The Shanghainese language known as the Shanghai dialect, Hu language or Hu dialect, is a variety of Wu Chinese spoken in the central districts of the City of Shanghai and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like other Wu variants, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin. Shanghainese belongs to the Taihu Wu subgroup, contains vocabulary and expressions from the entire Taihu Wu area of southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese is the largest single form of Wu Chinese, it serves as the lingua franca of the entire Yangtze River Delta region. Shanghainese is rich in consonants. Like other Taihu Wu dialects, Shanghainese has voiced initials: neither Cantonese nor Mandarin has voiced initial stops or affricates; the Shanghainese tonal system is significantly different from other Chinese varieties, sharing more similarities with the Japanese pitch accent, with two level tonal contrasts, whereas Cantonese and Mandarin are typical of contour tonal languages.
Shanghai did not become a regional center of commerce until it was opened to foreign investment during the late Qing dynasty. Languages and dialects spoken around Shanghai had long been subordinate to those spoken around Jiaxing and Suzhounese. In the late 19th century, most vocabulary of the Shanghai area had been a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu and Ningbonese. Since the 1850s, owing to the growth of Shanghai's economy, Shanghainese has become one of the fastest-developing languages of the Wu Chinese subgroup, undergoing rapid changes and replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta region, it underwent sustained growth that reached a hiatus in the 1930s during the Republican era, when migrants arrived in Shanghai and immersed themselves in the local tongue. After 1949, the government imposed Mandarin as the official language of the whole nation of China; the dominance and influence of Shanghainese began to wane slightly. Since Chinese economic reform began in 1978 Shanghai became home to a great number of migrants from all over the country.
Due to the national prominence of Mandarin, learning Shanghainese was no longer necessary for migrants, because those educated after the 1950s could communicate in Mandarin. However, Shanghainese remained a vital part of the city's culture and retained its prestige status within the local population. In the 1990s, it was still common for local television broadcasts to be in Shanghainese. In 1995, the TV series Sinful Debt featured extensive Shanghainese dialogue; the Shanghainese TV series Lao Niang Jiu was broadcast from 1995 to 2007 and was popular among Shanghainese residents. Shanghainese programming has since declined amid regionalist/localist accusations. From 1992 onward, Shanghainese use was discouraged in schools, many children native to Shanghai can no longer speak Shanghainese. In addition, Shanghai's emergence as a cosmopolitan global city consolidated the status of Mandarin as the standard language of business and services, at the expense of the local language. Since 2005, new movements have emerged to protect Shanghainese from fading away.
At municipal legislative discussions in 2005, former Shanghai opera actress Ma Lili moved to "protect" the language, stating that she was one of the few remaining Shanghai opera actresses who still retained authentic classic Shanghainese pronunciation in their performances. Shanghai's former party boss Chen Liangyu, a native Shanghainese himself supported her proposal. There have been talks of re-integrating Shanghainese into pre-kindergarten education, because many children are unable to speak any Shanghainese. A citywide program was introduced by the city government's language committee in 2006 to record native speakers of different Shanghainese varieties for archival purposes and, by 2010, many Shanghainese-language programs were running; the Shanghai government has begun to reverse its course and seek fluent speakers of authentic Shanghainese, but only two out of thirteen recruitment stations have found Traditional Shanghainese speakers. Professor Qian Nairong is working on efforts to save the language.
In response to criticism, Qian reminds people that Shanghainese was once fashionable, saying, "the popularization of Mandarin doesn't equal the ban of dialects. It doesn't make Mandarin a more civilized language either. Promoting dialects is not a narrow-minded localism, as it has been labeled by some netizens"; the singer and composer Eheart Chen sings many of his songs in Shanghainese instead of Mandarin to preserve the language. Since 2006, the Modern Baby Kindergarten in Shanghai has prohibited all of its students from speaking anything but Shanghainese on Fridays to preserve the language amongst younger speakers. In 2011, Professor Qian said that the sole remaining speakers of real Shanghainese are a group of Shanghainese peoples over the age of 60 and native citizens who have little outside contact, he urges that Shanghainese be taught in the regular school system from kindergarten all the way to elementary, saying it is the only way to save Shanghainese, that attempts to introduce it in university courses and operas are not enough.
