Spanish colonization of the Americas
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, the eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean; the crown created religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and continuing control of vast territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America, it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. In contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages through the spread of Afro-Eurasian diseases.
This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era, although this claim is disputed due to the unintended nature of the disease introduction, considered a byproduct of Columbian exchange. Racial mixing was a central process in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, led to the Latin American identity, which combines Hispanic and native American ethnicities. Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines financed a long series of European and North African wars. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent balkanization of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were given up in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas; the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy.
Though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms. The Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West; the funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery and settlement resided in the monarchy. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories, financed more of his trans-Atlantic journeys, he founded La Navidad on the island named Hispaniola, in what is the present-day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, on his second voyage. In 1496 his brother, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a high death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area.
The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops and abandoning their Spanish-occupied villages. The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569; the Spanish abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién; the Spanish conquest of Mexico is understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, the base for conquests of other regions. Conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the war of Mexico's west, the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532; the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés. The victory over the Aztecs was quick, from 1519 to 1521, aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl; these polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the city-states' political hierarchy and social structure in place. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a much longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico and northern Central America. Hernán Cortés' landing ashore at present day Veracruz and founding the Spanish city there on April 22, 1519
San Gabriel, California
San Gabriel is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It is named after the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, founded by Junípero Serra; the city grew outward from the mission and in 1852 became the original township of Los Angeles County. San Gabriel was incorporated in 1913; the city's motto is "A city with a Mission" and it is called the "Birthplace" of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the population was 39,718. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish to Alta California, the area, now San Gabriel was inhabited by the Tongva Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Gabrieleño; the Tongva name for the San Gabriel region has been reconstructed as Shevaa. Today a center for culture and art, the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, founded by Father Junipero Serra, is the fourth of twenty-one California Missions, is known as the "Pride of the California Missions."The Mission San Gabriel Arcángel served a pivotal role in the colonial Spanish society, with many of the area's first Mexican settlers being baptized at the mission, including future governor Pio Pico, born in 1801 at the mission and baptized there the same year.
He was appointed as California's governor twice, serving in 1832 and again from 1845 through the Mexican–American War. In life, he was elected as a Los Angeles City councilman; the city of Pico Rivera was named to honor him as the last governor of California to be born in Mexico. In 1853, a company of Army Engineers, who included the geologist William P. Blake, passed by the mission in search of the best route for an intercontinental railroad. Blake observed. Fences were in disrepair, animals roamed through the property. But, the mission bells were ringing, the church was still in use. Blake predicted, "I believe that when the adaptation of that portion of California to the culture of the grape and the manufacture of wine becomes known and appreciated, the state will become celebrated not only for its gold and grain, but for its fruits and wines."In the first United States census made in California in 1860, 586 people lived in the San Gabriel township, an area encompassing the mission lands and several adjacent ranchos stretching north to what is now Pasadena.
By 1870, the population had shrunk to 436. By the time of General Law Incorporation on April 24, 1913, the city's population had grown to 1,500. San Gabriel is located at 34°5′39″N 118°5′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles all of it land. The city is bordered on the north by San Marino, on the east by Temple City and Rosemead, to the south by Rosemead and to the west by Alhambra; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, San Gabriel has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Gabriel had a population of 39,718. The population density was 9,581.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Gabriel was 24,091 Asian, 10,076 White, 388 African American, 220 Native American, 43 Pacific Islander, 3,762 from other races, 1,138 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,189 persons. The Census reported that 39,266 people lived in households, 34 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 418 were institutionalized. There were 12,542 households, out of which 4,542 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,668 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,961 had a female householder with no husband present, 965 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 481 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 76 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,121 households were made up of individuals and 800 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13. There were 9,594 families; the population was spread out with 7,866 people under the age of 18, 3,555 people aged 18 to 24, 11,335 people aged 25 to 44, 11,388 people aged 45 to 64, 5,574 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males.
