Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Miss Universe 2012
Miss Universe 2012, the 61st Miss Universe pageant, was held on 19 December 2012 at The AXIS, Las Vegas, United States. Leila Lopes of Angola crowned her successor Olivia Culpo of the United States at the end of the event. 89 contestants competed in this year's pageant, same as last year. The Dominican Republic negotiated with the Miss Universe Organization to organize the pageant in Punta Cana but was not granted the hosting rights due to the country not being able to fulfill the requirements asked by the Miss Universe Organization; the backing out of the Dominican Republic caused the Miss Universe Organization to host the pageant in Las Vegas, Nevada in December deviating from the customary mid-year scheduling of the pageant. The following 89 women competed for the title of Miss Universe 2012: Carlos Anaya Beverly Frank Duane Gazi Michael Greenwald Jimmy Nguyen Corinne Nicolas Amy Sadowsky Crystle Stewart – Miss USA 2008 from Texas– Source: Nigel Barker – Fashion photographer and the host of The Face Diego Boneta – Singer and songwriter from Mexico Scott Disick – Businessman and reality star of Keeping Up With the Kardashians Brad Goreski – Fashion stylist and reality star of It's a Brad, Brad World Claudia Jordan – Miss Rhode Island Teen USA 1990 & Miss Rhode Island USA 1997 Masaharu Morimoto – Chef and star of Iron Chef and Iron Chef America from Japan Ximena Navarrete – Miss Universe 2010 from Mexico Pablo Sandoval – Professional baseball player from Venezuela Lisa Vanderpump – Reality star of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills Kerri Walsh Jennings – Professional beach volleyball player and triple gold medalist in Summer Olympics Gabon Lithuania Canada – Sahar Biniaz was replaced by Adwoa Yamoah, the 1st runner-up of Miss Universe Canada 2012 because the original winner, had to withdraw due to a foot injury.
Cyprus – Ntaniella Kefala was replaced by Ioánna Yiannakoú the 2nd runner-up of Star Cyprus 2012 for undisclosed reasons. Dominican Republic – Carola Durán was dethroned after reports surfaced of a previous marriage in 2009, she was replaced by Dulcita Lynn Lieggi the 1st runner-up of Miss Republica Dominicana 2012. Estonia – Kätlin Valdmets was replaced by Natalie Korneitsik, the 1st runner-up of Eesti Miss Estonia 2012 pageant due to Katlin not being able to travel to participate. France – Delphine Wespiser due to Miss Universe 2012 conflicting with Miss France 2013, held on 8 December, she was replaced by Marie Payet, the 2nd runner-up of Miss France 2012. Gabon – Marie-Noëlle Ada was replaced by Channa Divouvi, the 1st runner-up of Miss Gabon 2011 due to Marie being unable to attend both the pageant and Miss Gabon 2012. India – Urvashi Rautela resigned due to an age controversy, she was replaced by Shilpa Singh, the 1st runner-up of I Am She 2012. Urvashi Rautela won Miss Diva 2015 and represented India at Miss Universe 2015 where she was unplaced.
New Zealand – Avianca Böhm was replaced by Talia Bennett, the 1st runner-up of Miss Universe New Zealand 2012, after her New Zealand citizenship application was denied. Aruba – Liza Nerelyn Helder was appointed as "Miss Universe Aruba 2012" after Marinus Wegereef, acquired the franchise and became the new national director of Miss Universe in Aruba. Curaçao – Monifa Jansen was appointed to represent Curaçao after she couldn't compete in 2011 because she didn't meet the minimum age requirement. Denmark – Josefine Hewitt was appointed as "Miss Universe Denmark 2012" after a casting call took place. Germany – Alicia Endemann was appointed as "Miss Universe Germany 2012" by Kim Kotter, national director of Miss Universe in Germany. Haiti – Christela Jacques was appointed as "Miss Universe Haiti 2012" after a casting call took place. Lithuania – Greta Mikalauskyte was appointed to represent Lithuania, she was the 1st runner up at the Miss Lithuania 2012 pageant. Netherlands – Nathalie den Dekker was appointed as "Miss Universe Netherlands 2012" by Kim Kotter, national director of Miss Universe in the Netherlands.
