Mandalay Region is an administrative division of Myanmar. It is located in the center of the country, bordering Sagaing Region and Magway Region to the west, Shan State to the east, Bago Region and Kayin State to the south; the regional capital is Mandalay. In the south of the division lies the national capital of Nay Pyi Taw; the division consists of seven districts, which are subdivided into 30 townships and 2,320 wards and village-tracts. Mandalay Region is important in Myanmar's economy, accounting for 15% of the national economy, it is under the administration of the Mandalay Region Government. The history of Mandalay Region is the same as that of much of Upper Myanmar except that for much of Burmese history, the political power emanated out of royal capitals located in Mandalay Region; the country's present capital and most former royal capitals of the Burmese nation—Bagan, Amarapura, Mandalay—are all located here. The Tibeto-Burman speaking Pyu were the first historical people to dominate the dry zone in central Myanmar that includes Mandalay Region as early as the 1st century AD.
By the early 9th century, the Pyu were decimated in a series of wars with the Nanzhao kingdom from Yunnan. The Burmans, migrating into the region from Yunnan in the 9th century, founded a city of their own, Pagan, in 849; the Pagan dynasty came to dominate the central zone over the next two centuries, by the late 11th century, all of present-day Myanmar. The Burmese language and script came to prominence with royal patronage of Pagan kings. After the fall of Pagan to the Mongols in 1287, parts of central Myanmar came to be controlled by a series of rulers: the Mongols, Myinsaing and Sagaing. In 1364, Ava kingdom led by Burmanized Shan kings reunified all of central Myanmar. Central Myanmar was under Ava's control until 1527, under the Shans of Monhyin. Burmese literature and culture came into its own during this era. Central Myanmar was part of the Taungoo kingdom from 1555 to 1752. Parts of the region fell to the Mons of Pegu. Konbaung Dynasty ruled the region until December 1885 when it lost all of Upper Myanmar in the Third Anglo-Burmese War.
The British administration organized seven divisions in Upper Myanmar: Mandalay, Minbu and the Federated Shan States. Mandalay Division included. Circa 1940, Meiktila Division was merged with Mandalay Division. Much of Upper Myanmar, including Mandalay Division, was under the Japanese rule during World War II between May 1942 and March 1945; when the country gained independence from the United Kingdom in January 1948, the Myikyina and Bhamo districts were carved out to form Kachin State. Mandalay Region consists of 31 townships organized into seven districts. Kyaukse District Mandalay District Meiktila District Myingyan District Nyaung-U District Pyin Oo Lwin District Yamethin District The majority of the population in Mandalay Region are Bamar. In the Mandalay metropolitan area, however, a large community of Chinese, most of whom are recent immigrants from Yunnan, now nearly rival the Bamar population. A large community of Indians reside in Mandalay. A dwindling community of Anglo-Burmese still exists in both Mandalay.
A number of Shan people live along the eastern border of the region. Burmese is the primary language of the division. However, Mandarin Chinese is spoken in Mandalay and the northern gem mining town of Mogok. Agriculture is the primary economical source of livelihood. Primary crops grown within Mandalay Region are rice, maise, sesame, legumes, tobacco and vegetables. Industry, including alcoholic breweries, textile factories, sugar mills, gem mines exists. Tourism now forms a substantial part of Mandalay Region's economy, as it contains many historical sites including Mandalay, Bagan, Pyin U Lwin, Mount Popa, Ava. Hardwoods such as teak and thanaka are harvested. Educational opportunities in Myanmar are limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. According to official statistics, over 1 million students were enrolled in the division's 4,467 primary and secondary schools in 2005. Of the total, the vast majority, about 4,000, were primary schools. Only about 13% of primary school students make it to high school.
The region has some of the best institutions of higher education in Myanmar. As medical and computer studies are the most sought after in Myanmar, the University of Medicine, the University of Dental Medicine, Mandalay Technological University, the University of Computer Studies, Mandalay are among the most selective universities in Myanmar. Other selective schools are Myanmar Aerospace Engineering University and military academies in Pyinoolwin: Defence Services Academy and Defence Services Technological Academy; the general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The military government spends between 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality patients have to pay for medicine and treatment in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment; the following is a summary of the public health system in the division, in the fiscal year 2002-2003. In 2005, Mandalay Region's public health care system had over 1,000 doctors and about 2,000 nurses working in 44 hospitals and 44 health clinics.