There were 13,237 housing units at an average density of 3,193.3 per square mile, of which 6,168 were owner-occupied, 6,374 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 19,974 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,292 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, San Gabriel had a median household income of $56,388, with 13.3% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,804 people, 12,587 households, 9,566 families residing in the city; the population density was 9,639.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,909 housing units at an average density of 3,126.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 33.40% White, 1.06% African American, 0.83% Native American, 48.91% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 12.36% from other races, 3.34% from two or more races. Those identifying as Hispanic or Latino were 30.71% of th
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel is a functioning Roman Catholic mission and a historic landmark in San Gabriel, California. The settlement was founded by Spaniards of the Franciscan order on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary," September 8, 1771, as the fourth of what would become 21 Spanish missions in California. San Gabriel Arcángel, named after the Archangel Gabriel and referred to as the "Godmother of the Pueblo of Los Angeles", was designed by Antonio Cruzado, who hailed from Córdoba, Spain. Cruzado gave the building its strong Moorish architectural influence; the capped buttresses and the tall, narrow windows are unique among the missions of the California chain. Mission San Gabriel was founded on September 8, 1771, by Fray Angel Francisco de Sonera and Fray Pedro Benito Cambon; the planned site for the Mission was along the banks of the Río de Los Temblores. The priests chose an alternate site on a fertile plain located directly alongside the Rio Hondo in the Whittier Narrows; the site of the Misión Vieja is located near the intersection of San Gabriel Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue.
In 1776, a flash flood destroyed much of the crops and ruined the Mission complex, subsequently relocated five miles closer to the mountains in present-day San Gabriel. The Mission is the base. On December 9, 1812, a series of massive earthquakes shook Southern California; the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake caused the three-bell campanario, located adjacent to the chapel's east façade, to collapse. A larger, six-bell structure was subsequently constructed at the far end of the Capilla. While no pictorial record exists to document what the original structure looked like, architectural historian Rexford Newcomb deduced the design and published a depiction in his 1916 work The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta California. Legend has it that the founding expedition was confronted by a large group of native Tongva peoples whose intention was to drive the strangers away. One of the priests laid a painting of "Our Lady of Sorrows" on the ground for all to see, whereupon the natives, designated by the settlers as the Gabrieliños made peace with the missionaries, because they were so moved by the painting's beauty.
Today the 300-year-old work hangs in front of and to the left of the old high altar and reredos in the Mission's sanctuary. A large stone cross stands in the center of the Campo Santo, first consecrated in 1778 and again on January 29, 1939, by the Los Angeles Archbishop John Cantwell, it serves as the final resting place for some 6,000 "neophytes. Interred at the Mission are the bodies of numerous Franciscan priests who died during their time of service, as well as the remains of Reverend Raymond Catalan, C. M. F. who undertook the restoration of the Mission's gardens. Entombed at the foot of the altar are the remains of eight Franciscan priests: Miguel Sánchez, Antonio Cruzado, Francisco Dumetz, Roman Ulibarri, Joaquin P. Nunez, Gerónimo Boscana, José Bernardo Sánchez, Blas Ordaz. Buried among the priests is centenarian Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné, the "keeper of the keys" under Spanish rule. Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834, making it the most prolific in the mission chain.
In its heyday, it furnished food and supplies to settlements and other missions throughout California. A majority of the Mission structures fell into ruins after it was secularized in November 1834; the once-extensive vineyards were falling to decay, with fences broken down and animals roaming through it. The Mission's chapel functioned as a parish church for the City of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908, when the Claretian Missionaries came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the Mission. In 1874, tracks were laid for Southern Pacific Railroad near the mission. In 2012, artifacts from the mission era were found when the tracks were lowered into a trench known as the Alameda Corridor-East. On October 1, 1987 the Whittier Narrows earthquake damaged the property. A significant portion of the original complex has since been restored; the goal of the missions was to become self-sufficient in short order. Farming was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the missions, the native-Americans had developed a self-sufficient culture.
The missionaries believed the native Tongva people were inferior and in need of conversion to Christianity. The mission priests established what they thought of as a manual training school: to teach the Indians their style of agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock; the missions, utilizing the labor of the neophytes, produced everything they consumed. After 1811, the mission Indians could be said to sustain the entire military and civil government of California."The names of the rancherias associated with San Gabriel Mission were: Acuragna, Awigna, Cahuenga, Chowigna, Hahaulogna, Houtgna, Isanthcogna, Nacaugna, Pasinogna, Pubugna, Sisitcanogna, Suangna, Toviscanga, Yangna."To efficiently manage its extensive lands, Mission San Gabriel established several outlying sub-missions, known as asistencias. Several of these became or were
Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism. “Imperialism” here refers to the creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations, favoring a more powerful civilization. Thus, cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting and imposing a culture that of a politically powerful nation, over a less powerful society; the term is employed in the fields of history, cultural studies, postcolonial theory. It is used in a pejorative sense in conjunction with calls to reject such influence. Cultural imperialism can take various forms, such as an attitude, a formal policy, or military action, insofar as it reinforces cultural hegemony. Although the Oxford English Dictionary has a 1921 reference to the "cultural imperialism of the Russians", John Tomlinson, in his book on the subject, writes that the term emerged in the 1960s and has been a focus of research since at least the 1970s. Terms such as "media imperialism", "structural imperialism", "cultural dependency and domination", "cultural synchronization", "electronic colonialism", "ideological imperialism", "economic imperialism" have all been used to describe the same basic notion of cultural imperialism.