Fourteen native Shanghainese speakers had audio recordings made of their Shanghainese on May 31, 2011. They were selected based on accent purity, wa
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry. Eurasians include people with ancestry from anywhere in Asia; the term was coined in 19th-century British India to identify a person born to a British father and an Indian mother. These mixed offspring were called Anglo-Indians. In addition to British many were of mixed Portuguese, Irish or, more French descent; the term has been used in anthropological literature since the 1960s. Central Asia has been a "melting pot" of West Eurasia and East Eurasian peoples, leading to high genetic admixture and diversity. Physical and genetic analyses of ancient remains have concluded that – while the Scythians, including those in the eastern Pazyryk region – possessed predominantly features found in Europoids, mixed Eurasian phenotypes were frequently present, suggesting that the Scythians as a whole were descended in part from East Eurasian populations; the nomadic Xiongnu were nomadic warriors who invaded Central Asia. They were predominant Mongoloid, known from their skeletal artifacts.
Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid. Russian and Chinese anthropological and craniofacial studies show that the Xiongnu were physically heterogeneous, with six different population clusters showing different degrees of Mongoloid and Caucasoid physical traits. A majority of the Xiongnu mtDNA sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups, nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups; this finding indicates that contact between European and Asian populations preceded the start of Xiongnu culture, confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC Scytho-Siberian population. Anthropologist SA Pletnev studied a group of burials of Kipchaks in the Volga region and found them to have Caucasoid features with some admixture of Mongoloid traits, with physical characteristics such as flat face and distinctly protruding nose, they were nomadic people that, together with the Cumans, ruled areas stretching from Kazakhstan, eastern Europe.
Like the Kipchaks, the Cumans invaders of Europe were of mixed anthropological origins. Excavation at Hungary Csengele, were far from genetic homogeneity showing both Mongoloid and European traits. Five of the six skeletons that were complete enough for anthropometric analysis and they appeared Asian rather than European The Hunnic invaders of Europe were of mixed origins. Hungarian archaeologist István Bóna argues that most of Europeans Huns were of Caucasoid and that less than 20–25% were of Mongoloid stock. According to the Hungarian anhtropologist Pál Lipták he believed Turanid race was most common among the Hun, he classified Turanid as a Caucasoid type with significant Mongoloid admixture, arising from the mixture of the Andronovo type of Europoid features and the Oriental. The Eurasian Avars were group of sixth-century nomadic warriors that came from Northern Central Asia who ruled in what is today Central Europe. Anthropological research has revealed few skeletons with Mongoloid-type features, although there was continuing cultural influence from the Eurasian nomadic steppe.
The early Avar anthropological material was said to be Europoid in the seventh century according to Pál Lipták, while grave-goods indicated Middle and Central Asian parallels. Mongoloid and Euro-Mongoloid types compose about one-third of the total population of the Avar graves of the eighth century with the late Avar Period showing more hybridization resulting in higher frequencies of Europo-Mongolids; the Avars and their subjects lived separately, except for Slavic and Germanic women who were married to Avar men. The Germanic and Slavic peoples were included in the Avaric social order and culture, which itself was Persian-Byzantine in fashion; each year, the Huns came to the Slavs. But the sons of the Huns, who were raised with the wives and daughters of these Wends could not endure this oppression anymore and refused obedience to the Huns and began, as mentioned, a rebellion; the Seljuk Empire which ruled from Central Asia, Middle East to modern Turkey, their descendants are the Iranian Turkmen and Afghan Turkmen and are mixture of Mongoloid/Caucasoid.
Like the Kipchaks, the Cuman invaders of Europe were of mixed anthropological origins. Excavations in Csengele, have revealed normatively East Asian and European traits. Five of the six skeletons that were complete enough for anthropometric analysis appeared Asian rather than European. Many Eurasian ethnic groups arose during the Mongol invasion of Europe. Partial Mongol descendants of Central Asians and Circassians, such as the Uzbeks and Nogais created many Eurasian ethnic groups under the empires they established, which covered vast areas of Russia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia; the term Eurasian was first coined in British India in 1844 by the Marquess of Hastings. The term was used to refer to those who are now known as Anglo-Indians, people of mixed British and Indian descent; the term Eurasian was first coined in British India in 1844 by the Marquess of Hastings. The term was used to refer to those who are now known as Anglo-Indians, people of mixed British and Indian descent.
