Mongu is the capital of Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585, it is the headquarters of Mongu District. Mongu is situated on a small blunt promontory of higher ground on the eastern edge of the 30-kilometre-wide Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi River running north-south, which in the wet season floods right up to the town; the city is 15 kilometres from the river's main channel, to which its small harbour is connected in the dry season by a 35-kilometre route via a canal and a meandering channel. The whole region is flat and sandy, with the dry land no more than 50 m higher than the floodplain. Mongu is the home city of the Lozi people, who speak a language derived in part from that of the Makololo, related to the South African Sesotho language; the Lozi ruler, the Litunga, has a dry season palace 12 km north-west at Lealui on the floodplain, a flood season palace on higher ground at Limulunga, 17 km north.
The Kuomboka ceremony marks the court's transfer between the two locations. At the end of the 18th century, a significant number of Mbunda from Angola settled here; the area has an annual average rainfall of 945 mm falling in the rainy season from late October to April. The flood arrives by January, peaks in April and is gone by June, leaving a floodplain green with new grass on which a population of about 250,000 moves in to graze a similar number of cattle, catch fish and raise crops in small gardens. Mongu is hot from September to December, with a mean maximum for October of 35.4°C, cool from May to August, with a mean maximum in June of 26.9°C and a mean minimum of 10.3°C. Three ecoregions are represented in Mongu and its vicinity: the floodplain comprises Zambezian flooded grasslands, while the higher dry ground is a mosaic of Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands and Cryptosepalum dry forests. To the east the soil is sandy and there are many pans which dry out in the dry season, beyond the Lui River no surface water is available so this zone of scrubby miombo woodland is uninhabited as far east as the Luampa River.
Mongu lies at the end of the 610-km Great West Road from Lusaka -- 8 hours to drive. The road to Kalabo called Barotse Floodplain causeway has been finished in 2016; the city is known for carpet weaving. It produces the best mango and fish in the country the tiger fish. Mongu is the major rice growing region of Zambia, it is home to a cathedral and a water tower, while among the several shopping places and social places, the town has a large market and an airport. Mongu Airport is used by the Zambian Air Force and the United Nations to transport Angolan Refugees back to Angola; the town is the location of the Nayuma Museum. General references Camerapix. "Spectrum Guide to Zambia." Nairobi: Camerapix International Publishing. ISBN 1-874041-14-8. Terracarta/International Travel Maps, Vancouver Canada: "Zambia, 2nd edition", 2000. Google Earth has high-resolution photographs of Mongu. Http://www.barotseland.com/
Miss Botswana is a national beauty pageant in Botswana. Botswana pageantry runs parallel with the history of the country. Though there had been beauty contests conducted in various villages around the country in the early 1960s, the first Miss Botswana beauty contest was in 1967, conducted as part of Botswana independence celebrations. At the time, it was determined that the colourful first beauty event was going to'pick a perfect representative of the nation's modern womanhood. Theresa Rantao satisfactorily met those requirements, she became the winner of the Miss Botswana 1967. Earlier in 1964, Veronica Magosi of Lobatse won the Miss Bechuanaland crown. In 1965 the crown was won by Lydia Tiyo. Botswana made its debut at Miss World in 1972. Traditionally, the winner of Miss Botswana represents the country at Miss World. Botswana Council of Women is in charge for the organization of the contest. Color key Media related to Miss Botswana at Wikimedia Commons Official facebook Official facebook for Miss World
Ndola is the third largest city in Zambia, with a population of 475,194. It is the industrial and commercial center of the Copperbelt, Zambia's copper-mining region, capital of Copperbelt Province, it is the commercial capital city of Zambia. It lies just 10 kilometres from the border with DR Congo, it is home to Zambia's first modern stadium, the Levy Mwanawasa Stadium. What is now Ndola was first inhabited by the Lamba people led by Senior Chief Chiwala, in the 1600s, migrants from what is now Tanzania; the name Ndola is derived from the river, which originates in the Kaloko Hills and drains in the Kafubu river. The town of Ndola was founded in 1904, by John Edward "Chiripula" Stephenson just six months after Livingstone, making it the second oldest colonial-era town of Zambia, it was started as a boma and trading post, which laid its foundations as an administrative and trading centre today. The Rhodesia Railways main line reached the town in 1907, providing passenger services as far south as Bulawayo, with connections to Cape Town.
