name the new No. 3 Dock of the new Gibraltar Harbour after himself.
Queen Alexandra arrived in HMY Victoria and Albert in 1906 and the Prince and Princess of Wales the following year to name dock number two and one after themselves. Since 2009 the docks have been known as Gibdock. After Spain lost the Battle of Gibraltar in 1704, the port became part of Britain. Therefore, in 1713, the Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht was created to terminate any right Spain had for the city of Gibraltar. Once the agreement was completed Britain took full control of and possession of the port of Gibraltar; the Port of Gibraltar was a tremendous victory for the Britain at the time allowing them to send ships from London to Mediterranean cities, since they had the port of Gibraltar available. It was seen as the doors, it was a great innovation. Therefore, Britain used this power to expand their marketing industry to Mediterranean cities; as a result, the Queen Anne made the Port of Gibraltar a Free Port in February 1706. This act allowed any international vessels to trade without the need to pay any type Tax compensation.
This meant that trade was allowed without taxes allowing ships from North Africa, Turkey and any other nationality to trade their goods freely. This decision made the port of Gibraltar one of the most important ports in Europe vessels from all over the world came to trade their goods to the port of Gibraltar. In the mid-18th century the port of Gibraltar became a naval station for the Royal Navy, it served as an important tactical point, where a whole fleet of Navy vessels and 4,000 soldiers were assigned to the port, awaiting orders from their king. Therefore, Britain having the port secured, turned their main focus to exploiting the port’s economic assets; as a world trade point, the port of Gibraltar was exporting wine to different cities in the Mediterranean, making Britain millions of profit. This was their main product of exportation. However, ships that were full with spices and many other imports had as final destination the port of Gibraltar; the port allowed the distribution of goods to all over Europe making it the best efficient way to import and export to Europe and the Mediterranean Sea.
As a result of being one of the busiest ports in the world this created jobs opportunities. This made the Port of Gibraltar the perfect place for immigrants looking for employment; as a major supply link the port was required to have large labor force to discharge fresh products such as Beef and Mutton for the Britain troops that were imported from the city Tetuan, in Morocco. Therefore, any ship from any nation, remarkably, those with Britain might be at war, were free to trade with Gibraltar provided that they brought in supplies; this was the reason that by the 1770s vessels from North America imported tobacco, cotton, dried cod, rum. As a result, imports were able to be distributed to all over Asia; as the center of the international trade market, the port of Gibraltar had large amount of currency transaction during this trading. However, in many cases, the port was not only a trade point but an exchange of shipments that were re-exported to other ports in the world; this new innovation is what made the port Gibraltar one of the most successful ports up to this date.
The great success of the Port of Gibraltar caught the attention of many that were seeking escape from war and poverty. The port of Gibraltar was a worldwide trade point, in need of labour; this created a revolution of immigrants looking to obtain a steady job where they could sustain their families. The port of Gibraltar was the indicated place for immigrants to find a job; as a result, in the fallowing years around 1,500 families moved into Gibraltar which made a tremendously positive impact in the port. The immigrants were a great solution to the port after, most of the population left after Spain loss the territory leaving the city without any labour force that could sustain the port. An estimated 450 native citizen stayed in the port; as a result, the open positions were taken by the immigrants that came from all parts of Europe, North Africa and the Mediterranean. Therefore, re-repopulation was required not only to keep the port running but to maintain the city functioning. Many immigrants were hired as servants for wealthy Britain families that were attracted to the new possession of the land and many decided to establish them
Capture of Gibraltar
The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1 and 4 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. Since the beginning of the war the Alliance had been looking for a harbour in the Iberian Peninsula to control the Strait of Gibraltar and facilitate naval operations against the French fleet in the western Mediterranean Sea. An attempt to seize Cádiz had ended in failure in September 1702, but following the Alliance fleet's successful raid in Vigo Bay in October that year, the combined fleets of the'Maritime Powers', the Netherlands and England, had emerged as the dominant naval force in the region; this strength helped persuade King Peter II of Portugal to sever his alliance with France and Bourbon-controlled Spain, ally himself with the Grand Alliance in 1703. Now with access to the Portuguese port of Lisbon the Alliance fleets could campaign in the Mediterranean, conduct operations in support of the Austrian Habsburg candidate to the Spanish throne, the Archduke Charles, known to his supporters as Charles III of Spain.
Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt represented the Habsburg cause in the region. In May 1704 the Prince and Admiral George Rooke, commander of the main Grand Alliance fleet, failed to take Barcelona in the name of'Charles III'. In order to compensate for their lack of success the Alliance commanders resolved to capture Gibraltar, a small town on the southern Spanish coast. Following a heavy bombardment the town was invaded by Dutch marines and sailors; the governor, Diego de Salinas, agreed to surrender Gibraltar and its small garrison on 4 August. Three days Prince George entered the town with Austrian and Spanish Habsburg troops in the name of Charles III of Spain; the Grand Alliance failed in its objective of replacing Philip V with Charles III as King of Spain, but in the peace negotiations Gibraltar was ceded to Britain. At the start of the War of the Spanish Succession Portugal was nominally an ally of the Bourbons: France under Louis XIV, Spain under his grandson, Philip V. Although not a belligerent, Portugal's harbours were closed to the enemies of the Bourbon powers – principally the vessels of England and the Dutch Republic.
