Chrome OS is a Linux kernel-based operating system designed by Google. It is derived from the free software Chromium OS and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface; as a result, Chrome OS supports web applications. Google announced the project in July 2009, conceiving it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud: hence Chrome OS runs web applications. Source code and a public demo came that November; the first Chrome OS laptop, known as a Chromebook, arrived in May 2011. Initial Chromebook shipments from Samsung and Acer occurred in July 2011. Chrome OS has file manager, it supports Chrome Apps, which resemble native applications, as well as remote access to the desktop. Android applications started to become available for the operating system in 2014, in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. Reception was skeptical, with some observers arguing that a browser running on any operating system was functionally equivalent.
As more Chrome OS machines have entered the market, the operating system is now evaluated apart from the hardware that runs it. Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners, but there are unofficial methods that allow it to be installed in other equipment. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description. Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009, describing it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud. To ascertain marketing requirements, the company relied on informal metrics, including monitoring the usage patterns of some 200 Chrome OS machines used by Google employees. Developers noted their own usage patterns. Matthew Papakipos, former engineering director for the Chrome OS project, put three machines in his house and found himself logging in for brief sessions: to make a single search query or send a short email.
Chrome OS was intended for secondary devices like netbooks, not as a user's primary PC. While Chrome OS supports hard disk drives, Google has requested that its hardware partners use solid-state drives "for performance and reliability reasons" as well as the lower capacity requirements inherent in an operating system that accesses applications and most user data on remote servers. In November 2009 Matthew Papakipos, engineering director for the Chrome OS, claimed that the Chrome OS consumes one-sixtieth as much drive space as Windows 7; the recovery images Google provides for Chrome OS range between 1 and 3 GB. On November 19, 2009, Google released Chrome OS's source code as the Chromium OS project. At a November 19, 2009, news conference, Sundar Pichai, at the time Google's vice president overseeing Chrome, demonstrated an early version of the operating system, he previewed a desktop which looked similar to the Chrome browser, in addition to the regular browser tabs had application tabs, which take less space and can be pinned for easier access.
At the conference, the operating system booted up in seven seconds, a time Google said it would work to reduce. Additionally, Chris Kenyon, vice president of OEM services at Canonical Ltd, announced that Canonical was under contract to contribute engineering resources to the project with the intent to build on existing open source components and tools where feasible. In 2010, Google released the unbranded Cr-48 Chromebook in a pilot program; the launch date for retail hardware featuring Chrome OS was delayed from late 2010 until the next year. On 11 May 2011, Google announced two Chromebooks from Acer and Samsung at Google I/O; the Samsung model was released on 15 June 2011. In August 2011, Netflix announced official support for Chrome OS through its streaming service, allowing Chromebooks to watch streaming movies and TV shows via Netflix. At the time, other devices had to use Microsoft Silverlight to play videos from Netflix. In that same month, Citrix released a client application for Chrome OS, allowing Chromebooks to access Windows applications and desktops remotely.
Dublin City University became the first educational institution in Europe to provide Chromebooks for its students when it announced an agreement with Google in September 2011. By 2012, demand for Chromebooks had begun to grow, Google announced a new range of devices and manufactured by Samsung. In so doing, they released the first Chromebox, the Samsung Series 3, Chrome OS's entrance into the world of desktop computers. Although they were faster than the previous range of devices, they were still underpowered compared to other desktops and laptops of the time, fitting in more with the Netbook market. Only months in October and Google released a new Chromebook at a lower price point, it was the first Chromebook to use one from Samsung's Exynos line. In order to reduce the price and Samsung reduced the memory and screen resolution of the device. An advantage of using the ARM processor, was that the Chromebook didn't require a fan. Acer followed after with the C7 Chromebook, priced lower, but containing an Intel Celeron processor.
