American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
William Dean Howells
William Dean Howells was an American realist novelist, literary critic, playwright, nicknamed "The Dean of American Letters". He was known for his tenure as editor of The Atlantic Monthly, as well as for his own prolific writings, including the Christmas story "Christmas Every Day" and the novels The Rise of Silas Lapham and A Traveler from Altruria. William Dean Howells was born on March 1, 1837, in Martinsville, Ohio, to William Cooper Howells and Mary Dean Howells, the second of eight children, his father was a newspaper editor and printer who moved around Ohio. In 1840, the family settled in Hamilton, where his father oversaw a Whig newspaper and followed Swedenborgianism, their nine years there were the longest period. The family had to live frugally, although the young Howells was encouraged by his parents in his literary interests, he began at an early age to help his father with typesetting and printing work, a job known at the time as a printer's devil. In 1852, his father arranged to have one of his poems published in the Ohio State Journal without telling him.
In 1856, Howells was elected as a clerk in the State House of Representatives. In 1858, he began to work at the Ohio State Journal where he wrote poetry and short stories, translated pieces from French and German, he avidly studied German and other languages and was interested in Heinrich Heine. In 1860, he visited Boston and met with writers James Thomas Fields, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, he became a personal friend to many of them, including Henry Adams, William James, Henry James, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. In 1860 Howells wrote Abraham Lincoln's campaign biography Life of Abraham Lincoln and subsequently gained a consulship in Venice, he married Elinor Mead on Christmas Eve 1862 at the American embassy in Paris. She was a sister of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead of the firm McKim and White. Among their children was architect John Mead Howells; the Howells settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He wrote including The Atlantic Monthly and Harper's Magazine. In January 1866, James Fields offered him a position as assistant editor at The Atlantic Monthly. Howells was made editor in 1871, after five years as assistant editor, he remained in this position until 1881. In 1869, he met Mark Twain with, but his relationship with journalist Jonathan Baxter Harrison was more important for the development of his literary style and his advocacy of Realism. Harrison wrote a series of articles for The Atlantic Monthly during the 1870s on the lives of ordinary Americans. Howells gave a series of twelve lectures on "Italian Poets of Our Century" for the Lowell Institute during its 1870-71 season, he published his first novel Their Wedding Journey in 1872, but his literary reputation soared with the realist novel A Modern Instance, which described the decay of a marriage. His 1885 novel The Rise of Silas Lapham became his best known work, describing the rise and fall of an American entrepreneur of the paint business.
His social views were strongly represented in the novels Annie Kilburn, A Hazard of New Fortunes, An Imperative Duty. He was outraged by the trials resulting from the Haymarket Riot, which led him to portray a similar riot in A Hazard of New Fortunes and to write publicly to protest the trials of the men involved in the Haymarket affair. In his public writing and in his novels, he drew attention to pressing social issues of the time, he joined the Anti-Imperialist League in 1898, in opposition to the U. S. annexation of the Philippines. His poems were collected in 1873 and 1886, a volume was published in 1895 under the title Stops of Various Quills, he was the initiator of the school of American realists, he had little sympathy with any other type of fiction. However, he encouraged new writers in whom he discovered new ideas or new fictional techniques, such as Stephen Crane, Frank Norris, Hamlin Garland, Harold Frederic, Abraham Cahan, Sarah Orne Jewett, Paul Laurence Dunbar. In 1902, Howells published The Flight of Pony Baker, a book for children inspired by his own childhood.
That same year, he bought a summer home overlooking the Piscataqua River in Maine. He returned there annually until Elinor's death when he left the house to his son and family and moved to a house in York Harbor, his grandson, John Noyes Mead Howells, donated the property to Harvard University as a memorial in 1979. In 1904 he was one of the first seven people chosen for membership in the American Academy of Arts and Letters, of which he became president. In February 1910, Elinor Howells began using morphine to treat her worsening neuritis, she died on May 6, a few days after her birthday, only two weeks after the death of Howells's friend Mark Twain. Henry James offered his condolences, writing, "I think of this laceration of your life with an infinite sense of all it will mean for you". Howells and his daughter Mildred decided to spend part of the year in their Cambridge home on Concord Avenue. Howells died in his sleep shortly after midnight on May 11, 1920, was buried in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Eight years his daughter published his correspondence as a biography of his literary life. In addition to his own creative works, Howells wrote crit
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid-nineteenth-century French literature, Russian literature and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Literary realism attempts to represent familiar things as they are. Realist authors chose to depict everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of using a romanticized or stylized presentation. Broadly defined as "the representation of reality", realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, as well as implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism.
