Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant, run by the American-based Miss Universe Organization. It seen by more than half a billion people annually. Along with Miss World, Miss International, Miss Earth, Miss Universe is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants; the Miss Universe Organization and its brand, along with Miss USA and Miss Teen USA, are owned by the WME/IMG talent agency. The current Miss Universe is Catriona Gray of the Philippines, crowned on 17 December 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand; the title "Miss Universe" was first used by the International Pageant of Pulchritude in 1926. This contest was held annually until 1935, when the Great Depression and other events preceding World War II led to its demise; the current Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by Pacific Knitting Mills, a California-based clothing company and manufacturer of Catalina Swimwear. The company was the sponsor of the Miss America pageant until 1951, when the winner, Yolande Betbeze, refused to pose for publicity pictures wearing one of their swimsuits.
In 1952, Pacific Knitting Mills organized the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants, co-sponsoring them for decades to follow. The first Miss Universe Pageant was held in Long Beach, California in 1952, it was won by Armi Kuusela from Finland, who gave up her title, though not to get married, shortly before her year was completed. Until 1958, the Miss Universe title, like that of Miss America, was dated by the year following the contest, so at the time Ms. Kuusela's title was Miss Universe 1953. Since its founding by Pacific Mills, the pageant has been organized and conducted by the Miss Universe Organization. Pacific Mills and its subsidiaries were acquired by the Kayser-Roth Corporation, in turn acquired by Gulf and Western Industries; the pageant was first televised in 1955. CBS began broadcasting the combined Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants in 1960, as separate contests in 1965. John Charles Daly hosted the pageant from 1955 to 1966, Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987, Alan Thicke in 1988, John Forsythe in 1989, Dick Clark from 1990 to 1993, Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996.
Donald Trump bought the pageant in 1996 from ITT Corp. Trump struck a broadcasting arrangement with CBS until 2002. In 1998, Miss Universe, Inc. changed its name to the Miss Universe Organization, moved its headquarters from Los Angeles to New York City. In late 2002, Trump entered into a joint venture with NBC, which in 2003 outbid the other markets for the TV rights. From 2003 to 2014, the pageant was broadcast in the United States on NBC. In June 2015, NBC canceled all business relationships with Trump and the Miss Universe Organization in response to controversial statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from Mexico; as part of the legal settlement, in September 2015, Trump bought out NBC's 50% stake in the company, making him the company's sole owner. Three days he sold the whole company to WME/IMG. Following the change of ownership, in October 2015, Fox and Azteca became the official broadcasters of the Miss Universe and Miss USA pageants; the current president of the Miss Universe Organization is Paula Shugart, who has held this position since 1997.
For a country to participate in Miss Universe, a local company or a person should buy the local rights of the competition, through a franchise fee, which involves the rights of image and everything related to the pageant. The owner of this franchise, for contractual breaches or financial reasons, returns the franchise to the Miss Universe Organization, which resells it to a new stakeholder; the reselling of the franchise from one owner to the next is recurrently common in the history of the event. The number of candidates in the contest is inconstant because of the question of the franchisees. In addition, there are problems related to the calendar of the pageant. A country's candidate selection involves pageants in the nation's local subdivisions, whose winners compete in a national pageant, but there are some countries who opt for an internal selection. For example, from 2000 to 2004, Australian delegates were chosen by a modelling agency. Although such "castings" are discouraged by the Miss Universe Organization, Jennifer Hawkins was chosen to represent the country in Miss Universe in 2004.
When Australia resumed its national pageant in the following year, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005. Recent arrivals in the last ten years of the pageant include: Gabon and Lithuania, Sierra Leone, Cambodia and Nepal, Armenia and Mongolia. There have been efforts to revive strong national pageants in South Africa, Spain, Southeast Asia and Latin America; the organization makes continual efforts to expand the pageant, but the participation of some countries has proven difficult due to cultural barriers to the swimsuit competition, while others such as Mozambique have balked at sending representatives due to the cost. As of 2018, only three countries have been present at every Miss Universe since its inception in 1952: Canada and Germany. Many European countries allow 17-year-old contestants to compete in their pageants, while Miss Universe's minimum age is 18, so national titleholders have to be replaced by their runners-up or another candidate. Beginning in 2012, transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they win their national pageants.