One notable way which Samsung reduced the cost of the C7 was to use a laptop hard disk rather than a solid state drive. In April 2012, Google made the first update to Chrome OS's user interface since the operating system had launched, introducing a hardware-accelerated window manager called "Aura" along with a conventional taskbar
A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system, made output to the screen. Touchpads are a common feature of laptop computers, are used as a substitute for a mouse where desk space is scarce; because they vary in size, they can be found on personal digital assistants and some portable media players. Wireless touchpads are available as detached accessories. Touchpads operate in one including capacitive sensing and resistive touchscreen; the most common technology used in the 2010s senses the change of capacitance where a finger touches the pad. Capacitance-based touchpads will not sense the tip of a pencil or other similar ungrounded or non-conducting implement. Fingers insulated by a glove may be problematic. While touchpads, like touchscreens, are able to sense absolute position, resolution is limited by their size. For common use as a pointer device, the dragging motion of a finger is translated into a finer, relative motion of the cursor on the output to the display on the operating system, analogous to the handling of a mouse, lifted and put back on a surface.
Hardware buttons equivalent to a standard mouse's left and right buttons are positioned adjacent to the touchpad. Some touchpads and associated device driver software may interpret tapping the pad as a mouse click, a tap followed by a continuous pointing motion can indicate dragging. Tactile touchpads allow for clicking and dragging by incorporating button functionality into the surface of the touchpad itself. To select, one presses down on the touchpad instead of a physical button. To drag, instead of performing the "click-and-a-half" technique, the user presses down while on the object, drags without releasing pressure, lets go when done. Touchpad drivers can allow the use of multiple fingers to emulate the other mouse buttons. Touchpads are called clickpads if it does not have physical buttons, but instead relies on "software buttons". Physically the whole clickpad formed a button, logically the driver interpret a click as left or right button click depending of the placement of fingers; some touchpads have locations on the touchpad used for functionality beyond a mouse.
For example, on certain touchpads, moving the finger along an edge of the touch pad will act as a scroll wheel, controlling the scrollbar and scrolling the window that has the focus, vertically or horizontally. Many touchpads use two-finger dragging for scrolling; some touchpad drivers support tap zones, regions where a tap will execute a function, for example, pausing a media player or launching an application. All of these functions are implemented in the touchpad device driver software, can be disabled. By 1982, Apollo desktop computers were equipped with a touchpad on the right side of the keyboard. Introduced a year the Gavilan SC included a touchpad above its keyboard. A touchpad was first developed for Psion's MC 200/400/600/WORD Series in 1989. Olivetti and Triumph-Adler introduced the first laptops with touchpad in 1992. Cirque introduced the first available touchpad, branded as GlidePoint, in 1994. Apple Inc introduced touchpads to the modern laptop in the PowerBook series in 1994, using Cirque's GlidePoint technology.
Another early adopter of the GlidePoint pointing device was Sharp. Synaptics introduced their touchpad into the marketplace, branded the TouchPad. Epson was an early adopter of this product; as touchpads began to be introduced in laptops in the 1990s, there was confusion as to what the product should be called. No consistent term was used, references varied, such as: glidepoint, touch sensitive input device, touchpad and pointing device. Users were presented the option to purchase a pointing stick, touchpad, or trackball. Combinations of the devices were common, though touchpads and trackballs were included together. Since the early 2000s, touchpads have become the dominant laptop pointing device as most laptops produced during this period beyond include only touchpads, displacing the pointing stick. Touchpads are used in self-contained portable laptop computers and do not require a flat surface near the machine; the touchpad is close to the keyboard, only short finger movements are required to move the cursor across the display screen.
