United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is referred to as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet, Mars has two moons and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan, there are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life.
Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers, liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 6⁄1000 that of the Earths, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be largely of water. The volume of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted. On November 22,2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior, Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, the Moon, optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earths atmosphere. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with an area only slightly less than the total area of Earths dry land.
Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earths volume and 11% of Earths mass, the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch, other common colors include golden, tan. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ±65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earths. The core is surrounded by a mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet
D23 is the official fan club for The Walt Disney Company. Founded in 2009, the organization is mainly for its biennial exposition event. The name D23 refers to D for Disney and 23 for 1923—the year Walt Disney founded the company, membership includes Disney twenty-three, yearly gifts, exclusive merchandise offers, and discount and early access to the D23 Expo fan convention. D23 was introduced on March 10,2009 by Robert Iger during the annual meeting. D23 had a booth at San Diego Comic-Con in 2009 followed by the first D23 Expo on September 10–13,2009, in March 2010, D23 announced that the expo would be biannual instead of annual with a Destination D event in the off year. In February 2013, the Walt Disney Company Japan announced the first D23 Expo Japan on October 12–14,2013, events include, D23 Expo biennial Destination D a smaller biennial event alternating with the Expo. Events were held in the D23 Arena, Stage 23, Storytellers Theatre, the D23 Expo returned for its second time at the Anaheim Convention Center in Anaheim, California on August 19–21,2011.
The Treasures of the Walt Disney Archives has expanded by 12,000 square feet since the Inaugural D23 Expo, shopping opportunities include the D23 Expo Dream Store returning from the Inaugural Expo. Other stores include A Small World Village and a Disney Store in the Disney Living Pavilion. Events took place at the D23 Arena, Stage 23, Stage 28, the red carpet at the Talent Round-Up area, Storytellers Stage at the Disney Living pavilion, and at the Disney Channel/Radio Disney stage. The Disney Channel stage held performances from Coco Jones, China Anne McClain, a first look for Radio Disneys N. B. T. and a karate exhibition from Leo Howard. Guests had the chance to meet and greet the cast of Good Luck Charlie, Jake and Ferb, Kickin It, Fish Hooks, A. N. T. Farm, Handy Manny, Special Agent Oso, Pair of Kings and the celebration for the 25th Anniversary of Pixar Animation Studios. The first rounds of the UDTT were held on August 18,2011 which narrowed from thousands to one hundred and it was hosted by Dan Roebuck who narrowed down the final round from 20 people to 3.
After two full days of trivia questions, John Kurowski was declared the winner of the inaugural Ultimate Disney Fan Trivia Tournament and his name was engraved on a Ludwig Von Drake trophy which was preserved in the Walt Disney Archives. Kurowski won a cruise on the Disney Cruise Lines Disney Fantasy ship which set sail to the public in 2012. The D23 Arena hosted many milestone events only at the D23 Expo and this is the second time that the Disney Legends Ceremony has taken place in front of guests at the D23 Expo. This tradition started in 1987 and since then,287 people have been awarded, at the expo, the company honored 12 people who contributed to the The Walt Disney Company
Five subsequent Apollo missions landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon, Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration, Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat for these functions, Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds of rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moons composition.
The program laid the foundation for NASAs subsequent human spaceflight capability, Apollo spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, while the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a station, circumlunar flights. The program was named after the Greek god of light and the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who said that I was naming the spacecraft like Id name my baby. Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, in July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the module.
On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, and on October 25, meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs. In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of prestige, pledging to make the US not first but, first and, first if. Despite Kennedys rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president and he knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing. On April 12,1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, Kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on Americas response to the Soviets
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics and other fields of materials science and technology. Owing to the exceptional strength and stiffness, nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000,1. In addition, owing to their thermal conductivity, mechanical. For instance, nanotubes form a portion of the material in some baseball bats, golf clubs. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family and their name is derived from their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes and multi-walled nanotubes, individual nanotubes naturally align themselves into ropes held together by van der Waals forces, more specifically, pi-stacking. Applied quantum chemistry, orbital hybridization best describes chemical bonding in nanotubes, the chemical bonding of nanotubes is composed entirely of sp2 bonds, similar to those of graphite.