Six years after this rule went into effect, Angela Ponce of Spain became the first transgender candidate to compete in the contest in the 2018 edition. Since its inception, Miss Univ
Miss Universe Germany
Miss Universe Germany is a national Beauty pageant in Germany to select an official candidate for the Miss Universe pageant. Miss Germany started in 1952. Miss Universe Germany started in 2009; the German franchise of Miss Universe is owned by former Miss Nederland winner Kim Kötter. She is the franchiser of Miss Nederland and Miss Overijssel beauty pageants in neighbouring Netherlands. In Miss Universe Germany all the States of Germany but some of the regions are represented as well. Color key Anne-Julia Hagen won Miss Germany 2010, represented Berlin in Berlin. Johanna Acs placed Top 15 Miss International 2010 in China. Miss Deutschland came into being in 2000, inheriting the since 1952 established official winner of Miss Germany pageant, that would compete at the international Miss Universe pageant. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent. After 2008, Miss Germany for Miss Universe selected by Miss Universe Deutschland pageant. Sabrina Schepmann won Miss Intercontinental 2000 in Germany.
Shermine Shahrivar won Miss Europe 2005 in France. In 1952 Miss Germany started with Renate Hoy as the first winner, who became 4th Runner-up at Miss Universe. In 1961, Germany has the official winner of Marlene Schmidt. From 1985: MGC - Miss Germany Corporation GmbH, the official winner will be selecting by the organization. In 1991, the MGA of Detlef Tursies run a Miss Germany pageant for the first time; the winners participate in Miss Universe. In 1999, MGA transforms into MGO. From 2000, they award the title Miss Deutschland, change their name again: MGO - Komitee Miss Deutschland. In 1999 is the last of Miss Germany Company sent the candidate for Miss Universe, she is Diana Drubig. Regina Ernst won Miss Europe 1954. Margit Nünke won Miss Europe 1956. Ingrun Helgard Moeckel won Miss Europe 1961. Katrin Richter won Miss Europe Miss Intercontinental 1992 in Germany. Verona Feldbusch won Miss Intercontinental 1993 in Germany. Miss Germany missuniversegermany.de
Miss Universe Australia
Miss Universe Australia is a national Beauty pageant that has selected Australia's representative to the Miss Universe pageant. The Miss Universe name is a registered trade name owned by the Miss Universe Organization, owned since 1996 by Donald Trump and NBC. In 2015, after Trump made statements about illegal aliens from Mexico in his presidential campaign kickoff speech, NBC ended its business relationship with Trump and stated that they will no longer air the pageant, or the Miss USA pageant, on their networks. Since 1992, Jim Davie, a distributor of swimwear and athletic wear, has been managing the Miss Australia Awards. In 2002, Davie obtained the licence from the Miss Universe Organisation to select Miss Universe Australia to represent Australia at international Miss Universe pageants; the new national director of the Miss Universe Australia Organisation is Troy Barbagallo of Pink Tank Events. Pink Tank have managed the Miss Universe Western Australia pageant since 2009 and was rewarded for their best in world platform with the national job in February 2016.
Barbagallo is a director of Barbagallo Group, luxury motor vehicle group and The Horologist, a leading luxury watch dealer. Barbagallo founded Box Magazine in 2003. A Miss Universe Australia pageant is held each year to select a young woman to represent Australia at the international Miss Universe pageant. Contestants to the national pageant come from each of the States and Territories of Australia, which are described as regions or divisions, represent that State or Territory. In 2016 there are over 220 participants in the national pageant of which 30 are competing in the National Final; the international Miss Universe pageants started in 1952. Until 2000, while the Miss Australia Awards were held, the winners of the Miss Australia pageant would represent Australia at international Miss Universe pageants, but Australia did not have a representative in each year's event. In 1952 Leah MacCartney was the first Miss Universe Australia, she was Miss Victoria and elected as Miss Universe Australia 1952 on 16 June 1952 in Melbourne.
In 1958 the independent pageant selected Miss Universe Australia. Miss Universe Australia partnered to Australian Photographic Agency. In 1964 and 1965 Miss Universe Australia selected by Agency casting in Melbourne. Between 1968 and 1976 the winners of Quest of Quests Dream Girl Australia represented Australia at Miss Universe. Between 1977 and 1990 the winners of Miss Australia Beauty or Miss Universe Australia by TVW Enterprises represented Australia at Miss Universe. There was no Australian entrant to the Miss Universe pageant in 1991 and 2001. In 2002 through 2004, the Australian representative to the Miss Universe pageant was chosen by a national pageant held in Sydney, organised by Adpro Management Group; the national Miss Universe Australia pageant came under new management in 2005. Of the 307 who participated at the state level, 24 made it to the national pageant, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005. There have been two Miss Universe title holders from Australia: Kerry Anne Wells in 1972 and Jennifer Hawkins in 2004.