Touchpads exist for desktop computers as an external peripheral, albeit seen. Touchpads are sometimes integrated in some desktop computer keyboards keyboards oriented for HTPC use. One-dimensional touchpads are the primary control interface for menu navigation on second-generation and iPod Classic portable music players, where they are referred to as "click wheels", since they only sense motion along one axis, wrapped around like a wheel. Creative Labs uses a touchpad for their Zen line of MP3 players, beginning with the Zen Touch; the second-generation Microsoft Zune product line uses touch for the Zune Pad. Apple's PowerBook 500 series was its first laptop to carry such a device, which Apple refers to as a "trackpad"; when introduced in May 1994, it replaced the trackball of previous PowerBook models. In late 2008 Apple's revisions of the MacBook and MacBook Pro incorporated a "Tactile Touchpad" design with button functionality incorporated into the tracking surface. Beginning in the second generation of MacBook Pro, the entire touc
The Magic Mouse is a multi-touch mouse, manufactured and sold by Apple. It was first sold on October 20, 2009; the Magic Mouse is the first consumer mouse to have multi-touch capabilities. Taking after the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, multi-touch trackpads, the Magic Mouse allows the use of gestures such as swiping and scrolling across the top surface of the mouse to interact with desktop computers, it runs on two AA batteries. Apple includes two non-rechargeable batteries in the box; until 2016, Apple sold a battery charger which could charge two AA batteries, suited for the Magic Mouse. Like its predecessor, the Mighty Mouse, the Magic Mouse is capable of control-clicking without requiring the key combination; the mouse requires minimum Mac OS X 10.5.8. It can be configured as a two-buttoned left-handed or right-handed mouse, but the default is a single button, it uses laser tracking for increased pointer accuracy over previous generation Apple mice. Since its release, it has been included along with a wireless keyboard with the 2009 generation of iMacs, with a wired keyboard with the 2010 Mac Pro workstations.
It can be purchased separately. Initial reception to the Magic Mouse was negative, with reactions to its inability to trigger Exposé, Dashboard, or Spaces, as its predecessor could, or to middle click. Many of those features can be enabled on the Magic Mouse with the use of third-party tools. Other issues centered on the Magic Mouse's ability to maintain a stable connection to Mac Pro workstations; the following are the gestures. Not all gestures are supported on all operating systems: Click Two-button click 360°-scroll Screen zoom Screen pan Two-finger swipe One-finger swipe Two-finger double tap One-finger double tapGestures can be customized and new ones can be added via third-party software. Inertia scrolling is said to be available in Snow Leopard only after installing a software update, but it could be enabled in Leopard with a terminal command. Despite these new features, the Magic Mouse still cannot left- and control-click together. Source: Tracking method: Laser tracking Wireless: Yes Resolution: 1300dpi Mac/PC: Mac & PC Required configuration: Bluetooth-enabled Mac computer Mac OS X v10.5.8 or with Wireless Mouse Software Update 1.0 Size: 115 × 58 × 22 mm Weight: 105 g, 99 g for Magic Mouse 2 Broadcom BCM2042A4KFBGH bluetooth chip Other information: Multi-touch surface with gesture support Vertical and diagonal 360° scrolling One button ambidextrous & configurable design Laser tracking engine Bluetooth connectivity Mac OS X v10.5.8, v10.6.1 or with Wireless Mouse Software Update 1.0.
This update is essential for the Magic Mouse to work. Windows 7, Windows XP, Windows Vista using Boot Camp tools under Mac OS X. To work with Windows 7, Mac OS X Lion is required as the latest drivers are available only with a version of Boot Camp, installable on Mac OS X Lion. Extracted from Boot Camp native Windows XP, Windows 7 drivers, 32‑bit and 64‑bit. Linux as of kernel 2.6.34-rc1 Apple Keyboard Magic Trackpad Apple Mouse Magic Keyboard Magic Trackpad 2 Magic Mouse 2 "The Sad Reality of the Magic Mouse 2". Gizmodo. Retrieved 9 December 2015. Magic Mouse – Apple Store Magic Mouse Teardown on iFixit
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface; the first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and dimensional input; the earliest known publication of the term mouse as referring to a computer pointing device is in Bill English's July 1965 publication, "Computer-Aided Display Control" originating from its resemblance to the shape and size of a mouse, a rodent, with the cord resembling its tail.
The plural for the small rodent is always "mice" in modern usage. The plural of a computer mouse is "mouses" and "mice" according to most dictionaries, with "mice" being more common; the first recorded plural usage is "mice". The term computer mouses may be used informally in some cases. Although, the plural of mouse is mice, the two words have undergone a differentiation through usage; the trackball, a related pointing device, was invented in 1946 by Ralph Benjamin as part of a post-World War II-era fire-control radar plotting system called Comprehensive Display System. Benjamin was working for the British Royal Navy Scientific Service. Benjamin's project used analog computers to calculate the future position of target aircraft based on several initial input points provided by a user with a joystick. Benjamin felt that a more elegant input device was needed and invented what they called a "roller ball" for this purpose; the device was patented in 1947, but only a prototype using a metal ball rolling on two rubber-coated wheels was built, the device was kept as a military secret.