Various academics give various definitions of the term. American media critic Herbert Schiller wrote: "The concept of cultural imperialism today best describes the sum of the processes by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or promote, the values and structures of the dominating centre of the system; the public media are the foremost example of operating enterprises that are used in the penetrative process. For penetration on a significant scale the media themselves must be captured by the dominating/penetrating power; this occurs through the commercialization of broadcasting."Tom McPhail defined "Electronic colonialism as the dependency relationship established by the importation of communication hardware, foreign-produced software, along with engineers and related information protocols, that vicariously establish a set of foreign norms and expectations which, in varying degrees, may alter the domestic cultures and socialization processes."
Sui-Nam Lee observed that "communication imperialism can be defined as the process in which the ownership and control over the hardware and software of mass media as well as other major forms of communication in one country are singly or together subjugated to the domination of another country with deleterious effects on the indigenous values and culture." Ogan saw "media imperialism described as a process whereby the United States and Western Europe produce most of the media products, make the first profits from domestic sales, market the products in Third World countries at costs lower than those the countries would have to bear to produce similar products at home."Downing and Sreberny-Mohammadi state: "Imperialism is the conquest and control of one country by a more powerful one. Cultural imperialism signifies the dimensions of the process that go beyond economic exploitation or military force. In the history of colonialism, the educational and media systems of many Third World countries have been set up as replicas of those in Britain, France, or the United States and carry their values.
Western advertising has made further inroads. Subtly but powerfully, the message has been insinuated that Western cultures are superior to the cultures of the Third World." Needless to say, all these authors agree that cultural imperialism promotes the interests of certain circles within the imperial powers to the detriment of the target societies. The issue of cultural imperialism emerged from communication studies. However, cultural imperialism has been used as a framework by scholars to explain phenomena in the areas of international relations, education, history and sports. Many of today's academics that employ the term, cultural imperialism, are informed by the work of Foucault, Derrida and other poststructuralist and postcolonialist theorists. Within the realm of postcolonial discourse, cultural imperialism can be seen as the cultural legacy of colonialism, or forms of social action contributing to the continuation of Western hegemony. To some outside of the realm of this discourse, the term is critiqued as being unclear, and/or contradictory in nature.
The work of French philosopher and social theorist Michel Foucault has influenced use of the term cultural imperialism his philosophical interpretation of power and his concept of governmentality. Following an interpretation of power similar to that of Machiavelli, Foucault defines power as immaterial, as a "certain type of relation between individuals" that has to do with complex strategic social positions that relate to the subject's ability to control its environment and influence those around itself. According to Foucault, power is intimately tied with his conception of truth. "Truth", as he defines it, is a "system of ordered procedures for the production, distribution and operation of statements" which has a "circular relation" with systems of power. Therefore, inherent in systems of power, is always "truth", culturally specific, inseparable from ideology which coincides with
A clandestine church, defined by historian Benjamin J. Kaplan as a "semi-clandestine church", is a house of worship used by religious minorities whose communal worship is tolerated by those of the majority faith on condition that it is discreet and not conducted in public spaces. Schuilkerken are built inside houses or other buildings, do not show a public façade to the street, they were an important advance in religious tolerance in the wake of the Reformation, an era when worship services conducted by minority faiths were banned and sometimes penalized by exile or execution. According to historian Benjamin Kaplan, clandestine churches became common in Europe in the wake of the Reformation as a way for governments to permit a degree of religious toleration for minority Christian denominations and Jews. Both political and religious considerations led governments to ban all worship not sanctioned by the state, in many countries, members of minority religions worshiped together in total secrecy, risking punishment by the state.
However, such a regime was difficult to enforce, as a result, while many jurisdictions permitted only one form of worship, authorities knowingly permitted members of minority faiths to worship privately. In others, the law permitted public worship by minority faiths, but only if it was more or less invisible to the general public; the 1648 Treaty of Osnabruck, part of the Peace of Westphalia, specified three types of worship: "domestic devotion", public religious services, private religious services. It is into this last category; these churches were characterized by group religious services carried out by clergy "in their own houses or in other houses designated for the purpose," and not "in churches at set hours." Kaplan writes that the pretense of clandestinity "enabled Europeans to accommodate dissent without confronting it directly, to tolerate knowingly what they could not bring themselves to accept fully."In a surviving Dutch document from 1691, the Regents of the City of Amsterdam specified the terms under which a Roman Catholic church, called the Glabais, could be built by the Franciscans "to avoid giving any offense."