Over 30 of the hospitals had less than 100 beds. Since all of large public hospitals and private hospitals, d
Yangon known as Rangoon, is the capital of the Yangon Region and commercial capital of Myanmar. Yangon served as the administrative capital of Myanmar until 2006, when the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw in central Myanmar. With over 7 million people, Yangon is Myanmar's largest city and its most important commercial centre. Yangon boasts the largest number of colonial-era buildings in Southeast Asia, has a unique colonial-era urban core, remarkably intact; the colonial-era commercial core is centred around the Sule Pagoda, reputed to be over 2,000 years old. The city is home to the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda – Myanmar's most sacred Buddhist pagoda; the mausoleum of the last Mughal Emperor is located in Yangon, where he had been exiled following the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Yangon suffers from inadequate infrastructure compared to other major cities in Southeast Asia. Though many historic residential and commercial buildings have been renovated throughout central Yangon, most satellite towns that ring the city continue to be profoundly impoverished and lack basic infrastructure.
The name "Yangon" is derived from the combination of the Burmese words yan and koun, which mean "enemies" and "run out of", respectively. This word combination is translated as "End of Strife"; the city's colonial era name, "Rangoon" is derived from the Anglicization of the Arakanese pronunciation of "Yangon", which is. Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century by the Mon, who dominated Lower Burma at that time. Dagon was a small fishing village centred about the Shwedagon Pagoda. In 1755, King Alaungpaya conquered Dagon, renamed it "Yangon", added settlements around Dagon; the British captured Yangon during the First Anglo-Burmese War, but returned it to Burmese administration after the war. The city was destroyed by a fire in 1841; the British seized Yangon and all of Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, subsequently transformed Yangon into the commercial and political hub of British Burma. In 1853, the British moved the capital of Burma from Moulmein to Yangon. Yangon is the place where the British sent Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor, to live after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Based on the design by army engineer Lt. Alexander Fraser, the British constructed a new city on a grid plan on delta land, bounded to the east by the Pazundaung Creek and to the south and west by the Yangon River. Yangon became the capital of all British-ruled Burma after the British had captured Upper Burma in the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. By the 1890s Yangon's increasing population and commerce gave birth to prosperous residential suburbs to the north of Royal Lake and Inya Lake; the British established hospitals including Rangoon General Hospital and colleges including Rangoon University. Colonial Yangon, with its spacious parks and lakes and mix of modern buildings and traditional wooden architecture, was known as "the garden city of the East." By the early 20th century, Yangon had public services and infrastructure on par with London. Before World War II, about 55% of Yangon's population of 500,000 was Indian or South Asian, only about a third was Bamar. Karens, the Chinese, the Anglo-Burmese and others made up the rest.
After World War I, Yangon became the epicentre of Burmese independence movement, with leftist Rangoon University students leading the way. Three nationwide strikes against the British Empire in 1920, 1936 and 1938 all began in Yangon. Yangon was under Japanese occupation, incurred heavy damage during World War II; the city was retaken by the Allies in May 1945. Yangon became the capital of the Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 when the country regained independence from the British Empire. Soon after Burma's independence in 1948, many colonial names of streets and parks were changed to more nationalistic Burmese names. In 1989, the current military junta changed the city's English name to "Yangon", along with many other changes in English transliteration of Burmese names. Since independence, Yangon has expanded outwards. Successive governments have built satellite towns such as Thaketa, North Okkalapa and South Okkalapa in the 1950s to Hlaingthaya and South Dagon in the 1980s. Today, Greater Yangon encompasses an area covering nearly 600 square kilometres.