She competed at Miss World 2012, where she placed in the Top 15. Peru – Nicole Faverón was appointed as "Miss Universe Peru 2012", she was the 1st runner up at the Miss Peru 2011 pageant. Serbia – Branislava Mandic was appointed to represent Serbia, she was the 2nd runner up at the Miss Serbia 2011 pageant. Vietnam – Lưu Thị Diễm Hương was appointed to represent Vietnam by Unicorp; the permission was granted by the Ministry of Culture of Vietnam, which authorizes the international representation of the nation in events of any kind. Luu Thi Diem Huong got divorced, she was married in 2011, she lied to Unicorp. Luu Thi Diem Huong is the first Miss Vietnam who competed at Miss Universe. Egypt – Egypt didn't send a delegate because there were no sponsors for the 2012 pageant. Kazakhstan – Ainur Toleuova withdrew because she didn't meet the minimum age requirement. Portugal - The Miss Universe Portugal 2012 was not held due to losing the franchise until 2013. Portugal will returned to Miss Universe in 2014.
Slovenia – The main national pageant organizers "Delo Revije", a magazine company, lost the franchise license due to company's bankruptcy filed in 2011. Turks and Caicos U. S. Virgin Islands Miss Universe had been struggling to find a venue for this year's pageant. In March 2012, it was announced that the pageant would be moved to December because the broadcaster NBC could not broadcast the pageant at the same time as the 2012 Summer Olympics and the United States presidential election. In April 2012, it was announced. In July 2012, the Bangladeshi president announced that they will withdraw the host nation and will not host the pageant because they will find a new host in August, it was rumored that Guadalajara of Mexico, Isla
Miss Ukraine is a national Beauty pageant in Ukraine. Today it is one of the top three national beauty contests in Ukraine, others being Miss Ukraine Universe and Queen of Ukraine. Miss Ukraine serves as preliminary for Miss International and Miss Earth; until 2006 it was the only national beauty contest, participants of which were qualifying for all the international pageant contests. Miss Ukraine still is the most prestigious and broadcast, however other concourses such as Miss Ukraine Universe with the help from Oleksandra Nikolayenko becomes well accepted also; the first national pageant Miss Ukraine became an eighteen-year-old university student Olha Ovcharenko/Rechdouni, a semi-finalist in "Miss USSR" beauty pageant, the first runner-up in 1990 Miss Kiev beauty pageant. The participants of Miss Ukraine would qualify to represent Ukraine on the international level such as the Big Four Pageants, Miss Intercontinental, continental beauty contests. Miss Universe contest was attended by the first runner-up of Miss Ukraine but sometimes the winner can compete.
The national beauty contest was reorganized after Miss Ukraine Organization lost its franchise to one of the former pageant winners Oleksandra Nikolayenko. Since 2006, Oleksandra Nikolayenko organizes Miss Ukraine Universe concourse as qualification to Miss Universe independently; the contest takes place out of 26 candidates from all the regions of Ukraine. The major regional contests are Miss Kiev, Miss Odessa, Miss Donbass, Miss Western Ukraine and Bukovina, Miss Dnipropetrovsk, others. In 2002 Miss World 2002 was attended by the first runner-up of Miss Ukraine Iryna Udovenko as the winner of the national contest Yelena Stohniy was over the age restriction to participate on the international level. Since 2005, Miss Ukraine has been broadcast every year by one of the leaders of the national TV-networks Inter. In 2010, the Ukrainian National pageant took place on September 4; the winner received a crown estimated at 250,000 euros, a Renault car, various make-up products. 2013: Fairmont Grand Hotel 2012: National Opera of Ukraine 2010-2011: Palace Ukraina Color key The winner of Miss Ukraine represents her country at the Miss World.
On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent. Traditionally there are titles for Runners-up and People's Choice Award. Color key The second title of Miss Ukraine represents her country at the Miss International. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent; the other delegates might compete. Color key In 2013 to 2015 the winner of Queen of Ukraine represented her country at the Miss Earth. Began in 2016 the third title of Miss Ukraine represents her country at the Miss Earth. On occasion, when the winner does not qualify for either contest, a runner-up is sent. Golden Crown of Ukraine was conducted for the first time on November 6, 2004 at the Lviv Opera Theater; the winner of the contest Yelena Klepko from Poltava won the automobile Peugeot-206, a golden crown, the title Miss Transport of Ukraine 2004. She was allowed to participate at the Top Model of the World contest. In March 2010 there took place a Miss Bukovel contest as part of popularization of the Prykarpattya ski-resort Bukovel.