European colonization of vast swathes of So
Malays (ethnic group)
Malays are an Austronesian ethnic group and nation native to the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra of Indonesia and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. These locations are today part of the nations of Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand. There is considerable genetic, linguistic and social diversity among the many Malay subgroups due to hundreds of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicity and tribes within Maritime Southeast Asia; the Malay population is descended from the earlier Malayic-speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Chi Tu, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pahang and Srivijaya. The advent of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century triggered a major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy.
Common definitive markers of a Malayness – the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions – are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region. In literature, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, royal court traditions, Malacca set a standard that Malay sultanates emulated; the golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants from various tribal communities like the Batak, Orang Asli and the Orang Laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation. Today, some Malays have recent forebears from other parts of Maritime Southeast Asia, termed as anak dagang and who predominantly consist of Banjar, Minangkabau people and Acehnese peoples, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other countries. Throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics.
They absorbed and transmitted numerous cultural features of other local ethnic groups, such as those of Minang, to some degree Javanese culture. Ethnic Malays are the major source of the ethnocultural development of the related Betawi, Cape Malay, Cocos Malays and Sri Lankan Malay cultures, as well as the development of Malay trade and creole languages like Ambonese Malay, Baba Malay, the Betawi language and Manado Malay; the epic literature, the Malay Annals, associates the etymological origin of "Melayu" to Sungai Melayu in Sumatra, Indonesia. The term is thought to be derived from the Malay word melaju, a combination of the verbal prefix'me' and the root word'laju', meaning "to accelerate", used to describe the accelerating strong current of the river; the word "Melayu" as an ethnonym, to allude to a different ethnological cluster, is assumed to have been made fashionable throughout the integration of the Malacca Sultanate as a regional power in the 15th century. It was applied to report the social partialities of the Malaccans as opposed to foreigners as of the similar area the Javanese and Thais This is evidenced from the early 16th century Malay word-list by Antonio Pigafetta who joined the Magellan's circumnavigation, that made a reference to how the phrase chiara Malaiu was used in the maritime Southeast Asia, to refer to the al parlare de Malaea.
The English term "Malay" was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese: Malaio, which originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, the term "Melayu" and its similar-sounding variants appear to apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general. Malaya Dwipa, "Malaya Dvipa", is described in chapter 48, Vayu Purana as one of the provinces in the eastern sea, full of gold and silver; some scholars equate the term with Sumatra, but several Indian scholars believe the term should refer to the mountainous Malay peninsula, while Sumatra is more associated with Suvarnadvipa. Maleu-kolon – a location in the Golden Chersonese, from Ptolemy's work, Geographia. Mo-lo-yu – mentioned by Yijing, a Tang dynasty Chinese Buddhist monk who visited the Southeast Asia in 688–695. According to Yijing, the Mo-Lo-Yu kingdom was located at a distance of 15 days sailing from Bogha, the capital of Sribhoga, it took a 15-day sail as well to reach Ka-Cha from Mo-lo-yu.
A popular theory relates Mo-Lo-Yu with the Jambi in Sumatra, however the geographical location of Jambi contradicts with Yi Jing's description of a "half way sail between Ka-Cha and Bogha". In the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the word Ma-La-Yu was mentioned in Chinese historical texts – with changes in spelling due to the time span between the dynasties – to refer to a nation near the southern sea. Among the terms used was "Bok-la-yu", "Mok-la-yu", Ma-li-yu-er, Oo-lai-yu – traced from the written source of monk Xuanzang), Wu-lai-yu. Malayur – inscribed on the south wall of the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Tamil Nadu, it was described as a kingdom that had "a strong mountain for its rampart" in Malay peninsula, that fell to the Chola invaders during Rajendra Chola I's campaign in the 11th century. Bhūmi Mālayu –, a transcription from Padang Roco I
Cheryl Chou is a Singaporean model and actress. She joined the entertainment industry after being crowned Miss Universe Singapore 2016. Cheryl was born and raised in Singapore until the age of 8 years old before moving to China where she stayed for 10 years, she studied at the Shanghai Singapore International School and graduated with an IB Diploma at 18. Both her parents are based in China, her mother runs her father is an operations manager. Cheryl spent her freshmen year of college at the Savannah College of Art and Design majoring in Fashion Marketing and Management, she moved back to Singapore and attended LASALLE College of the Arts, majoring in BA Fashion Media and Industries. Aside from being able to speak fluent English and Mandarin, she is able to converse in Cantonese. In 2016, Cheryl entered the Miss Universe Singapore pageant where she won the title of Miss Universe Singapore 2016; the judges find her answer to the question "What do you believe is the essence of a true Singapore woman?" during the Q&A segment to be best of the lot.
