Schriever Air Force Base
Schriever Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located 10 miles east of Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, United States. This Air Force Base is named in honor of General Bernard Adolph Schriever, who pioneered in the development of the American ballistic missile programs, it is the home of the 50th Space Wing of the Air Force Space Command, this base provides command and control for over 170 Department of Defense warning and communications satellites. Housed at Schriever AFB are the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center and the U. S. Air Force Warfare Center. Building 400 at Schriever AFB is the main control point for the Global Positioning System. Schriever AFB is manned by more than 8100 active duty and guard/reserve personnel, civilian employees, contractors. Source: USAF Schriever AFB50th Space Wing some medical personnel from the 21st Medical Group 310th Space Wing U. S. Air Force Warfare Center Missile Defense Agency's Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center named the Joint National Integration Center 25th Space Range Squadron, host of the Space Test and Training Range & geographically separated from the Nevada Test and Training Range 527th Space Aggressor Squadron, geographically separated from the 57th Wing AFOTEC Detachment 4 Space and Missile Defense Command-Space and Ballistic Missile Defense Forces U.
S. Army 100th Missile Defense Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 53rd Signal Battalion Detachment 1, 392nd Training Squadron Detachment 11, Space and Missile Systems Center Detachment 12, 1st Space Test Squadron 11th Space Warning Squadron U. S. Naval Observatory Master Clock Source: USAF Schriever AFBGroundbreaking for what would become Schriever Air Force Base took place in May 1983, it was called the Consolidated Space Operations Center during the development phase, was renamed Falcon Air Force Station upon becoming operational. In July 1985, the 2nd Space Wing was activated at Peterson AFB and in September 1985, the organization relocated to Falcon Air Force Station, 230 Air Force members, civilian employees, contractors moved into its 12 new buildings; this wing took operational control of the Air Force Satellite Control Network in a phased system turn over that began in October 1987 and lasted several years. In June 1988, Falcon Air Force Station was redesignated Falcon Air Force Base.
On 30 January 1992 the 2nd Space Wing inactivated and the 50th Tactical Fighter Wing, redesignated as the 50th Space Wing, activated at Falcon AFB. On 5 June 1998, Falcon Air Force Base was renamed Schriever Air Force Base in honor of the retired General Bernard Adolph Schriever, who pioneered in the development of the American ballistic missile programs. Schriever AFB is the only Air Force base, named for an Air Force veteran, living at the time. General Schriever died June 20, 2005. Communications satellites Milstar Satellite navigation systems SolarStrong Schriever Air Force Base website History of Schriever Air Force Base Schriever AFB Installation Overview from AirForceUSA.org
United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking and destruction of attacking missiles. Conceived as a defence against nuclear-armed intercontinental ballistic missiles, its application has broadened to include shorter-ranged non-nuclear tactical and theater missiles; the United States, China, India and France have all developed such air defense systems. In the United States, missile defense was the responsibility of the U. S. Army; the U. S. Missile Defense Agency has developed maritime systems and command and control that will be transferred to the Navy and Air Force for operation and sustainment. Missile defense can be divided into categories based on various characteristics: type/range of missile intercepted, the trajectory phase where the intercept occurs, whether intercepted inside or outside the Earth's atmosphere: The types/ranges are strategic and tactical; each entails unique requirements for intercept, a defensive system capable of intercepting one missile type cannot intercept others.
However, there is sometimes overlap in capability. Targets long-range ICBMs, which travel at about 7 km/s. Examples of active systems: Russian A-135 system which defends Moscow, the U. S. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense system that defends the United States from missiles launched from Asia. Geographic range of strategic defense can be national. Targets medium-range missiles, which travel at about 3 km/s or less. In this context, the term "theater" means the entire localized region for military operations a radius of several hundred kilometers. Defense range of theater defensive systems is on this order. Examples of deployed theater missile defenses: Israeli Arrow missile, American THAAD, Russian S-400. Targets short-range tactical ballistic missiles, which travel at less than 1.5 km/s. Tactical anti-ballistic missiles have short ranges 20–80 km. Examples of currently-deployed tactical ABMs: American MIM-104 Patriot and Russian S-300V. Ballistic missiles can be intercepted in three regions of their trajectory: boost phase, midcourse phase, or terminal phase.
Intercepting the missile while its rocket motors are firing over the launch territory. Advantages Bright, hot rocket exhaust makes detection and targeting easier. Decoys cannot be used during boost phase. At this stage, the missile is full of flammable propellant, which makes it vulnerable to explosive warheads. Disadvantages Difficult to geographically position interceptors to intercept missiles in boost phase. Short time for intercept. Intercepting the missile in space after the rocket burns out. Advantages Extended decision/intercept time. Large geographic defensive coverage. Disadvantages Requires large, heavy anti-ballistic missiles and sophisticated powerful radar which must be augmented by space-based sensors. Must handle potential space-based decoys. Intercepting the missile after it reenters the atmosphere Advantages Smaller, lighter anti-ballistic missile is sufficient. Balloon decoys do not work during reentry. Smaller, less sophisticated radar required. Disadvantages Very short intercept time less than 30 seconds.
Less defended geographic coverage. Possible blanketing of target area with hazardous materials in the case of detonation of nuclear warhead. Missile defense can take place either inside or outside the Earth's atmosphere; the trajectory of most ballistic missiles takes them inside and outside the Earth's atmosphere, they can be intercepted in either place. There are disadvantages to either intercept technique; some missiles such as THAAD can intercept both inside and outside the Earth's atmosphere, giving two intercept opportunities. Endoatmospheric anti-ballistic missiles are shorter ranged. Advantages Physically smaller and lighter Easier to move and deploy Endoatmospheric intercept means balloon-type decoys won't workDisadvantages Limited range and defended area Limited decision and tracking time for the incoming warhead Exoatmospheric anti-ballistic missiles are longer-ranged. Advantages More decision and tracking time Fewer missiles required for defense of a larger areaDisadvantages Larger/heavier missiles required More difficult to transport and emplace than smaller missiles Must handle decoys In the 1950s and 1960s, the term meant defense against strategic missiles.
The technology centered around detecting offensive launch events and tracking inbound ballistic missiles, but with limited ability to defend against the missile. The Soviet Union achieved the first nonnuclear intercept of a ballistic missile warhead by a missile at the Sary Shagan antiballistic missile defense test range on 4 March 1961. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the United States Project Nike air defense program focused on bombers ballistic missiles. In the 1950s, the first United States anti-ballistic missile system was the Nike Hercules