Welles entered the Miss Universe pageant as Miss Australia. In February 2016, was announced that the new director of Miss Universe Australia is Troy Barbagallo, appointed by IMG. Color Key Miss Universe Australia 2017 Australia at major beauty pageants Footnotes Sources"Aussie top three in Miss Universe". BigPond News. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2011. Official Miss Universe Australia website The Gorgeous Ladies of Miss Universe Australia 2012 Madeline Taylor: Hot fave for Miss Universe Australia 2012! Miss Universe Australia 2012 Renae Ayris Appears on the cover of GCMAG in June 2012
Miss Universe Albania
Miss Universe Albania is a national beauty pageant in Albania. Albania debuted at Miss Universe in 2002 with the Miss Albania organization as the official franchise holder; the organization held national pageant yearly up into 2006. Beginning in 2007, the franchise license was given to the official photographer of Miss Universe, Fadil Berisha who happened to be from Albania. At this point Fadil created the "Miss Universe Albania" organization and would held occasional yearly national pageant or in some cases, designate a participant to represent Albania at Miss Universe. Fadil would continue to be the national director until 2013. In 2014 Eduart Deda acquired the Miss Universe franchise license in Albania and also the Miss World franchise license; the company would held yearly national pageants where two winners were crowned to compete at Miss Universe and Miss World. The company would held the license of Miss World until 2017. In 2018, the Miss World license was given to Vera Grabocka, the national director of Miss World in Albania between 2006-2013, while Eduart Deda only held the Miss Universe license.
On May 11, 2012, Miss World national director, Vera Grabocka and Miss Universe national director Fadil Berisha held a joint Mister & Miss Albania pageant where two contestants were crowned at the same event. In 2013 Agnesa Vuthaj, a former Miss Albania herself, acquired the license for Miss Earth in Albania and together with Fadil Berisha, organized the Miss Universe Albania pageant where the runner-up was given the title of "Miss Earth Albania 2013". Color Key Color Key Since 2016, the first runner-up in the Miss Universe Albania competition is sent to Miss World. From 2002 to 2012, the representative was either selected from the separate Miss Albania competition or was appointed. Color Key Declared as Winner Ended as Runner-Up Ended as one of the Finalists or Semifinalists Anisa Kospiri was the first Albanian delegate at the Miss Universe pageant, she went to compete in San Juan, Puerto Rico and in the grand final she was the first girl to be called in the Top 10. She scored 8.51 and 8.34 respectively.
However, her average score was not high enough for her to advance in the next phase of the competition. Until 2010 she held the record of the highest placing Albanian candidate in the Miss Universe pageant. On October 2013, Miss Universe Albania, Fioralba Dizdari withdrew from the Miss Universe 2013 pageant out of respect for Miss Universe Kosovo having to withdraw as Russia did not recognize Kosovo as an independent country and thus the contestant would be denied entrance into Russia, but on October 8, 2014, Miss Universe Albania 2014 was back to Miss Universe with Zhaneta Byberi as the crowned beauty pageant titleholder. Miss Universe Kosovo Official website
Beit Jala is a Palestinian Christian town in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. Beit Jala is located 10 km south of Jerusalem, on the western side of the Hebron road, opposite Bethlehem, at 825 meters altitude. In 2007, Beit Jala had 11,758 inhabitants according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. About 75 % of the population were about 25 % Muslims. A crypt, dating to the 5th or 6th century C. E. was located under the Church of St. Nicolas in Beit Jala. In the Crusader era, the village was called Apezala, the Church of Saint Nicholas was rebuilt during that time. In 1516, the village was included in the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine. In this century, Beit Jala was a large village of Christian and peasants and it had over ten elders who functioned as leaders, with each religious group having separate sets of leaders. Rare for a single village, it and nearby Bethlehem, served as its own separate jurisdiction instead of being grouped with other villages into a nahiya.
In April 1531, when an Ottoman official went to Beit Jala to register the village's grapevines for tax purposes, the residents refused to answer his questions and mocked the authority of the Ottoman sultan, marking a notable episode of initial local resistance to the Ottoman taxation methods and procedures. By the end of the 16th century, Beit Jala was entirely inhabited by Christians. Beit Jala's size rendered it similar to that of a town, with the village being subdivided into four quarters; the village produced more wheat and barley than surrounding localities and like other villages south of Jerusalem, grape cultivation was greater than olive cultivation. Beit Jala was taxed on these agricultural products as well as figs and goats, it contained one of the six olive presses in the subdistrict of Jerusalem in the 16th century. Despite its large size, Beit Jala was poorer than other villages in the subdistrict. In the 1596 tax-records, it appeared as Bayt Jala, located in the Nahiya of Jabal Quds of the Liwa of Al-Quds.