Another early trackball was built by British electrical engineer Kenyon Taylor in collaboration with Tom Cranston and Fred Longstaff. Taylor was part of the original Ferranti Canada, working on the Royal Canadian Navy's DATAR system in 1952. DATAR was similar in concept to Benjamin's display; the trackball used four disks to pick up two each for the X and Y directions. Several rollers provided mechanical support; when the ball was rolled, the pickup discs spun and contacts on their outer rim made periodic contact with wires, producing pulses of output with each movement of the ball. By counting the pulses, the physical movement of the ball could be determined. A digital computer calculated the tracks and sent the resulting data to other ships in a task force using pulse-code modulation radio signals; this trackball used a standard Canadian five-pin bowling ball. It was not patented. Douglas Engelbart of the Stanford Research Institute has been credited in published books by Thierry Bardini, Paul Ceruzzi, Howard Rheingold, several others as the inventor of the computer mouse.
Engelbart was recognized as such in various obituary titles after his death in July 2013. By 1963, Engelbart had established a research lab at SRI, the Augmentation Research Center, to pursue his objective of developing both hardware and software computer technology to "augment" human intelligence; that November, while attending a conference on computer graphics in Reno, Engelbart began to ponder how to adapt the underlying principles of the planimeter to X-Y coordinate input. On November 14, 1963, he first recorded his thoughts in his personal notebook about something he called a "bug," which in a "3-point" form could have a "drop point and 2 orthogonal wheels." He wrote that the "bug" would be "easier" and "more natural" to use, unlike a stylus, it would stay still when let go, which meant it would be "much better for coordination with the keyboard."In 1964, Bill English joined ARC, where he helped Engelbart build the first mouse prototype. They christened the device the mouse as early models had a cord attached to the rear part of the device which looked like a tail, in turn resembled the common mouse.
As noted above, this "mouse" was first mentioned in print in a July 1965 report, on which English was the lead author. On 9 December 1968, Engelbart publicly demonstrated the mouse at what would come to be known as The Mother of All Demos. Engelbart never received any royalties for it, as his employer SRI held the patent, which expired before the mouse became used in personal computers. In any event, the invention of the mouse was just a small part of Engelbart's much larger project of augmenting human intellect. Several other experimental pointing-devices developed for Engelbart's oN-Line System exploited different body movements – for example, head-mounted devices attached to the chin or nose – but the mouse won out because of its speed and convenience; the first mouse, a bulky device used two potentiometers perpendicular to each other and connected to wheels: the rotation of each wheel translated into motion along one axis. At the time of the "Mother of All Demos", Engelbart's group had been using their second generation, 3-button mouse for about a year.
On October 2, 1968, a mouse device named Rollkugel (German for "rolling bal
Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
The Apple Worldwide Developers Conference is a conference held annually by Apple Inc. in San Jose, California. Apple uses the event to showcase its new software and technologies for software developers. Attendees can participate in hands-on labs with Apple engineers and attend in-depth sessions covering a wide variety of topics. WWDC began in 1987 in Santa Clara. After 15 years in nearby San Jose, the conference moved to San Francisco, where it became Apple's primary media event of the year and sold out. WWDC returned to San Jose 13 years later. A $1,599 ticket is required to enter the conference. Tickets are obtained through an online lottery. Scholarships are available for members of STEM organizations. Attendees must be 13 years or older and must be a member of an Apple Developer program; until 2007, the number of attendees varied between 2,000 and 4,200. The WWDC events held from 2008 to 2015 were capped, sold out at 5,000 attendees. WWDC 2018 had 6,000 attendees from 77 countries, including 350 scholarship recipients.