There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism and Italian neorealist cinema. The realism art movement in painting began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution; the realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. Realism as a movement in literature was a post-1848 phenomenon, according to its first theorist Jules-Français Champfleury, it aims to reproduce "objective reality", focused on showing everyday, quotidian activities and life among the middle or lower class society, without romantic idealization or dramatization. It may be regarded as the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation and "in accordance with secular, empirical rules." As such, the approach inherently implies a belief that such reality is ontologically independent of man's conceptual schemes, linguistic practices and beliefs, thus can be known to the artist, who can in turn represent this'reality' faithfully.
As literary critic Ian Watt states in The Rise of the Novel, modern realism "begins from the position that truth can be discovered by the individual through the senses" and as such "it has its origins in Descartes and Locke, received its first full formulation by Thomas Reid in the middle of the eighteenth century."In the late 18th century Romanticism was a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms of the previous Age of Reason and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature found in the dominant philosophy of the 18th century, as well as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography and the natural sciences.19th-century realism was in its turn a reaction to Romanticism, for this reason it is commonly derogatorily referred as traditional or "bourgeois realism". However, not all writers of Victorian literature produced works of realism; the rigidities and other limitations of Victorian realism, prompted in their turn the revolt of modernism.
Starting around 1900, the driving motive of modernist literature was the criticism of the 19th-century bourgeois social order and world view, countered with an antirationalist and antibourgeois program. Social Realism is an international art movement that includes the work of painters, printmakers and filmmakers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions. While the movement's artistic styles vary from nation to nation, it always uses a form of descriptive or critical realism. Kitchen sink realism is a term coined to describe a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, novels and television plays, which used a style of social realism, its protagonists could be described as angry young men, it depicted the domestic situations of working-class Britons living in cramped rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs, to explore social issues and political controversies.
The films and novels employing this style are set in poorer industrial areas in the North of England, use the rough-hewn speaking accents and slang heard in those regions. The film It Always Rains on Sunday is a precursor of the genre, the John Osborne play Look Back in Anger is thought of as the first of the genre; the gritty love-triangle of Look Back in Anger, for example, takes place in a cramped, one-room flat in the English Midlands. The conventions of the genre have continued into the 2000s, finding expression in such television shows as Coronation Street and EastEnders. In art, "Kitchen Sink School" was a term used by critic David Sylvester to describe painters who depicted social realist–type scenes of domestic life. Socialist realism is the official Soviet art form, institutionalized by Joseph Stalin in 1934 and was adopted by allied Communist parties worldwide; this form of realism held that successful art depicts and glorifies the proletariat's struggle toward socialist progress.
The Statute of the Union of Soviet Writers in 1934 stated that socialist realism is the basic method of Soviet literature and literary criticism. It demands of the artist the truthful concrete representation of reality in its revolutionary development. Moreover, the truthfulness and historical concreteness of the artistic representa
The Red Badge of Courage
The Red Badge of Courage is a war novel by American author Stephen Crane. Taking place during the American Civil War, the story is about a young private of the Union Army, Henry Fleming, who flees from the field of battle. Overcome with shame, he longs for a "red badge of courage," to counteract his cowardice; when his regiment once again faces the enemy, Henry acts as standard-bearer. Although Crane was born after the war, had not at the time experienced battle first-hand, the novel is known for its realism and naturalism, he began writing what would become his second novel in 1894, using various contemporary and written accounts as inspiration. It is believed. Shortened and serialized in newspapers in December 1894, the novel was published in full in October 1895. A longer version of the work, based on Crane's original manuscript, was published in 1983; the novel is known for its distinctive style, which includes realistic battle sequences as well as the repeated use of color imagery, ironic tone.
Separating itself from a traditional war narrative, Crane's story reflects the inner experience of its protagonist rather than the external world around him. Notable for its use of what Crane called a "psychological portrayal of fear", the novel's allegorical and symbolic qualities are debated by critics. Several of the themes that the story explores are maturation, heroism and the indifference of nature; the Red Badge of Courage garnered widespread acclaim, what H. G. Wells called "an orgy of praise", shortly after its publication, making Crane an instant celebrity at the age of twenty-four; the novel and its author did have their initial detractors, including author and veteran Ambrose Bierce. Adapted several times for the screen, the novel became a bestseller, it has never been out of print and is now thought to be Crane's most important work and a major American text. Stephen Crane published his first novel, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, in March 1893 at the age of 22. Maggie was not a success, either critically.