The line was extended into DR Congo and from there linked to the Benguela Railway to the Atlantic port of Lobito. The Ndola railhead was responsible for the town becoming the country's centre of distribution. Before the road network was built up in the 1930s, a track from Ndola to Kapalala on the Luapula River, boat transport from there to the Chambeshi River was the principal trade route for the Northern Province, which formed part of Ndola's hinterland. In 1961, an airplane carrying key United Nations figures, including the organisation's second Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld, crashed on the outskirts of Ndola. Ndola has a moderate humid subtropical climate. Once the largest industrial centre of Zambia, among many high-powered sites, company facilities including a Land Rover vehicle assembly plant, Dunlop Tire manufacture, Johnson & Johnson, Unilever, Ndola's economy shrunk between 1980 and 2000. Many closed plants lie unoccupied in the town. A number of former industries such as clothing and vehicle assembly have disappeared completely.
Though the term'ghost town' can no longer apply to it, Ndola is yet to regain its economic glory of pre-1980 days. There are no mines in Ndola itself, but the Bwana Mkubwa open-cast mine is only 10 km south-east of the city centre; until their closure and precious metals used to be brought from elsewhere in the Copperbelt for processing at the Ndola Copper Refinery and Precious Metals Refinery. Copper exports provide 70–80% of Zambia's export earnings, making the city important to the country's economy; the Indeni Oil Refinery in Ndola supplies the whole country with refined petroleum. It was repaired in 2001 after being damaged by fire in 1999. GL Africa Energy, through its subsidiary Ndola Energy Company Limited, provides 105MW of power to the National Grid of Zambia. Power is generated from heavy fuel oil supplied by the Indeni Petroleum refinery. Ndola is home to one of the country's national newspapers, the Times of Zambia, as well as its printer, Printpak; these run. Catholic church run printing press, Mission Press, is located in Ndola.
Mission Press operates as a commercial entity. The headquarters of the Zambia Postal Service Corporation and workers compensation control board are located in Ndola. Zambia's ultra modern stadium in Ndola accommodates most Zambia international sports events. One mark of Ndola's commercial significance to Zambia is shown by the presence of the only major centre of operation for the country's central bank, the Bank of Zambia, outside of the capital, Lusaka; every major bank in Zambia has at least one branch in Ndola. The largest insurance group in Zambia, ZSIC, own many commercial and residential properties in the city. Ndola has huge limestone reserves which are believed to be among the most homogeneous of their kind in the world. Limestone has therefore become to Ndola's economy what copper is to the rest of the country, providing much of the wealth and employment. Between 1974 and 2009, Ndola supplied over 50% of Zambia's cement from a plant located some 5 km south-east of the heart of the city.
This plant was called Ndola Works. The parent company was Chilanga Cement plc. Chilanga Cement ran two plants in Zambia: one built in 1949 at Chilanga and the other built in 1969 at Ndola. In 2008, the new holding company, Lafarge Cement Zambia, completed construction of a brand new plant at Chilanga which would produce about double the volume of Ndola Works. By mid-2009, the new plant was still gathering momentum toward full production capacity, leaving Ndola still a significant player in the region's cement industry. Nonetheless, the combination of huge limestone deposits and existing transport infrastructure passing through Ndola has kept the city a attractive destination for investment into cement production and related activities. A second cement works is under construction in 2008. In June 2009, countrywide advertisements were published to finalise staffing for this new cement plant. Another important processing plant, based on limestone in the area is Ndola Lime, it is Zambia's sole producer of Lime.