During Ne Win's isolationist rule, Yangon's infrastructure deteriorated through poor maintenance and did not keep up with its increasing population. In the 1990s, the current military government's more open market policies attracted domestic and foreign investment, bringing a modicum of modernity to the city's infrastructure; some inner city residents were forcibly relocated to new satellite towns. Many colonial-period buildings were demolished to make way for high-rise hotels, office buildings, shopping malls, leading the city government to place about 200 notable colonial-period buildings under the Yangon City Heritage List in 1996. Major building programs have resulted in six new bridges and five new highways linking the city to its industrial back country. Still, much of Yangon remains without basic municipal services such as 24-hour electricity and regular garbage collection. Yangon has become much more indigenous Burmese in its ethnic make-up since independence
Taunggyi is the capital and largest city of Shan State and lies on the Thazi-Kyaingtong road at an elevation of 4,712 feet, just north of Shwenyaung and Inle Lake within the Myelat region. Taunggyi is the fifth largest city of Myanmar, has an estimated population of 380,665 as of 2014; the city is famous for its hot air balloon festival held annually on the full moon day of Tazaungmon. The name Taunggyi means "huge mountain" in the Burmese language, is named after the ridge on the east of the city, part of the Shan Hills system, whose prominent high point is called Taung-chun or "The Spur." Locally this spur is popularly known as Phaya Taung. The ridge has a more prominent and more popular feature meaning the Craigs. Prior to British colonisation, Taunggyi was a small village of a few huts; the area lay on a wide shoulder of the Sittaung Hills of the Shan Hills and was populated by the Shan people at the time. The signs of the original village of Taunggyi are long gone, but nearby villages can still be discerned quite easily.
During British occupation, the town became the chief capital of the Southern Shan States. Taunggyi's modern development began in 1894, when the British moved their administrative offices from Maing Thauk on the eastern shores of Inle Lake to the higher elevation of Taunggyi, for health and geographical reasons. Although geographically within the state of Yawnghwe, the town was denoted as a "notified area" by the British, exempt from the Sawbwa's administration. By 1906, there existed a thousand houses; because of civil unrest throughout the Shan States during the early 1900s, Taunggyi served as the chief garrison for military police. Taunggyi served as a supply centre for the Shan States, catered to persons of many nationalities. Taunggyi is at an elevation of 4,712 feet above sea level. Taunggyi has a humid subtropical climate bordering a subtropical highland climate. There is a summer wet-season. Temperatures are warm throughout the year; the main access to Taunggyi is by the mountainous road.
A railway line that passes through Taunggyi was built in 1995, but at the moment it offers no passenger service to Taunggyi. Regular railway passenger service to the rest of the country is through the town of Shwenyaung, 12 miles to the west; the nearest airport is Heho Airport, 24 mi about an hour driving distance, by road to the west of Taunggyi. Heho Airport has regular flights to Yangon and Bagan. Taunggyi is the melting pot for the Myelat area of the Shan State. Like in most of Myanmar, influence of Buddhism is most evidenced by the monasteries scattered throughout the city. However, being a new city, the monasteries are not of historical significance and architecturally not unique. There is a significant Christian population, as the center of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Taunggyi the St. Joseph's Cathedral and its associated seminary are the main facilities, as well as a Baptist church. Both churches were established by early missionaries. There is a smaller Anglican church, which served the British administrators, but it has fallen into a state of disrepair.
Four mosques serve the Muslim communities of the city. Among four mosques, Panthay mosque serves the Chinese Panthay Muslims mainly; the other mosques are for large population of Burmese Muslims. There are a few temples serving the Chinese Buddhist community. After 1990s, Chinese migrants are settling in Taunggyi and now they constitute the considerable proportion in communities. Being the capital of the Shan State, Taunggyi hosts many government offices; the city hosts Eastern Command of the Tatmadaw and it occupies a significant portion of the north-east area of the city. Shan State Cultural Museum lies in Taunggyi; the museum displays the Shan culture, as well as items of historical interest, such as the belongings of Sawbwa. The Taunggyi area is a popular tourist destination; the city itself has an interesting five-day market, where farmers from around the area would come to the Taunggyi on market day and sell fresh produce in the open market, but with more development of the city, the significance of market day has been lessened.