However, following the Anglo-Dutch naval victory at Vigo Bay in 1702 the balance of naval forces had swung in favour of the Grand Alliance. Having now the ability to cut off Portugal's food supplies and trade it was not hard for the Allied diplomats to induce King Peter II to sign the Methuen Treaties of May 1703 and join the Alliance. Once Peter II had committed himself to war the Alliance fleets gained access to Portugal's harbours, in particular the port of Lisbon. In return for his allegiance Peter II had demanded military and financial aid and territorial concessions in Spain. Known to his supporters as Charles III of Spain, the young pretender arrived in Lisbon – via London – with George Rooke's fleet on 7 March 1704, amid great celebrations. Apart from the failed Grand Alliance attempt to take Cádiz in 1702, the subsequent attack on the Spanish treasure fleet in Vigo Bay, the war had thus far been limited to the Low Countries and Italy. With Portugal's change of allegiance, the war moved towards Spain.
In May 1704 the court at Lisbon received news that French and Spanish troops had crossed the frontier into Portugal. This army of 26,000 men under Philip V and the Duke of Berwick scored several victories on the border: Salvaterra fell on 8 May, Penha Garcia on 11 May, Philip V oversaw the fall of Castelo Branco on 23 May, T'Serclaes captured Portalegre on 8 June, but without supply for their forces, the coming summer heat made it impossible for them to continue with the campaign, Philip V returned to Madrid on 16 July to a hero's welcome. However, the heat did not affect the war at sea. Using Lisbon as an improvised forward base Admiral Rooke's Anglo-Dutch fleet ventured into the Mediterranean Sea in May 1704. After seeing the Levant trading fleet safely through the Strait of Gibraltar Rooke headed towards Nice to put himself in touch with Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy; the Grand Alliance had planned for a naval attack upon the French base at Toulon in conjunction with the Savoyard army and the rebels of the Cévennes.
Accompanying Rooke was Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt who had enjoyed popularity amongst the Catalans as their governor at the end of the Nine Years' War. The Prince was the great exponent of the Barcelona plan. On 30 May, under cover of the ships’ guns, Prince George landed with 1,200 English and 400 Dutch marines. Moreover, the dissidents were incensed by the size of the Alliance force and had expected the personal appearance of'Charles III'. Ultimatums for Velesco to surrender on pain of bombardment were ignored, the plans for an insurrection from within the city's walls failed to materialize. Rooke, fearing an attack from a French squadron, was impatient for departure. Prince George could do little more than order his local followers – a thousand in all – to disperse to
Miss International is a Japanese-based international beauty pageant organized by The International Culture Association. The pageant was first held in 1960. Miss International is the fourth largest pageant in the world in terms of having crowned national winners to participate in the international contest. Along with Miss World, Miss Universe, Miss Earth, this pageant is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants; the Miss International Organization and the brand are owned, along with Miss International Japan, by ICA and Miss Paris Group. The current Miss International is Mariem Velazco of Venezuela, crowned on 9 November 2018 in Tokyo, Japan; the pageant was created in Long Beach, United States in 1960 after the departure of the Miss Universe pageant to Miami Beach. Hosted in Long Beach until 1967, the pageant moved to Japan from 1968–1970, being hosted each year in the same city as the Expo'70. For 1971, it was held in Long Beach again, but since that time it has been held annually in Japan until 2003.
Since 2004, it is held in Japan. The first winner of the pageant in 1960 was Stella Araneta of Colombia; the pageant is called "Miss International Beauty". Contestants are expected to serve as "Ambassadors of Peace and Beauty", demonstrating tenderness, friendship, intelligence, ability to take action, most a great international sensibility; the ultimate goal of the Miss International beauty pageant is to promote world peace and understanding. The winner of Miss International 2012, Ikumi Yoshimatsu of Japan was dethroned and did not crown her successor due to contract dispute with another talent agency; the organization has been criticized for not standing up for asking Ikumi Yoshimatsu, Miss International 2012, to skip the succession ceremony and "play sick and shut up" in order to avoid a scandal with a Japanese production company whose president was harassing Yoshimatsu. Mikimoto Crown — The crown was again used when Valerie Hernandez of Puerto Rico crowned Edymar Martinez of Venezuela as Miss International 2015.
Pearl Crown - This crown was used from 1999-2005 and 2007-2014. Crystal Crown - In 2006, Daniela di Giacomo of Venezuela was crowned. List of beauty contests "Miss International Trivia: Surprising Facts And Controversies". Yibada. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2016. Official english website Official japanese website