Her response was: "A woman, confident in her own skin and not afraid of failure and to follow her dreams." In January 2017, she represented Singapore at the 65th Miss Universe competition in Manila, Philippines but she unplaced in the pageant. Cheryl Chou on Instagram
Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant, run by the American-based Miss Universe Organization. It seen by more than half a billion people annually. Along with Miss World, Miss International, Miss Earth, Miss Universe is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants; the Miss Universe Organization and its brand, along with Miss USA and Miss Teen USA, are owned by the WME/IMG talent agency. The current Miss Universe is Catriona Gray of the Philippines, crowned on 17 December 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand; the title "Miss Universe" was first used by the International Pageant of Pulchritude in 1926. This contest was held annually until 1935, when the Great Depression and other events preceding World War II led to its demise; the current Miss Universe pageant was founded in 1952 by Pacific Knitting Mills, a California-based clothing company and manufacturer of Catalina Swimwear. The company was the sponsor of the Miss America pageant until 1951, when the winner, Yolande Betbeze, refused to pose for publicity pictures wearing one of their swimsuits.
In 1952, Pacific Knitting Mills organized the Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants, co-sponsoring them for decades to follow. The first Miss Universe Pageant was held in Long Beach, California in 1952, it was won by Armi Kuusela from Finland, who gave up her title, though not to get married, shortly before her year was completed. Until 1958, the Miss Universe title, like that of Miss America, was dated by the year following the contest, so at the time Ms. Kuusela's title was Miss Universe 1953. Since its founding by Pacific Mills, the pageant has been organized and conducted by the Miss Universe Organization. Pacific Mills and its subsidiaries were acquired by the Kayser-Roth Corporation, in turn acquired by Gulf and Western Industries; the pageant was first televised in 1955. CBS began broadcasting the combined Miss USA and Miss Universe pageants in 1960, as separate contests in 1965. John Charles Daly hosted the pageant from 1955 to 1966, Bob Barker from 1967 to 1987, Alan Thicke in 1988, John Forsythe in 1989, Dick Clark from 1990 to 1993, Bob Goen from 1994 to 1996.
Donald Trump bought the pageant in 1996 from ITT Corp. Trump struck a broadcasting arrangement with CBS until 2002. In 1998, Miss Universe, Inc. changed its name to the Miss Universe Organization, moved its headquarters from Los Angeles to New York City. In late 2002, Trump entered into a joint venture with NBC, which in 2003 outbid the other markets for the TV rights. From 2003 to 2014, the pageant was broadcast in the United States on NBC. In June 2015, NBC canceled all business relationships with Trump and the Miss Universe Organization in response to controversial statements about illegal immigrants who crossed the border from Mexico; as part of the legal settlement, in September 2015, Trump bought out NBC's 50% stake in the company, making him the company's sole owner. Three days he sold the whole company to WME/IMG. Following the change of ownership, in October 2015, Fox and Azteca became the official broadcasters of the Miss Universe and Miss USA pageants; the current president of the Miss Universe Organization is Paula Shugart, who has held this position since 1997.
For a country to participate in Miss Universe, a local company or a person should buy the local rights of the competition, through a franchise fee, which involves the rights of image and everything related to the pageant. The owner of this franchise, for contractual breaches or financial reasons, returns the franchise to the Miss Universe Organization, which resells it to a new stakeholder; the reselling of the franchise from one owner to the next is recurrently common in the history of the event. The number of candidates in the contest is inconstant because of the question of the franchisees. In addition, there are problems related to the calendar of the pageant. A country's candidate selection involves pageants in the nation's local subdivisions, whose winners compete in a national pageant, but there are some countries who opt for an internal selection. For example, from 2000 to 2004, Australian delegates were chosen by a modelling agency. Although such "castings" are discouraged by the Miss Universe Organization, Jennifer Hawkins was chosen to represent the country in Miss Universe in 2004.