Ndola Lime is located near the two cement manufacturing facilities. It supplies the mining industry as well as farmers who require agricultural lime
Miss Belgium is a national beauty pageant in Belgium. The winner of Miss Belgium automatically represents her country at the Miss Universe and Miss World pageants. Belgian nationality to be never married and without children to have an age of 18 to 23 years, Key: Declared winner Declared runner-up Declared semifinalist Key: Miss Belgium winner Miss Belgium 1st Runner-Up Miss Belgium 3rd Runner-Up The election of Alizee Poulicek, a native speaker of French and Czech, has been linked to the 2007–08 Belgian government formation; the reason is that, during the traditional language test, she failed to understand Dutch. The audience booed her for this; the behaviour of the audience was noted across Europe, the Flemish newspaper Het Laatste Nieuws sarcastically put the headline "Miss Belgium doesn't speak Dutch. Our country is in a deep crisis". Mister Belgium Personality Miss Earth Belgium Miss International Belgium Miss Belgian Beauty Belgium at major beauty pageants Miss België, Miss Belgique, Miss Belgien
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder
Señorita Curaçao is a national beauty pageant in Curaçao. This pageant is unrelated to the Miss Miss International Curaçao pageant. Early for Curaçao at International pageant from Miss Curaçao; the pageant started in 1963 and since it had sent contestants to the Miss World pageants. The organization started with the creation of the Curaçao Youth Beauty Contest Organization. Since 2007, a national winner is selected for this international pageant, current titleholder is Stephanie Rose-Chang and competed at Miss World. Color key Curaçao was debuted at the Miss World occurred in 1975; the 1st Runner-up or hand-picked delegate is sent as the national representative. Of all representatives from the island, 1 of them placed in the semifinals in 2002 and two won special awards in 2000 and 2008. Since 2007, a national winner is selected for this international pageant, current titleholder is Stephanie Rose-Chang; the second title of Señorita Curaçao will compete at Miss Earth. Curaçao made a debut in 2006.
The runner-up or some delegates will pick by Miss Curaçao to compete at the Miss Earth, an annual international beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness. 2000 Jozaine Marianella WallJozaine Marianella Wall is one of the two Miss Curaçao that did not attend the Miss Universe pageant. She was 17 years old at the time she won the national pageant which unabled her to compete at this pageant whose minimum age is 18. After a legal battle with the organizers, Jozaine was sent to the Miss World 2000 pageant in London, United Kingdom, she did not place in the Top Ten. 2002 Ayanette Mary-Ann Ileana StatiaAyanette Mary-Ann Ileana Statia competed at Miss Universe 2002 celebrated in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Since her election Ayanette became a strong favorite considered as the best black contestant of the pageant, but Curaçao's name was not called in the semifinals of Miss Universe 2002. After Miss Universe, Ayanette was sent to Miss World 2002 held in Nigeria where she became Curaçao's first and only semifinalist so far in Miss World.
2003-2004 Angeline Fernandine Da Silva GoesAngeline Fernandine Da Silva Goes was the first runner-up of the 2003 Miss Curaçao pageant won by Vanessa Maria Van Arendonk. With her placement she had the duty to represent Curaçao at the Miss World 2003 pageant held in Sanya, People's Republic of China. After her performance in Miss World, a group of fans and friends from around the world made a formal petition to Sheida Wever, president of the national pageant, to send her to the Miss Universe pageant. Angeline was chosen as Curaçao's representative to the Miss Universe 2004 pageant held in Quito, Ecuador. Angeline went to the two most important international beauty pageants in the world without winning the national pageant. 2008 Norayla FranciscoNorayla Maria Francisco received the title of Miss World Curaçao on 2008 earning the right to represent the island in Miss World 2008 in Johannesburg, South Africa. In the Miss World Top Model competition held in Soweto, Norayla placed in the Top 10 out of 109 contestants.
Miss Brazil World
Miss Brazil World is a beauty contest held annually which aims to choose the best candidate to represent their country with honor in the traditional international Miss World contest. The Brazilian representatives began to be sent from the year 1958, with girl from Pernambuco Sônia Maria Campos. Since 2006 who manages the sending of representatives to the international event is the team led by Henrique Fontes; the country has so far only an international crown, obtained with the medicine studant Lúcia Tavares Petterle in 1971. Color key The winner of Miss Mundo Brasil represents her country at Miss World. Miss World Official Site Miss World Brazil Official Site