The population was 245 households. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 33,3% on agricultural products, which included wheat, olive trees, fruit trees, occasional revenues and beehives. In 1697 Henry Maundrell passed Beit Jala, noted that: “no Turk can live in it above two years. By virtue of this report, whether true or false, the Christians keep the Village to themselves without molestation. Beit Jala's residents were believed to have taken part in the looting of Egyptian property and on 31 May, Egyptian troops assaulted the village. Ibrahim Pasha put a stop to the attack. In addition, the village's livestock was seized; the attack on Beit Jala prompted rebels from the Ta'amira tribe, a local Bedouin tribe, to enter into Bethlehem to help bolster its defense. In 1838, it was noted as a Greek Christian village, located in the Beni Hasan area, west of Jerusalem; the population was estimated to be around 2000 people. By the mid-19th century, there were 10 Catholics living in Beit Jala; the Latin Patriarchate founded its first parish in Palestine in Beit Jala in 1853.
The establishment of the parish faced fierce resistance by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate and the inhabitants of Beit Jala, leading to several skirmishes and official complaints to the Ottoman authorities by both sides. A Latin church was built in Beit Jala and inaugurated on 18 April 1858; the Jerusalem Society, a Protestant movement struggled to maintain a presence in Beit Jala in the late 19th century. When a clash between Orthodox and Protestant residents ended with the death of an Orthodox girl, the village's Protestant community was evacuated to al-Karak in Transjordan for six months until compensation was paid to the family of the slain girl. In 1866, the Russian ambassador to the Ottoman Empire purchased land in Beit Jala and built a girls' school, the first Russian school to be built in Palestine, it was assigned a Russian principal. In 1886, it became a teachers' training school and was under the administration of the Palestinian Orthodox Imperial Society. Albert Socin found from an official Ottoman village list from about 1870 that Beit Jala had 234 houses and a population of 874 "Latins", though the population count included men, only.
Martin Hartmann found. In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Beit Jala as: "A large and flourishing village of white well-built stone houses, on the slope of a steep hill; the water supply is artificial, with a well in the valley below. The population is said by Pere Lievin to amount to 3,000, of whom 420 are Catholics, the rest Orthodox Greeks. There is a Latin church in the village. There are remarkably fine groves of olives round and beneath the village, the hill is covered with vineyards which belong to the place."In 1896 the population of Beit Jala was estimated to be about 2,880 persons. In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Beit Jala had a population of 3,101. In the 1931 census the population had decreased to 2731. In the 1945 stat
The West Bank is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan to the east and by the Green Line separating it and Israel on the south and north. The West Bank contains a significant section of the western Dead Sea shore; the West Bank was the name given to the territory, captured by Jordan in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, subsequently annexed in 1950 until 1967 when it was occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War. The Oslo Accords, signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel, created administrative districts with varying levels of Palestinian autonomy within each area. Area C, in which Israel maintained complete civil and security control, accounts for over 60% of the territory of the West Bank; the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. As of July 2017 it has an estimated population of 2,747,943 Palestinians, 391,000 Israeli settlers, another 201,200 Israeli settlers in East Jerusalem.
The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power; the name West Bank is a translation of the Arabic term ad-Diffah I-Garbiyyah, given to the territory west of the Jordan River that fell, in 1948, under occupation and administration by Jordan, which subsequently annexed it in 1950. This annexation was considered illegal and was recognized only by Britain and Pakistan; the term was chosen to differentiate the west bank of the River Jordan from the "east bank" of this river. The neo-Latin name Cisjordan or Cis-Jordan is the usual name for the territory in the Romance languages and Hungarian.
The name West Bank, has become the standard usage for this geopolitical entity in English and some of the other Germanic languages since its creation following the Jordanian army's conquest. In English, the name Cisjordan is used to designate the entire region between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean in the historical context of the British Mandate and earlier times; the analogous Transjordan has been used to designate the region now comprising the state of Jordan, which lies to the east of the Jordan River. From 1517 through 1917, the area now known as the West Bank was under Ottoman rule as part of the provinces of Syria. At the 1920 San Remo conference, the victorious Allied powers allocated the area to the British Mandate of Palestine; the San Remo Resolution adopted on 25 April 1920 incorporated the Balfour Declaration of 1917. It and Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations were the basic documents upon which the British Mandate for Palestine was constructed. Faced with the determination of Emir Abdullah to unify Arab lands under the Hashemite banner, the British proclaimed Abdullah ruler of the three districts, known collectively as Transjordan.