Most critics thought the unsentimental Bowery tale crude or vulgar, Crane chose to publish the work after it was rejected for publication. Crane found inspiration for his next novel while spending hours lounging in a friend's studio in the early summer of 1893. There, he became fascinated with issues of Century Magazine that were devoted to famous battles and military leaders from the Civil War. Frustrated with the dryly written stories, Crane stated, "I wonder that some of those fellows don't tell how they felt in those scraps, they spout enough of what they did, but they're as emotionless as rocks." Returning to these magazines during subsequent visits to the studio, he decided to write a war novel. He stated that he "had been unconsciously working the detail of the story out through most of his boyhood" and had imagined "war stories since he was out of knickerbockers."At the time, Crane was intermittently employed as a free-lance writer, contributing articles to various New York City newspapers.
He began writing what would become The Red Badge of Courage in June 1893, while living with his older brother Edmund in Lake View, New Jersey. Crane conceived the story from the point of view of a young private, at first filled with boyish dreams of the glory of war, only to become disillusioned by war's reality, he took the private's surname, "Fleming," from his sister-in-law's maiden name. He would relate that the first paragraphs came to him with "every word in place, every comma, every period fixed." Working nights, he wrote from around midnight until four or five in the morning. Because he could not afford a typewriter, he wrote in ink on legal-sized paper crossing through or overlying a word. If he changed something, he would rewrite the whole page, he moved to New York City, where he completed the novel in April 1894. The title of Crane's original, 55,000-word manuscript was "Private Fleming/His various battles", but in order to create the sense of a less traditional Civil War narrative, he changed the title to The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War.
In early 1894, Crane submitted the manuscript to S. S. McClure, who held on to it for six months without publication. Frustrated, the author asked for the manuscript to be returned, after which he gave it to Irving Bacheller in October. An abbreviated version of Crane's story was first serialized in The Philadelphia Press in December 1894; this version of the story, culled to 18,000 words by an editor for the serialization, was reprinted in newspapers across America, establishing Crane's fame. Crane biographer John Berryman wrote that the story was published in at least 200 small city dailies and 550 weekly papers. In October 1895, a version, 5,000 words shorter than the original manuscript, was printed in book form by D. Appleton & Company; this version of the novel differed from Crane's original manuscript. Parts of the original manuscript removed from the 1895 version include all of the twelfth chapter, as well as the endings to chapters seven and fifteen. Crane's contract with Appleton allowed him to receive a flat ten percent royalty of all copies sold.
However, the contract stipulated that he was not to receive
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet was a Scottish historical novelist, poet and historian. Many of his works remain classics of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. Although remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate and legal administrator by profession, throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; as Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore.
The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure." Walter Scott was born on 15 August 1771. He was the ninth child of a Writer to the Signet and Anne Rutherford, his father was a member of a cadet branch of the Scott Clan, his mother descended from the Haliburton family, the descent from whom granted Walter's family the hereditary right of burial in Dryburgh Abbey. Via the Haliburton family, Walter was a cousin of the pre-eminent contemporaneous property developer James Burton, a Haliburton who had shortened his surname, of his son, the architect Decimus Burton. Walter subsequently became a member of the Clarence Club, of which the Burtons were members.
Five of Walter's siblings died in infancy, a sixth died when he was five months of age. Walter was born in a third-floor flat on College Wynd in the Old Town of Edinburgh, a narrow alleyway leading from the Cowgate to the gates of the University of Edinburgh, he survived a childhood bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame, a condition, to have a significant effect on his life and writing. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his paternal grandparents' farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower, the earlier family home. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, that summer went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England, where they lived at 6 South Parade. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a water cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to prepare him for school, joined his family in their new house built as one of the first in George Square. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, he was now well able to explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books, he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. After finishing school he was sent to stay for six months with his aunt Jenny in Kelso, attending the local grammar school where he met James and John Ballantyne, who became his business partners and printed his books. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, a year or so younger than most of his fellow students. In March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his father's office to become a Writer to the Signet. Whilst at both high school and university, Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, the son of Professor Adam Ferguson who hosted literary salons.
Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macpherson's Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott met Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting; when Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem "The Justice of the Peace" and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, was thanked by Burns. Scott describes this event in his memoirs where he whispers the answer to his friend Adam who tells Burns Another version of the event is described in Literary Beginnings When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in moral philosophy and universal history in 1789–90. After completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh; as a lawyer's clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction. He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792, he had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, who married Scott's friend Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet.
As a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders. He was an obsessive collector of stories, developed an innovative method of recording what he heard at the feet of local story-tellers using carvings on twigs, to avoid
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, but never decided on or summarized in a single document. It was associated with the medieval Christian institution of knighthood; the ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the Matter of Britain and Matter of France, the former based on Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written in the 1130s, which introduced the legend of King Arthur. All of these were taken as accurate until the beginnings of modern scholarship in the 19th century; the code of chivalry that developed in medieval Europe had its roots in earlier centuries. It arose in the Holy Roman Empire from the idealisation of the cavalryman—involving military bravery, individual training, service to others—especially in Francia, among horse soldiers in Charlemagne's cavalry; the term "chivalry" derives from the Old French term chevalerie, which can be translated as "horse soldiery". The term referred only to horse-mounted men, from the French word for horse, but it became associated with knightly ideals.
Over time, its meaning in Europe has been refined to emphasise more general social and moral virtues. The code of chivalry, as it stood by the Late Middle Ages, was a moral system which combined a warrior ethos, knightly piety, courtly manners, all combining to establish a notion of honour and nobility. In origin, the term chivalry means "horsemanship", formed in Old French, in the 11th century, from chevalier, from Medieval Latin caballārius; the French word chevalier meant "a man of aristocratic standing, of noble ancestry, capable, if called upon, of equipping himself with a war horse and the arms of heavy cavalryman and, through certain rituals that make him what he is". In English, the term appears from 1292; the meaning of the term evolved over time because in the Middle Ages the meaning of chevalier changed from the original concrete military meaning "status or fee associated with a military follower owning a war horse" or "a group of mounted knights" to the ideal of the Christian warrior ethos propagated in the romance genre, becoming popular during the 12th century, the ideal of courtly love propagated in the contemporary Minnesang and related genres.
The ideas of chivalry are summarized in three medieval works: the anonymous poem Ordene de Chevalerie, which tells the story of how Hugh II of Tiberias was captured and released upon his agreement to show Saladin the ritual of Christian knighthood. None of the authors of these three texts knew the other two texts, the three combine to depict a general concept of chivalry, not in harmony with any of them. To different degrees and with different details, they speak of chivalry as a way of life in which the military, the nobility, religion combine; the "code of chivalry" is thus a product of the Late Middle Ages, evolving after the end of the crusades from an idealization of the historical knights fighting in the Holy Land and from ideals of courtly love. Gautier's Ten Commandments of chivalry, set out in the 19th century, hundreds of years after the time of medieval chivalry, are: Thou shalt believe all that the Church teaches and thou shalt observe all its directions. Thou shalt defend the Church.
Thou shalt respect all weaknesses, shalt constitute thyself the defender of them. Thou shalt love the country. Thou shalt not recoil before thine enemy. Thou shalt make war against the infidel without mercy. Thou shalt perform scrupulously thy feudal duties. Thou shalt never lie, shalt remain faithful to thy pledged word. Thou shalt be generous, give largesse to everyone. Thou shalt be everywhere and always the champion of the Right and the Good against Injustice and Evil. There is no reference to women, quests, or travel; this list would serve a soldier, or a clergyman. This "code" was created by Léon Gautier, a literary scholar, in 1883. No medieval knight came close to carrying out all of these "commandments" all of the time. Literary knights, being fictitious, did better, but not every "commandment" was followed or considered by every knight. Chivalry is to some extent a subjective term. Fans of chivalry have assumed since the late medieval period that there was a time in the past when chivalry was a living institution, when men acted chivalrically, when chivalry was alive and not dead, the imitation of which period would much improve the present.