These bonds, which are stronger than the sp3 bonds found in alkanes and diamond, most single-walled nanotubes have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, and can be many millions of times longer. The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder, the way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the crystal lattice of graphene. If m =0, the nanotubes are called zigzag nanotubes, and if n = m, the diameter of an ideal nanotube can be calculated from its indices as follows d = a π =78.3 p m, where a =0.246 nm. SWNTs are an important variety of carbon nanotube because most of their properties change significantly with the values, in particular, their band gap can vary from zero to about 2 eV and their electrical conductivity can show metallic or semiconducting behavior. Single-walled nanotubes are likely candidates for miniaturizing electronics, the most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire, and SWNTs with diameters of an order of a nanometer can be excellent conductors.
One useful application of SWNTs is in the development of the first intermolecular field-effect transistors, the first intermolecular logic gate using SWCNT FETs was made in 2001. A logic gate requires both a p-FET and an n-FET, because SWNTs are p-FETs when exposed to oxygen and n-FETs otherwise, it is possible to expose half of an SWNT to oxygen and protect the other half from it. The resulting SWNT acts as a not logic gate with both p and n-type FETs in the same molecule, prices for single-walled nanotubes declined from around $1500 per gram as of 2000 to retail prices of around $50 per gram of as-produced 40–60% by weight SWNTs as of March 2010. As of 2016 the retail price of as-produced 75% by weight SWNTs were $2 per gram, SWNTs are forecast to make a large impact in electronics applications by 2020 according to the The Global Market for Carbon Nanotubes report
The Hewlett-Packard Company or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. The company was founded in a garage in Palo Alto by William Bill Redington Hewlett and David Dave Packard. HP was the worlds leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q22013 and it specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. HP had services and consulting business around its products and partner products.4 billion in 2008, in November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12,2010. On April 28,2010, HP announced the buyout of Palm, on September 2,2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. On October 6,2014, Hewlett-Packard announced plans to split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products, the split closed on November 1,2015, and resulted in two publicly traded companies, HP Inc.
and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. William Redington Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard in Packards garage with a capital investment of US$538. Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett, HP incorporated on August 18,1947, and went public on November 6,1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was an audio oscillator. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $54.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200, the Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. They worked on technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II.
Hewlett-Packards HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use and calculators were some of the products using these devices. HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products, the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan, HP bought Yokogawa Electrics share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off a company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo hp could be turned upside down to be a reverse image of the logo dy of the new company
Epcot is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, near Orlando. It is owned and operated by the Walt Disney Company through its Parks, inspired by an unrealized concept developed by Walt Disney, the park opened on October 1,1982, and was the second of four theme parks built at Walt Disney World, after the Magic Kingdom. The park is divided two sections, Future World, made up eight pavilions, and World Showcase, themed to eleven world nations. In 2015, the park hosted approximately 11.98 million guests, ranking it the third most visited park in North America. The park is represented by Spaceship Earth, a sphere that serves as an attraction. Epcot was known as EPCOT Center until 1994 when it was renamed Epcot 94, Epcot 95, the theme park opened on October 1,1982. The dedication plaque near the states, To all who come to this place of joy and friendship. Epcot Center is inspired by Walt Disneys creative genius, human achievements are celebrated through imagination, the wonders of enterprise, and concepts of a future that promises new and exciting benefits for all.
May Epcot Center entertain and inspire, above all, may it instill a new sense of belief and pride in mans ability to shape a world that offers hope to people everywhere. The parks name, EPCOT, is an acronym for Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow, in Walt Disneys words, EPCOT will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed but will always be introducing and testing, and EPCOT will always be a showcase to the world of the ingenuity and imagination of American free enterprise. His original vision was for a community which would have been home to twenty thousand residents. This radial plan concept is influenced by British planner Ebenezer Howard. Transportation would have been provided by monorails and PeopleMovers Automobile traffic would be kept underground, the remaining portion of the model is visible on the left behind glass. Walt Disney was not able to obtain funding and permission to work on his Florida property until he agreed to first build Magic Kingdom.