However, the market-day tradition continues strong in the outlying small towns. Nearby, Inle Lake is the home of the unique Intha culture. Inlay is famous for its traditional crafts industry and floating markets that are accessible via traditional longboats; the most unique thing is. On the way to the Pindaya Caves provides visitors with a good view of the Myelat countryside. Near Taunggyi, in Kekku, there are hundreds of stupas. There is no significant industry in Taunggyi, it used to be the trans-shipment point for many of the agricultural products of southern Shan State. However, due to imposed zoning regulations, most of these operations have been moved to the surrounding new town of Ayetharyar. Another economy of Taunggyi is gardening. Farmers around Taunggyi are Shan and Pa-O ethnic origins; the main agricultural products of Taunggyi are potatoes, tea leaf, beans and seasonal fruits. The city is home to: Taunggyi University University of Computer Studies,Taunggyi University of Medicine,Taunggyi Technological University, Taunggyi Taunggyi Education College The 7,000-seat Taunggyi Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Taunggyi.
The stadium is the hom
Nang Khin Zay Yar
Nang Khin Zay Yar is a Burmese model and beauty pageant titleholder who won Miss Universe Myanmar title in 2012. She is a Shan - Pa'O, she won the Missosology's Miss International 2012 People's Choice Award, Pageantology.net Miss International 2012 People's Choice Award and Miss Internet Award in Miss International 2012, Okinawa. Nang Khin Zay Yar was born in Taunggyi on March 4, 1988 to her mother Nang Phyu Phyu Khine and her father Khun Aung Myat. Nang Khin Zay Yar went to Basic Education High School No. 4 Taunggyi. Nang Khin Zay Yar finished her education from Taunggyi University, earning her degree as a Bachelor of Laws. After she finished her education, she opted to become a tour guide instead of a lawyer, shortly afterwards moving into model industry, she can speak both German. Nang Khin Zay Yar became a model in 2011, taking photos for magazines and model websites. In 2012, shortly after she won the title of Miss Myanmar 2012, she was offered to shoot for some advertisements, she is appearing on many Burmese videos and movies as an actress.
Although she does not have a clear intention to be a singer so soon, she is singing both in local and foreign shows and concerts. Nang Khin Zay Yar is a single, her religion is Buddhism. She lives in Yangon, Myanmar, she is still working as a tour guide though she's a model. Nang Khin Zay Yar competed in Miss Myanmar 2012, held on March 25, 2012 at Myanmar Convention Center, Yangon; the competition was organized by the Myanmar Tourism Services Co. under the supervision of Myanmar Travel Board in order to promote tourism industry in the country and enhance the interest of citizens in the tourism sector. Nann Khin Zayar won Miss Yangon title, Miss Myanmar 2012 title and she was assigned as a tourism Ambassador of Myanmar. Nang Khin Zay Yar participated in Miss International 2012, in Okinawa; this is the first time Myanmar competed in an international beauty pageant since 1962. The Final was on October 21, 2012. Nang Khin Zay Yar won Pageantology.net Miss International 2012 People's Choice Award, Missosology's Miss International 2012 People's Choice Award on the night of October 20, 2012.
She won the Miss Internet Award in the competition. Nang Khin Zay Yar on Facebook Nang Khin Zay Yar on Twitter Nang Khin Zar Yar on Tumblr
Miss International is a Japanese-based international beauty pageant organized by The International Culture Association. The pageant was first held in 1960. Miss International is the fourth largest pageant in the world in terms of having crowned national winners to participate in the international contest. Along with Miss World, Miss Universe, Miss Earth, this pageant is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants; the Miss International Organization and the brand are owned, along with Miss International Japan, by ICA and Miss Paris Group. The current Miss International is Mariem Velazco of Venezuela, crowned on 9 November 2018 in Tokyo, Japan; the pageant was created in Long Beach, United States in 1960 after the departure of the Miss Universe pageant to Miami Beach. Hosted in Long Beach until 1967, the pageant moved to Japan from 1968–1970, being hosted each year in the same city as the Expo'70. For 1971, it was held in Long Beach again, but since that time it has been held annually in Japan until 2003.