Confident that his plans for the unity of the Arab nation would come to fruition, the emir established the first centralized governmental system in what is now modern Jordan on 11 April 1921. The West Bank area was conquered by Jordan during the 1948 war with the new state of Israel. In 1947, it was subsequently designated as part of a proposed Arab state by the United Nations partition plan for Palestine; the resolution recommended partition of the British Mandate into a Jewish State, an Arab State, an internationally administered enclave of Jerusalem. The resolution designated the territory described as "the hill country of Samaria and Judea" as part of the proposed Arab state, but following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War this area was captured by Transjordan. 1949 Armistice Agreements defined the interim boundary between Jordan. Following the December 1948 Jericho Conference, Transjordan annexed the area west of the Jordan River in 1950, naming it "West Bank" or "Cisjordan", designated the area east of the river as "East Bank" or "Transjordan".
Jordan ruled over the West Bank from 1948 until 1967. Jordan's annexation was never formally recognized by the international community, with the exception of the United Kingdom. A two-state option, dividing Palestine, as opposed to a binary solution arose during the period of the British mandate in the area; the United Nations Partition Plan had envisaged two states, one Jewish and the other Arab/Palestinian, but in the wake of the war only one emerged at the time. King Abdullah of Jordan had been crowned King of Jerusalem by the Coptic Bishop on 15 November 1948. Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and East Jerusalem were granted Jordanian citizenship and half of the Jordanian Parliament seats. In June 1967, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were captured by Israel as a result of the Six-Day War. With the exception of East Jerusalem and the former Israeli-Jordanian no man's land, the West Bank was not annexed by Israel but came under Israeli military control until 1982. Although th
Star Hellas is a national beauty pageant in Greece. The Star Hellas, Miss Hellas, Miss Young title is a trademark for Vassilis Prevelakis and Associates E. E. George Prevelakis, the founder of the company, was the driving force behind the Hellenic Beauty Pageant since the late 1960s. From onwards, he was associated with the pageant till his death in 2006. In the early 1980s the owner of the pageant, the Apogevmatini newspaper, decided to pull out of the pageant and transferred the rights to George Prevelakis. George Prevelakis founded a company, together with his son and transferred the rights to the pageant to the new company. Vassilis Prevelakis and Associates E. E. has been the legal owner of the pageant and is the national director of the well known international pageants such as Miss World, Miss Universe. In 2018 the I AM ONE Agency Network as the organiser of the Star Hellas and Miss Hellas 2018 competition, provides titleholders with international access to Miss Universe and Miss World, competitions.
It advances opportunities for young women who embody the Miss World mission of ‘Beauty with a Purpose’ and the Miss Universe Organization’s ‘Confidently Bautiful’ to inspire young women to pursue their personal and professional goals while making an impact in their communities through worthy causes. In the 1970s and early 1980s the pageant was aired every year from the Ellinikí Radiofonía Tileórasi. From 1990 to 2010, it was funded and aired on Greece's private network ANT1; because of the Greek financial crisis, ΑΝΤ1 did not fund the 2011 pageant which had the form of a low-key private casting and was not aired. In 2012 the Star Hellas organizers staged a comeback by teaming with Internet site TLife which became responsible for the publicity of the event and for airing live over the Internet. In 2018 Star Hellas and I AM ONE as organizer of Star Hellas and Miss Hellas competitions help candidates to build remarkable careers. Boldface indicates winner of the Miss Universe, Miss World, Miss International, Miss Earth, Miss Europe or Other pageants Color key Star Hellas and goes on to represent Greece at Miss Universe pageant.
Miss Hellas goes to Miss World pageant. B Star Hellas goes to Miss International pageant. B Miss Hellas goes to Miss Tourism Queen International or Miss Earth pageant; the winner of Star Hellas represents her country at the Miss Universe. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent. Between 2011, 2013 and 2014 due to economic issues, Star Hellas Organization had selected the delegates to the Miss Universe and Miss World while it absent at the Miss International; the following is a list of all Star Hellas titleholders since 1929. Note: Star Hellas is absent in 1974 and 2016. Color key Miss Universe 1964 - Corinna Tsopei Miss World 1996 - Irene Skliva Miss International 1994 - Christina Lekka Miss Tourism Queen International 2005 - Nikoletta Ralli Miss Europe 1930 - Aliki Diplarakou Miss Europe 1991 - Katerina Michalopoulou Miss Europe 1992 - Marina Tsintikidou Miss Europe 1997 - Isavella Dara Miss Teen World 2010 - Anastasia Sidiropoulou Miss Europe World 2016 - Mikaela-Eleni Fotiadi Star Hellas Official website