The entrance must not "behind" on a lesser thoroughfare, the Burgwal. There would be no parking of sleds on the Jodenbreestraat. There was to be no "waiting for another person" on the street after services; the priest was responsible for seeing. Services were timed so that there would be no chance of Roman Catholics offending Protestants by meeting them in the streets on their way to Dutch Reformed churches, and the Catholics must not walk to church in groups, nor carry prayer books, rosaries, or "other offensive objects" in a manner that made them visible to Protestant eyes. Benjamin J. Kaplan regards these requirements as typical of those in effect across Europe wherever clandestine churches were permitted. In 1701, the intendant of Alsace, Félix Le Pelletier de La Houssaye ruled against a complaint brought by an abbe, writing that "The worship which the Jews established in Reichshoffen is not as public as one would have you believe. There is no synagogue per se, only, by a custom long established in this province, when there are seven Jewish families in one locale, those who compose them assemble, without scandal, in a house of their sect for readings and prayers."
A line was crossed when an actual building was erected as a prayer house, as the Jews of Biesheim and Hagenthal discovered when each community had a newly built synagogue razed by the Conseil Souverain of Alsace in the 1720s. Although early clandestine churches were makeshift spaces, by the 17th century some Catholic, churches had constructed elaborately decorated baroque interiors. Artists who painted works commissioned by clandestine churches include Gerard van Honthorst, Abraham Bloemaert, Jan Miense Molenaer, Pieter de Grebber, Claes Corneliszoon Moeyaert and Jan de Bray. In 1781, under the Patent of Toleration, the Austrian Empire for the first time instituted limited legal toleration of minority faiths, permitting them to conduct "private religious exercises" in clandestine churches. Emperor Joseph II's Patent specified that these clandestine churches might not ring a bell or build bell towers or any public entrance on the street. Vienna's Stadttempel, a synagogue built in 1825 with an handsome interior, is an excellent surviving example.
It is concealed in the interior of a block of residential buildings. Some are freestanding buildings constructed in rear courtyards. What they share is that they are not recognizable as houses of worship by passersby; such churches were built in large numbers during the time of the Dutch Republic for use by Roman Catholics, Remonstrants and Mennonites. In cities schuilkerken were established in houses and warehouses, whereas in the countryside such churches had the appearance of a shed and so became known as Schuurkerken. All clandestine churches of necessity lacked exterior markers. St. Ninian's Church, Scotland, is a typical, rural clandestine Catholic church. Built in 1755, it resembles a low barn, it is a dramatic contrast with its replacement, St. Gregory's Church, Scotland, the first Catholic church to be built in Scotland after the Reformation, whose proud Italian Baroque facade with the date in Latin, "DEO 1788," announcing its Catholicism to the world. Amsterdam's Vrijburg is a typical freestanding, urb
Reductions or in Spanish reducciones called'congregaciones', were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Spanish America and the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish relocated, forcibly if necessary, native inhabitants of their colonies into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain. In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias; the policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503. In the words of the Spanish rulers, "It is necessary that the Indians be assigned to towns in which they will live together and that they not remain or wander separated from each other in the backcountry." The Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built. The concentration or reducción of the Indian population facilitated the Spaniards' access to Indian labor, the promulgation of Christianity, the collection of taxes and tribute. Moreover, the reduction of the Indians was intended to break down ethnic and kinship ties and detribalize the residents to create a generic Indian population.
Reductions began in Mexico shortly after Cortés' conquest in the 1520s and were begun in Baja California in the 17th century and California in the late 18th century. Reductions in Mexico were more known as congregaciones. Indian reductions in the Andes in present-day Peru and Bolivia, began on a large scale in 1570 during the rule of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo. Toledo aimed, with some success, to remake the society of the former Inca empire and in a few years resettled about 1.4 million Indians into 840 communities, many of which are the nucleus of present-day cities and villages. The most famous of the reductions were in Paraguay and neighboring Argentina and Bolivia in the 17th and 18th centuries which were created and ruled by the Jesuit order of the Catholic Church. Indian reductions in the Andes Jesuit reductions