Since 2004, it is held in Japan. The first winner of the pageant in 1960 was Stella Araneta of Colombia; the pageant is called "Miss International Beauty". Contestants are expected to serve as "Ambassadors of Peace and Beauty", demonstrating tenderness, friendship, intelligence, ability to take action, most a great international sensibility; the ultimate goal of the Miss International beauty pageant is to promote world peace and understanding. The winner of Miss International 2012, Ikumi Yoshimatsu of Japan was dethroned and did not crown her successor due to contract dispute with another talent agency; the organization has been criticized for not standing up for asking Ikumi Yoshimatsu, Miss International 2012, to skip the succession ceremony and "play sick and shut up" in order to avoid a scandal with a Japanese production company whose president was harassing Yoshimatsu. Mikimoto Crown — The crown was again used when Valerie Hernandez of Puerto Rico crowned Edymar Martinez of Venezuela as Miss International 2015.
Pearl Crown - This crown was used from 1999-2005 and 2007-2014. Crystal Crown - In 2006, Daniela di Giacomo of Venezuela was crowned. List of beauty contests "Miss International Trivia: Surprising Facts And Controversies". Yibada. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2016. Official english website Official japanese website
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to incorporate personality traits, intelligence and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The term refers to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants; the organizers of each pageant may determine the rules of the competition, including the age range of contestants. The rules may require the contestants to be unmarried, be "virtuous", "amateur", available for promotions, besides other criteria, it may set the clothing standards in which contestants will be judged, including the type of swimsuit. Beauty pageants are multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. For example, the international pageants have thousands of local competitions. Child beauty pageants focus on beauty, sportswear modelling and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup and gowns, swimsuit modelling, personal interviews.
A winner of a beauty contest is called a beauty queen. The rankings of the contestants are referred to as placements. Possible awards of beauty contests include titles, tiaras or crowns, scepters, savings bonds and cash prizes; however and teen pageants have been moving more towards judging speaking. Some pageants award college scholarships, to multiple runners-up. European festivals dating to the medieval era provide the most direct lineage for beauty pageants. For example, English May Day celebrations always involved the selection of a May Queen. In the United States, the May Day tradition of selecting a woman to serve as a symbol of bounty and community ideals continued, as young beautiful women participated in public celebrations. A beauty pageant was held during the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, as part of a re-enactment of a medieval joust, held in Scotland; the pageant was won by Georgiana Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, sister of Caroline Norton, she was proclaimed as the "Queen of Beauty".
Entrepreneur Phineas Taylor Barnum staged the first modern American pageant in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down after public protest. Beauty contests became more popular in the 1880s. In 1888, the title of'beauty queen' was awarded to an 18-year-old Creole contestant at a pageant in Spa, Belgium. All participants had to supply a photograph and a short description of themselves to be eligible to enter and a final selection of 21 was judged by a formal panel; such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests came to be considered more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921; the oldest pageant still in operation today is the Miss America pageant, organized in 1921 by a local businessman as a means to entice tourists to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The pageant hosted the winners of local newspaper beauty contests in the "Inter-City Beauty" Contest, attended by over one hundred thousand people. Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman of Washington, D. C. was crowned Miss America 1921, having won both the popularity and beauty contests, was awarded $100.
In May 1920, promoter C. E. Barfield of Galveston, Texas organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island; the event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually; the event became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the International Pageant of Pulchritude. This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants, it featured contestants from England, Russia and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe". The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression; the popularity of the Miss America pageant prompted other organizations to establish similar contests in the 1950s and beyond. Some were significant; the Miss World contest started in 1951, Miss Universe started in 1952 as did Miss USA. Miss International started in 1960.
Miss Asia Pacific International started in 1968. The Miss Black America contest started in 1968 in response to the exclusion of African American women from the Miss America pageant; the Miss Universe Organization started the Miss Teen USA in 1983 for the 14-19 age group. Miss Earth started in 2001, which channels the beauty pageant entertainment industry as an effective tool to promote the preservation of the environment; these contests continue to this day. The requirement for contestants to wear a swimsuit was a controversial aspect of the various competitions; the controversy was heightened with the increasing popularity of the bikini after its introduction in 1946. The bikini was banned for the Miss America contest in 1947 because of Roman Catholic protesters; when the Miss World contest started in 1951, there was an outcry when the winner was crowned in a bikini. Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates; the bikini was banned for other contests.
It was not until the late 1990s that they became permitted again, but still generated controversy when finals were held in countries where bikinis were disapproved. For example, in 2003, Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan caused