The contest was won by a representative from Luhansk who participated in Miss Ukraine 2010 as Miss Bukovel. Throughout Ukraine take place numerous other regular regional pageant contests among such are Transcarpathian Open, Miss Kiev City, Miss Crimean Champaign, Miss Sevastopol, pageant contest of Chernihiv Region, others. In Chicago every year from about a thousand Ukrainian Americans one Miss Ukrainian Diaspora is chosen. Miss Ukraine Universe Miss Europe Ukraine at major beauty pageants "The 2018 Miss Ukraine Was Disqualified After Pageant Organizers Found Out She Had a Son". Cosmopolitan. September 1, 2018. Retrieved February 22, 2019. Info on Miss Ukraine and participants of 2009 event Main site / Miss Ukraine 2007 at natali.ua Official website of InterModels model agency, the agency conducts the Golden Crown of Ukraine contest List of miscellaneous pageant contests in Ukraine. List of previous winners Another list
Miss Universe 2001
Miss Universe 2001, the 50th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 11 May 2001 at the Coliseo Rubén Rodríguez in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. Denise Quiñones of Puerto Rico was crowned by Lara Dutta of India as her successor at the end of the event. 77 contestants competed in this year. Puerto Rico is the second country to win Miss Universe as host, after the United States. Bahamas - Miss Congeniality Puerto Rico - Miss Photogenic Korea - Best National Costume The Parade of Nations followed the 1989 pageant in continental format and the delegates wore their national costumes. Poland was supposed to be represented by the 1st runner-up of Malgorzata Rozniecka. Studies prevented her from going, the organization picked another finalist, Monika Gruda. In September, Malgorzata Rozniecka won the Miss International pageant in Japan. France, Élodie Gossuin who would win Miss Europe, faced controversy when it was rumoured that she was a transsexual, which she denied. A medical examination confirmed; the organization invited Oxana Fedorova, to attend the pageant.
But Fedorova said she couldn't compete because of her studies, that she would compete in 2002. Her 1st runner-up, Oxana Kalandyrets, became a top 10 finalist. Fedorova would go on to win the following year's Miss Universe pageant, only to be dethroned and replaced with her runner-up four months later. Oxana Kalandyrets sported the same evening gown that the Russian representative at Miss Universe 1997, Anna Baytchik, wore during Miss Universe 1997 preliminaries. Miss Spain 2001, Lorena van Heerde Ayala, could not compete in the pageant, her 1st runner-up, Eva Sisó, replaced her. Lorena was supposed to compete in Miss Universe 2002 as well, but after a threat of lawsuit against the Miss España Organization by her family side due the breach of contract by the organization, she cut all ties with the Miss España organization and lost the right to representing Spain in any international pageant. Juliana Borges of Brazil was criticized after admitting to the media that she had undergone nineteen plastic surgeries, stating "It's like studying for a math exam and you get good grades... you study and you work hard to have the perfect body".
Despite a public outcry she was still allowed to compete. West, Donald. "Miss Universe 2001". Pageantopolis.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Critical Beauty - Miss Universe 2001
Miss Universe 2002
Miss Universe 2002, the 51st Miss Universe pageant, was held on 29 May 2002 at the Coliseo Roberto Clemente in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 75 delegates competed in this year. Oxana Fedorova of Russia was crowned by Denise Quiñones of Puerto Rico as her successor at the end of the event. Fedorova was dethroned four months and 1st runner-up Justine Pasek of Panama took over the Miss Universe title; this makes it the first time in the pageant's history that the 1st runner-up assumed the title when the reigning Miss Universe became incapable of fulfilling her duties, as explained in the disclaimer traditionally read out by hosts before announcing the winner in the live show. This was the last Miss Universe show to be aired on CBS. Beginning with the next Miss Universe pageant, NBC assumed co-ownership of the pageant along with Donald Trump, as a result began televising the pageant. Albania China Spain - The winner of Miss España 2001 pageant, Lorena Ayala cut all ties with the Miss España organization and lost the right to representing Spain in any international pageant after a threat of lawsuit against the Miss España Organization by her family side due to breaching her contract with the organization they replaced her with the new Miss España 2002, Vania Millán by the Miss Universe Organization's request.
US Virgin Islands - Miss Congeniality Puerto Rico - Miss Photogenic Colombia - Best National Costume The Parade of Nations was conducted outdoors in the streets of Old San Juan for the first time and the delegates all wore their national costumes and presented in alphabetical order. This format of the parade would continue until 2005, although from 2003–2005, the delegates did not wear their national costumes during the parade. Josiane Oliveira of Brazil was dethroned after Big Brother Brasil; the local organization discovered. The 2002 Miss Brazil 1st runner-up took over the title just two months before passing the crown to her successor. West, Donald. "Miss Universe 2002". Pageantopolis.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012
Miss Universe 2018
Miss Universe 2018, the 67th Miss Universe pageant, was held on 17 December 2018 at IMPACT Arena, Muang Thong Thani in Nonthaburi Province, northern suburb of Bangkok, Thailand. Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters of South Africa crowned her successor Catriona Gray of the Philippines by the end of the event; the show was hosted by comedian Steve Harvey and supermodel Ashley Graham, while television personality Carson Kressley and runway coach Lu Sierra provided commentary and analysis throughout the event. American singer-songwriter Ne-Yo performed during the competition. Contestants from 94 countries and territories participated in this year's pageant, surpassing the previous record of 92 contestants in 2017. Angela Ponce of Spain became the first transgender contestant to compete for the Miss Universe title; the Miss Universe Organization was in talks to host the Miss Universe 2018 competition in China. Negotiations collapsed after the Chinese refused to broadcast the pageant live, due to the large time difference between China and the United States.