WWDC is held annually from Monday through Friday on one week in June. The conference consists of a keynote address, presentation sessions, one-on-one "lab" consultations, special get-togethers and events; the conference begins with a Monday morning keynote address by other Apple executives. It is attended by both conference attendees and the media, since Apple makes product announcements at the event. Hardware announced during the address is sometimes exhibited in the conference hall afterwards; the keynote address is followed in the afternoon by a Platforms State of the Union address, which highlights and demonstrates changes in Apple's software developer platforms that are detailed in sessions in the week. The Apple Design Awards are announced on the first day of the conference. Several session tracks run from Tuesday through Friday; the presentations cover programming and other topics and range from introductory to advanced. All scheduled presentations are delivered by Apple employees; these presentations are streamed live, recordings can be viewed on demand on the Apple Developer website in the conference's iOS and tvOS applications.
Lunchtime sessions are given by a variety of guest speakers who are industry experts in technology and science. In the past, some sessions included question-and-answer time, a popular Stump the Experts session featured interaction between Apple employees and attendees. At the labs, which run throughout the week, Apple engineers are available for one-on-one consultations with developers in attendance. Experts in user interface design and accessibility are available for consultations by appointment. Apple organizes social get-togethers during the conference for various groups, such as women in technology or developers interested in internationalization or machine learning; the Thursday evening Bash at a nearby park features live music and drinks for all attendees 21 years or older. In 1989, System 7 was announced. In 1991, WWDC saw the first public demonstration of QuickTime. In 1995, WWDC'95 focused fully on the Copland project, which by this time was able to be demonstrated to some degree. Gil Amelio stated that the system was on-schedule to ship in beta form in summer with an initial commercial release in the late fall.
However few live demos were offered, no beta of the operating system was offered. In 1996, WWDC'96's primary emphasis was a new software component technology called OpenDoc, which allowed end users to compile an application from components offering features they desired most; the OpenDoc consortium included Adobe, Lotus and Apple. Apple touted OpenDoc as the future foundation for application structure under Mac OS; as proof of concept, Apple demonstrated a new end-user product called Cyberdog, a comprehensive Internet application component suite offering users an integrated browser, email, FTP, telnet and other services built of user-exchangeable OpenDoc components. ClarisWorks, a principal product in Apple's wholly owned subsidiary Claris Corporation, was demonstrated as an example of a pre-OpenDoc component architecture application modified to be able to contain functional OpenDoc components. In 1997, WWDC marked the return of Steve Jobs as a consultant. WWDC'97 was the first show after the purchase of NeXT, focused on the efforts to use OpenStep as the foundation of the next Mac OS.
The plan at that time was to introduce a new system named Rhapsody, which would consist of a version of OpenStep modified with a more Mac-like look and feel, the Yellow Box, along with a Blue Box that allowed extant Mac applications to run under OS emulation. The show focused on the work in progress, including a short history of development efforts since the two development teams had been merged on February 4. Several new additions to the system were demonstrated, including tabbed and outline views, a new object-based graphics layer. In 1998, in response to developer comments about the new operating system, the big announcement at WWDC'98 was the introduction of Carbon a version of the classic Mac OS API implemented on OpenStep. Under the original Rhapsody plans, classic applications would run in sandboxed installation of the classic Mac OS, have no access to the new Mac OS X features. To receive new features, such a
The Command key historically known as the Apple key, clover key, open-Apple key, splat key, pretzel key, or propeller key, is a modifier key present on Apple keyboards. The Command key's purpose is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. An "extended" Macintosh keyboard—the most common type—has two command keys, one on each side of the space bar; the "⌘" symbol was chosen by Susan Kare after Steve Jobs decided that the use of the Apple logo in the menu system would be an over-use of the logo. Apple's adaptation of the symbol—encoded in Unicode at U+2318 ⌘ —was derived in part from its use in Nordic countries as an indicator of cultural locations and places of interest; the symbol is known by various other names, including "Saint John's Arms" and "Bowen knot". Apple's computers up through the 1979 Apple II Plus did not have a command key; the first model on which it appeared was the 1980 Apple III, where there are two monochrome Apple keys, both to the left of the space bar on the lowest row of the keyboard.