He died nearly five years before Magic Kingdom opened, after Disneys death, Walt Disney Productions decided that it did not want to be in the business of running a city without Walts guidance. The original plans for the park showed indecision over the parks purpose, some Imagineers wanted it to represent the cutting edge of technology, while others wanted it to showcase international cultures and customs. At one point, a model of the park was pushed together against a model of a Worlds Fair international theme
Walt Disney World
The Walt Disney World Resort is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, near Orlando and Kissimmee, Florida. The resort is the destination of Disneys worldwide corporate enterprise. Opened on October 1,1971, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, the resort is owned and operated by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, a division of The Walt Disney Company. It was initially operated by Walt Disney World Company, Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot in 1982, Disneys Hollywood Studios in 1989, and the most recent, Disneys Animal Kingdom in 1998. Designed to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955, the Florida Project, as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of rides. Walt Disneys original plans called for the inclusion of an Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow. Walt Disney died on December 15,1966, before construction began, without Disney spearheading the construction, the company created a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning experimental concepts for a planned community.
In 1959, Walt Disney Productions began looking for land to house a second resort to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955. Market surveys at the revealed that only 5% of Disneylands visitors came from east of the Mississippi River. Additionally, Walt Disney disliked the businesses that had sprung up around Disneyland, Walt Disney flew over a potential site in Orlando, Florida – one of many – in November 1963. To avoid a burst of land speculation, Walt Disney World Company used various dummy corporations to acquire 30,500 acres of land, in May 1965, some of these major land transactions were recorded a few miles southwest of Orlando in Osceola County. In addition, two tracts totaling $1. Some are now memorialized on a window above Main Street, U. S. A. in Magic Kingdom, the smaller parcels of land acquired were called outs. They were 5-acre lots platted in 1912 by the Munger Land Company, most of the owners in the 1960s were happy to get rid of the land, which was mostly swamp at the time.
Another issue was the rights to the land, which were owned by Tufts University. Without the transfer of rights, Tufts could come in at any time. Eventually, Disneys team negotiated a deal with Tufts to buy the rights for $15,000. Working strictly in secrecy, real estate agents unaware of their clients identity began making offers to landowners in April 1964 in parts of southwest Orange and northwest Osceola counties
Gina Torres is an American television and movie actress. She starred opposite Chris Rock in the feature film I Think I Love My Wife, as Carla in the independent film South of Pico, since 2011, she has had a main role on the USA Network series Suits as Jessica Pearson. She and real-life husband Laurence Fishburne played a couple on the NBC television series Hannibal. Torres was born at the Flower Fifth Avenue Hospital in Manhattan and her family lived briefly in Washington Heights before moving to The Bronx. Her parents and Richard, were both of multiracial Cuban descent, and her father worked as a typesetter for La Prensa and The New York Daily News. Torres, a mezzo-soprano, began singing at an age and attended Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art. She trained in opera and jazz and performed in a gospel choir, Torres applied and was accepted to several colleges but could not afford to attend. She chose instead to pursue her dream of being a performer, in 2001, she won the ALMA Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Syndicated Drama Series for her role in Cleopatra 2525.
In 2004, she was nominated for the International Press Academys Golden Satellite Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in a Series and her film appearances include The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. In 2004, Torres appeared in seven episodes of the season on 24 as Julia Milliken. In 2005, she was tapped for the episode of Soccer Moms. She is known for her role in Foxs short-lived Firefly series and she reprised her Firefly role as Zoe in the film Serenity. In 2006, Torres began her role as Cheryl Carrera in the drama series Standoff on the FOX network. Her character is the Supervisory Special Agent in Charge for Crisis Negotiation Unit, Torres appeared in the film I Think I Love My Wife, playing the spouse of Chris Rocks character. In 2011, Torres was cast as main character Jessica Pearson on the USA Network legal drama Suits and she was the voice of Wonder Woman in DC Universe Online MMORPG until mid 2013 when the part was recast, as well as Arachnid in the Transformers Prime cartoon.
In 2013, Torres was reunited with fellow Firefly costar, Nathan Fillion, in an episode of Fillions television show, in 2016, it was announced that Torres would be leaving the cast of Suits following the summer segment of season six. In addition to her contract being up, Torres stated she had tired of traveling between Toronto, where Suits is filmed, and her home in Los Angeles. They have one child, a daughter Delilah born in 2007, Torres is the stepmother to Fishburnes two children, from his previous marriage to actress Hajna O. Moss, a son, born in 1987, and a daughter, born in 1991
The g-force is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a weight per unit mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses, the g-force acceleration is the cause of an objects acceleration in relation to free-fall. The g-force acceleration experienced by an object is due to the sum of all non-gravitational. In practice, as noted, these are surface-contact forces between objects, such forces cause stresses and strains on objects, since they must be transmitted from an object surface. Because of these strains, large g-forces may be destructive, gravitation acting alone does not produce a g-force, even though g-forces are expressed in multiples of the acceleration of a standard gravity. Thus, the gravitational acceleration at the Earths surface produces g-force only indirectly.