Afterwards, the MUO opened negotiations with the Philippines, after they had hosted 2016. In April 2018, then-Secretary of Tourism Wanda Tulfo Teo spoke with President of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte regarding the possibility of hosting the pageant in Boracay in November 2018, which by will be newly rehabilitated after being closed to tourists for six months. On 6 May, Tulfo-Teo announced that the Philippines had a "90% chance" of hosting the pageant and disclosed that the tourism department would be looking for sponsors, since the LCS Holdings Inc. of Chavit Singson, the major sponsor of the Miss Universe 2016 had declined financing the 2018 pageant. On 18 May 2018, Tulfo's successor Bernadette Romulo-Puyat announced that the country dropped the hosting bid due to budget constraints and other concerns. Romulo-Puyat pointed out that the Philippines had hosted the pageant and had no reason to do so again so soon. On 31 July 2018 it was announced by MUO President Paula Shugart, in a live press conference at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, that the 2018 pageant would be held in Bangkok, Thailand on 17 December.
The city has hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1992 and 2005. Current Miss Universe Demi-Leigh Nel-Peters, alongside with two former Miss Universes Apasra Hongsakula and Natalie Glebova, participated in the announcement. Unlike in recent years, the contestants were trimmed down to 20 semifinalists, compared to 16 in 2017 and 13 in 2016; the initial semifinalists were selected through a closed-door interview and a preliminary competition—in swimwear and evening gown—held several days before the finals night. The continental format, introduced in the 2017 edition, remained—consisting of five semifinalists from Europe, five from the Americas, five from Africa and Asia-Pacific, five wildcards—regardless of continental grouping; the top 20 were tasked to give an opening statement—a 15-second statement about the contestant—to the judges and viewing public, after which the judges narrowed downed the semifinalists to the top 10, who competed in both swimsuit and evening gown. After the swimwear and evening gown competitions, the judges selected the top five to compete in the preliminary question and answer round.
After said segment, the judges selected the final three. The top three participated in the final word and final look portions, after which the judges chose Miss Universe 2018 and her two runners-up. For this edition, there was no online voting component for viewers at home; the seven judges for both the preliminary competition and the final telecast were an all-female panel which included: Liliana Gil Valletta – businesswoman Janaye Ingram – political organizer and Miss New Jersey USA 2004 Monique Lhuillier – fashion designer Michelle McLean – Miss Universe 1992 from Namibia Iman Oubou – scientist and medical missionary Bui Simon – Miss Universe 1988 from Thailand Richelle Singson-Michael – businesswoman 94 contestants competed for the title. Miss Spain, Ángela Ponce, was the first transgender Miss Universe contestant; the organizers tweeted. She failed to make the Top 20; the rules were changed to allow transgender women to compete after the Miss Universe Organization, owned at the time by the future US President Donald Trump, was criticized in 2012, threatened with legal action, for disqualifying Jenna Talackova from their Miss Canada contest after discovering she was transgender.
Armenia Kyrgyzstan Mongolia Last competed in 2015: GreeceLast competed in 2016: Belize Denmark Hungary Kenya Kosovo Switzerland Austria – The local franchisee returned the license to Miss Universe Organization. Ethiopia – No national pageant was held. Guyana – Guyana will not be allowed to participate in this year's Miss Universe pageant, according to the most recent franchise holder Jyoti Hardat, who says the country is being barred because of the "nasty emails" and "death threats" sent to the Miss Universe Organisation in the ensuing controversy over last year's delegate. Iraq – No national pageant held nor contestant designation announced. Romania – No national pageant held nor contestant designation announced. Slovenia – Due to internal problems at the local franchise, the Miss Universe Slovenia 2018 has been canceled. Tanzania – No national pageant was held. Trinidad and Tobago – The local franchisee announced that the national contest will not be held this year. In the same statement it was announced that no other form of local selection would be held and no candidate would be sent to Bangkok.
This was contrary to previous reports stating that Martrecia Alleyne, the first runner-up at National Pageant in 2017 was appointed as Miss
Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O