Two other early Apple computers, the 1982 Apple IIe and the 1984 Apple IIc had two such keys, one to the left and one to the right of the space bar. This allowed for flexible combinations of a modifier key and base key with just a few extra wires and no ROM changes, since the Apple II could only register one key press at a time. In all these cases, the left Apple key had an outlined "open" Apple logo, the one on the right had an opaque, "closed" or "solid" Apple logo key; the Apple Lisa had only the closed Apple logo. When the Macintosh was introduced in 1984, the keyboard had a single command key with a Looped square symbol, because Steve Jobs said that showing the Apple logo throughout the menus as a keyboard shortcut was "taking in vain". Thus, the ⌘ symbol appears in the Macintosh menus as the primary modifier key symbol; the original Macintosh had an Option key, used for entering extended characters. In 1986, the Apple IIGS was introduced. Like the newer Macintosh computers to come, such as the Macintosh SE, it used the Apple Desktop Bus for its keyboard and mouse.
However, it was still an Apple II. Apple changed the keys on the IIGS's keyboard to Command and Option, as on Mac keyboards, but added an open-Apple to the Command key, for consistency with applications for previous Apple II generations; because any ADB keyboard could be used with the IIGS, all of Apple's ADB keyboards—even those intended for the Mac—also required the open-Apple, it stuck for more than twenty years, causing confusion long after the Apple II series went out of production. The Apple symbol was removed in the keyboard's 2007 redesign, making room for the key's name to appear—the word "command" is now printed on the key. On the keyboard of the NeXT Computer that key was marked Command in green; the menus were not marked with a symbol denoting the command key. Besides being used as a modifier key for keyboard shortcuts it was used to alter the function of some keys. Command + ⇧ Shift toggles alpha lock, Command + Return sends Command + Volume-down toggles Mute; the functions were printed in green on the front side of the modified keys.
This was done on the Z, X, C and V keys. Command-Alternate-* triggers a non-catchable hardware reset thereby hard rebooting the computer. On the NeXT ADB keyboard, the Command keys were replaced by keys labeled Help and the Command key morphed into a wide Command bar in front of the space bar; the purpose of the Command key is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines have always recommended that developers use the Command key for this purpose. A small set of keyboard commands are standard across nearly all applications, many other commands are standardized. If an application needs more shortcuts than can be obtained with the twenty-six letters of the Latin alphabet, double modifiers such as Command+Option are used. One advantage of this scheme, as contrasted with the Microsoft Windows mixed use of the Control and Alt keys, is that the Control key is available for its original purpose: entering control characters in terminal applications.
The Macintosh keyboard's other unusual modifier key, the Option key, serves as a modifier both for entering keyboard shortcuts and for typing text—it is used to enter foreign characters, typographical symbols, other special characters. The ⌘ symbol came into the Macintosh project at a late stage; the development team went for their old Apple key, but Steve Jobs found it frustrating when "apples" filled up the Mac's menus next to the key commands, because he felt that this was an over-use of the company logo. He opted for a different key symbol. With only a few days left before deadline, the team's bitmap artist Susan Kare started researching for the Apple logo's successor, she was browsing through a symbol dictionary when she came across the
KWin is a window manager for the X Window System and is in the process of becoming a Wayland compositor. It is released as part of KDE Plasma 5. KWin can be used on its own or with other desktop environments. KWin 5.x depends on KDE Frameworks 5. KWin 4.x depended on KDE Platform 4, a monolithic library. KWin 3.x and earlier depended on KDELibs. KWin can be configured by scripting using QtScript, both of which are based on ECMAScript. There are many window decorations for KWin, including the current default Breeze, the previous default Oxygen, Microsoft Windows-like Redmond, Keramik. Available compositing backends include XRender, OpenGL 1.2, OpenGL 2.0, OpenGL 3.1 and OpenGL ES 2.0. As of KDE 4.3 the following effects are built-in: Comparison of X window managers KWin release notes for KDE4.0 Decorations for KWin 4