These mechanical forces actually produce the g-force acceleration on a mass, for example, the 1 g force on an object sitting on the Earths surface is caused by mechanical force exerted in the upward direction by the ground, keeping the object from going into free-fall. The upward contact-force from the ground ensures that an object at rest on the Earths surface is accelerating relative to the free-fall condition, stress inside the object is ensured from the fact that the ground contact forces are transmitted only from the point of contact with the ground. Objects allowed to free-fall in an inertial trajectory under the influence of only, feel no g-force acceleration. This is demonstrated by the conditions inside a freely falling elevator falling toward the Earths center. These are examples of coordinate acceleration without a sensation of weight, the experience of no g-force, however it is produced, is synonymous with weightlessness. An example here is a rocket in space, in which simple changes in velocity are produced by the engines.
The unit of measure of acceleration in the International System of Units is m/s2, however, to distinguish acceleration relative to free-fall from simple acceleration, the unit g is often used. One g is the due to gravity at the Earths surface and is the standard gravity, defined as 9.80665 metres per second squared. Note that the definition does not vary with location—the g-force when standing on the moon is about 0.181 g. The unit g is not one of the SI units, which uses g for gram, g should not be confused with G, which is the standard symbol for the gravitational constant. For example, it is said an F-16 fighter jet is able to sustain up to 9 Gs for a limited time
Project Gemini was NASAs second human spaceflight program. Conducted between projects Mercury and Apollo, Gemini started in 1961 and concluded in 1966, the Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten Gemini crews flew low Earth orbit missions between 1965 and 1966 putting the United States in the lead during the Cold War Space Race against the Soviet Union, geminis objective was the development of space travel techniques to support the Apollo mission to land astronauts on the Moon. With these new techniques proven by Gemini, Apollo could pursue its mission without doing these fundamental exploratory operations. All Gemini flights were launched from Launch Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida and their launch vehicle was the Gemini–Titan II, a modified Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. Gemini was the first program to use the newly built Mission Control Center at the Houston Manned Spacecraft Center for flight control, the astronaut corps that supported Project Gemini included the Mercury Seven, The New Nine, and the 1963 astronaut class.
During the program, three died in air crashes during training, including the prime crew for Gemini 9. This mission was performed by the crew, the only time that had happened in NASAs history to date. Gemini was robust enough that the United States Air Force planned to use it for the Manned Orbital Laboratory program, geminis chief designer, Jim Chamberlin, made detailed plans for cislunar and lunar landing missions in late 1961. He believed Gemini could perform lunar operations before Project Apollo, NASAs administration did not approve those plans. In 1969, McDonnell-Douglas proposed a Big Gemini that could have used to shuttle up to 12 astronauts to the planned space stations in the Apollo Applications Project. The only AAP project funded was Skylab – which used existing spacecraft and he presented two initial versions of Gemini at a NASA retreat at Wallops Island in March 1961. Scale models of Mercury Mark II were shown in July 1961 at McDonnell Aircraft Corporations offices in St. Louis, NASA approved Project Gemini on December 7,1961.
The McDonnell corporation was contracted to build it on December 22,1961, when it was publicly announced on January 3,1962, it was formally re-christened Project Gemini. Gemini in Latin means twins or double, which reflected that the spacecraft would hold two astronauts, Gemini is the name of the third constellation of the Zodiac and its twin stars and Pollux. He was previously the chief aerodynamicist on Avro Canadas Avro Arrow fighter interceptor program, Chamberlin joined NASA along with 25 senior Avro engineers after cancellation of the Arrow program, and became head of the U. S. Space Task Group’s engineering division in charge of Gemini, the prime contractor was McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, which was the prime contractor for the Project Mercury capsule. Astronaut Gus Grissom was heavily involved in the development and design of the Gemini spacecraft, the Gemini program was managed by the Manned Spacecraft Center, located in Houston, under direction of the Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D. C