When Australia resumed its national pageant in the following year, Michelle Guy became Miss Universe Australia 2005. Recent arrivals in the last ten years of the pageant include: Gabon and Lithuania, Sierra Leone, Cambodia and Nepal, Armenia and Mongolia. There have been efforts to revive strong national pageants in South Africa, Spain, Southeast Asia and Latin America; the organization makes continual efforts to expand the pageant, but the participation of some countries has proven difficult due to cultural barriers to the swimsuit competition, while others such as Mozambique have balked at sending representatives due to the cost. As of 2018, only three countries have been present at every Miss Universe since its inception in 1952: Canada and Germany. Many European countries allow 17-year-old contestants to compete in their pageants, while Miss Universe's minimum age is 18, so national titleholders have to be replaced by their runners-up or another candidate. Beginning in 2012, transgender women were allowed to compete, as long as they win their national pageants.
Six years after this rule went into effect, Angela Ponce of Spain became the first transgender candidate to compete in the contest in the 2018 edition. Since its inception, Miss Univ
Indonesians are citizens of Indonesia, regardless of their race, ethnicity or religious background. There are about 300 ethnicities in Indonesia, a multicultural archipelagic country with a diversity of languages and religious beliefs; the population of Indonesia according to the 2010 national census was 237.64 million, it was estimated to reach 255.4 million in 2015. 51 % live on the island of the world's most populous island. Around 95% of Indonesians are Native Indonesians, with Javanese forming the majority, while the other 5% are Indonesians with ancestry from foreign origin, such as Chinese Indonesians; as of 2018, Indonesians make up 3.5% of world total population, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country after China and the United States. Despite a effective family planning program, in place since the 1967, for the decade ending in 2010, Indonesia's population growth was 1.49 percent. At that rate, Indonesia's population is projected to surpass the present population of the United States and would - if the current US population did not rise - become the world's third biggest after China and India by 2043.
The family planning revitalised based on the 1967 program to avoid Indonesia becoming the world's third most populous country. With a population of 150 million, Java is home to 51 percent of the Indonesian population, is the most populous island on Earth; the Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java, it was the centre of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the centre of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Other major island of Indonesia are Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua that take other 49 percent of Indonesian population. There are other small populated island such as Bali, Madura, Maluku, Lesser Sunda Islands, Riau Islands and others. There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia. 95% of those are of Native Indonesian ancestry. The largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up nearly 51% of the total population.
The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program. The Sundanese and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number in Maluku Islands and West Papua belong to Papuan languages; the Chinese Indonesians population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka; the classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations and linguistic influences. This is the same case with Baduy people that share many cultural similarities with the Sundanese people. An example of hybrid ethnicity is the Betawi people, descended not only from marriages between different peoples in Indonesia but with foreign origin like Arab and Indian migrants since the era of colonial Batavia.
The Indonesian language is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language, used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Most Indonesians speak one of more than 700 indigenous languages. Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in another regional language, which are used at home and within the local community. Most formal education, nearly all national media and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. In East Timor, an Indonesian province from 1975 to 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages, alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese. Indonesia is constitutionally a secular state and the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila, is "belief in the one and only God". A number of different religions are practised in the country, their collective influence on the country's political and cultural life is significant.
The Indonesian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. However, the government recognises only six official religions. Although based on data collected by the Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace, there are about 245 non-official religions in Indonesia. Indonesian law requires that every Indonesian citizen hold an identity card that identifies that person with one of these six religions, although citizens may be able to leave that section blank. Indonesia does not recognise agnosticism or atheism, blasphemy is illegal. In the 2010 Indonesian census, 87.18% of Indonesians identified themselves as Muslim, 6.96% Protestant, 2.91% Catholic, 1.69% Hindu, 0.72% Buddhist, 0.05% Confucianism, 0.13% other, 0.38% unstated or not asked. Indonesia's political leadership has played an important role in the relations bet
Rachel Kum is a Singaporean entrepreneur who co-founded the Singaporean company Rachel K Cosmetics. She is a former beauty pageant participant who won Miss Singapore Universe 2009, she represented Singapore as a contestant in the Miss Universe 2009 pageant, held at the Atlantis Paradise Island, in Nassau, Bahamas on 23 August 2009. Born and raised in Singapore, Kum graduated from Finance at the University of Western Australia, she created Rachel K Cosmetics. In 2009, Kum was featured in a Windows commercial on AXN Asia television. Rachel K Cosmetics Miss Universe