This is the mad mission of Don Quixote, protagonist of the most chivalric novel of all time and inspirer of the chivalry of Sir Walter Scott and of the U. S. South:: to restore the age of chivalry, thereby improve his country, it is a version of the myth of the Golden Age. With the birth of modern historical and literary research, scholars have found that however far back in time "The Age of Chivalry" is searched for, it is always further in the past back to the Roman Empire. From Jean Charles Léonard de Sismondi: We must not confound chivalry with the feudal system; the feudal system may be called the real life of the period of which we are treating, possessing its advantages and inconveniences, its virtues and its vice
Stephen Crane was an American poet and short story writer. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism, he is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation. The ninth surviving child of Methodist parents, Crane began writing at the age of four and had published several articles by the age of 16. Having little interest in university studies though he was active in a fraternity, he left Syracuse University in 1891 to work as a reporter and writer. Crane's first novel was the 1893 Bowery tale Maggie: A Girl of the Streets considered by critics to be the first work of American literary Naturalism, he won international acclaim in 1895 for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage, which he wrote without having any battle experience. In 1896, Crane endured a publicized scandal after appearing as a witness in the trial of a suspected prostitute, an acquaintance named Dora Clark.
Late that year he accepted an offer to travel to Cuba as a war correspondent. As he waited in Jacksonville, Florida for passage, he met Cora Taylor, with whom he began a lasting relationship. En route to Cuba, Crane's vessel the SS Commodore sank off the coast of Florida, leaving him and others adrift for 30 hours in a dinghy. Crane described the ordeal in "The Open Boat". During the final years of his life, he covered conflicts in Greece and lived in England with her, he was befriended by writers such as H. G. Wells. Plagued by financial difficulties and ill health, Crane died of tuberculosis in a Black Forest sanatorium in Germany at the age of 28. At the time of his death, Crane was considered an important figure in American literature. After he was nearly forgotten for two decades, critics revived interest in his work. Crane's writing is characterized by vivid intensity, distinctive dialects, irony. Common themes involve spiritual crises and social isolation. Although recognized for The Red Badge of Courage, which has become an American classic, Crane is known for his poetry and short stories such as "The Open Boat", "The Blue Hotel", "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky", The Monster.
His writing made a deep impression on 20th-century writers, most prominent among them Ernest Hemingway, is thought to have inspired the Modernists and the Imagists. Stephen Crane was born on November 1, 1871, in Newark, New Jersey, to Jonathan Townley Crane, a minister in the Methodist Episcopal church, Mary Helen Peck Crane, daughter of a clergyman, George Peck, he was the last child born to the couple. At 45, Helen Crane had suffered the early deaths of her previous four children, each of whom died within one year of birth. Nicknamed "Stevie" by the family, he joined eight surviving brothers and sisters—Mary Helen, George Peck, Jonathan Townley, William Howe, Agnes Elizabeth, Edmund Byran, Wilbur Fiske, Luther; the Cranes were descended from Jaspar Crane, a founder of New Haven Colony, who had migrated there from England in 1639. Stephen was named for a putative founder of Elizabethtown, New Jersey, who had, according to family tradition, come from England or Wales in 1665, as well as his great-great-grandfather Stephen Crane, a Revolutionary War patriot who served as New Jersey delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
Crane wrote that his father, Dr. Crane, "was a great, simple mind," who had written numerous tracts on theology. Although his mother was a popular spokeswoman for the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and a religious woman, Crane wrote that he did not believe "she was as narrow as most of her friends or family." The young Stephen was raised by his sister Agnes, 15 years his senior. The family moved to Port Jervis, New York, in 1876, where Dr. Crane became the pastor of Drew Methodist Church, a position that he retained until his death; as a child, Stephen was sickly and afflicted by constant colds. When the boy was two, his father wrote in his diary that his youngest son became "so sick that we are anxious about him." Despite his fragile nature, Crane was an intelligent child who taught himself to read before the age of four. His first known inquiry, recorded by his father, dealt with writing. In December 1879, Crane wrote a poem about wanting a dog for Christmas. Entitled "I'd Rather Have –", it is his first surviving poem.
Stephen was not enrolled in school until January 1880, but he had no difficulty in completing two grades in six weeks. Recalling this feat, he wrote that it "sounds like the lie of a fond mother at a teaparty, but I do remember that I got ahead fast and that father was pleased with me."Dr. Crane died on February 16, 1880, at the age of 60; some 1,400 people mourned Dr. Crane at more than double the size of his congregation. After her husband's death, Mrs. Crane moved to Roseville, near Newark, leaving Stephen in the care of his older brother Edmund, with whom the young boy lived with cousins in Sussex County, he next lived with a lawyer, in Port Jervis for several years. His older sister Helen took him to Asbury Park to be with their brother Townley and his wife, Fannie. Townley was a professional journalist. Agnes, another Crane sister, joined the siblings in New Jersey, she took a positio