California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Symbionese Liberation Army
The United Federated Forces of the Symbionese Liberation Army was an American self-styled left-wing revolutionary organization active between 1973 and 1975 that considered itself a vanguard army. The group committed bank robberies, two murders, and other acts of violence, the SLA became internationally notorious for the kidnapping of heiress Patty Hearst, abducting the 19-year-old from Berkeley, California. Interest increased when Hearst, in audiotaped messages delivered to news media. Hearst said that members of the terrorist group threatened to kill her, held her in close confinement and this political symbiosis DeFreeze describes means the unity of all left-wing struggles, anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and others. DeFreeze wanted all races and ages to fight together in a united front. DeFreeze was the SLAs only black member and his seven-headed SLA cobra symbol was based on the seven principles of Kwanzaa, with each head representing a principle. The Swahili words for these seven principles are, Kujichagulia, Ujamaa, Kuumba, the particular graphic of the seven-headed cobra used by the SLA may have been copied from an illustration in The Lost Continent of Mu by James Churchward.
The SLA formed as a result of the prison visitation programs of the radical left-wing group Venceremos Organization, some activists within the New Left and the social justice movements compared the U. S. prison system to concentration camps designed to oppress African Americans. They believed that a majority of African-American convicts were political prisoners, group member Willie Wolfe developed this ideology into a plan for action, linking student activists with prison militants. The SLA formed after the escape from prison by Donald DeFreeze and he had been serving five-to-15 years for robbing a prostitute. DeFreeze took the name Cinque from the leader of the rebellion who took over the slave ship Amistad in 1839. DeFreeze escaped from Soledad State Prison on March 5,1973, DeFreeze has been accused by some sources of being an informant from 1967 to 1969 for the Public Disorder Intelligence Unit of the Los Angeles Police Department. He sought refuge among these contacts, and ended up at a known as Peking House in the San Francisco Bay Area.
For some time he shared living quarters with future SLA members Willie Wolfe and Russell Little, DeFreeze and Soltysik became lovers and began to outline the plans for founding the Symbionese Nation. The hollow-point bullets used to kill Foster had been packed with cyanide, the SLA had condemned Foster for his plan to introduce identification cards into Oakland schools, calling him fascist. In fact, Foster had opposed the use of cards in his schools. An African American, Foster was popular on the Left and in the black community, on January 10,1974, Joseph Remiro and Russell Little were arrested and charged with Fosters murder, and initially both men were convicted of murder. Both men received sentences of life imprisonment, seven years later, on June 5,1981, Littles conviction was overturned by the California Court of Appeal, and he was acquitted in a retrial in Monterey County
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina
San Francisco Giants
The San Francisco Giants are an American professional baseball franchise based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1883 as the New York Gothams, and renamed three years to the New York Giants, the team moved to San Francisco in 1958. The Giants compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the National League West division. As one of the longest-established and most successful baseball teams. The team was the first major team based in New York City. They have won 23 NL pennants and have played in 20 World Series competitions – both NL records, the Giants eight World Series championships rank second in the National League and are tied for fourth overall. The Giants have played in the World Series 20 times –14 times in New York, six in San Francisco –, the Giants franchise has the most Hall of Fame players in all of professional baseball. The Giants rivalry with the Dodgers is one of the longest-standing, the teams began their rivalry as the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers, before both franchises moved west for the 1958 season.
The Giants have won six pennants and three World Series championships since arriving in San Francisco and those three championships have come in 2010,2012, and most recently in 2014, having defeated the Kansas City Royals four games to three during the 2014 World Series. The Giants began as the baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie, the Gothams, as the Giants were originally known, entered the National League in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the American Association. Nearly half of the original Gotham players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans, Louis Browns in a pre-modern-era World Series. They repeated as champions the year with a pennant and Championship victory over the Brooklyn Bridegrooms. It is said that one particularly satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, Mutrie. From on, the club was known as the Giants, the Giants original home stadium, the Polo Grounds, dates from this early era.
It was originally located north of Central Park adjacent to 5th and 6th Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, the Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 and 1889. But nearly all of the Giants stars jumped to the upstart Players League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants. The new team built a stadium next door to the Polo Grounds
Islais Creek or Islais Creek Channel is a small creek in San Francisco, California. The name of the creek is derived from a Salinan Native American word slay or islay, around the time of the Gold Rush, the area became an industrial hub, and the condition of the creek worsened. After the devastating earthquake in 1906, the city decided to reclaim the creek using earthquake debris, though much of Islais Creek has been converted to an underground culvert, remnants still exist today at both Glen Canyon Park and Third Street. Several community organizations are dedicated to preserve these remnants, as they are important wildlife habitats, the historic Islais Creek, the largest body of water in the city covering an area of nearly 5,000 acres, had two main branches. One originated near the slope of Twin Peaks, slightly north of Portola Drive. It flowed downstream southeastward through the Glen Canyon Park paralleling Bosworth Street, the other branch began at the intersection of Cayuga Avenue and Regent Street.
It flowed generally eastward along Mission Street and reached the I-280 viaduct, together, as a wider creek, it ran parallel to Alemany Boulevard and I-280 and emptied into the Islais Creek estuary, near Industrial Street and Oakdale Avenue. Precita Creek, a creek that originated from Noe Valley, joined Islais Creek at the César Chávez Boulevard. From its sources in the Glen Canyon, the entire creek stretched about 3.5 miles to the San Francisco Bay, the mouth was nearly 2 miles wide, providing up to 85% of the drinking water in San Francisco. Due to urban development, the watershed of Islais Creek has been reduced by roughly 80% from its historical extent. A large number of neighborhoods in San Francisco today, such as Bernal Heights, Hunters Point, Visitacion Valley, parts of the Mission and Potrero Hill, was once covered by the extent of the creek. In 2007, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, which manages the citys water, as of 2009, remnants of the creek remain inside the Glen Canyon Park and a 1-mile channel near Third Street where Islais Creek emptied into the bay.
The history of Islais Creek dates to the 18th century, the name Los Islais first appeared on Mexican maps in 1834, named for the Islay cherries that grew wildly in the area. By 1850, water from the creek was used by farmers to irrigate crops, the Gold Rush marked the decline of the creek as large numbers of gold rushers swarmed into the city. The Potrero And Bay View Railroad Company, Islais Creek was declared a non-navigable waterway in 1883, in 1871, the area along the creek became known as the city’s New Butchertown when more than 100 slaughterhouses opened. Since then, the condition of the creek deteriorated, literally becoming a place of garbage, animal waste. The condition became so bad that the creek was referred to as Shit Creek by San Franciscans. After the 1906 earthquake, San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted to fill the creek with earthquake debris, during World War II, it served as docking areas for large ocean-going tugs
In soil mechanics the term liquefied was first used by Allen Hazen in reference to the 1918 failure of the Calaveras Dam in California. The phenomenon is most often observed in saturated, sandy soils and this is because a loose sand has a tendency to compress when a load is applied, dense sands by contrast tend to expand in volume or dilate. If the soil is saturated by water, a condition that exists when the soil is below the ground water table or sea level. In response to the soil compressing, this increases in pressure. These contacts between grains are the means by which the weight from buildings and overlying soil layers are transferred from the surface to layers of soil or rock at greater depths. This loss of soil structure causes it to all of its strength. Although the effects of liquefaction have been understood, it was more thoroughly brought to the attention of engineers after the 1964 Niigata earthquake and 1964 Alaska earthquake. It was a factor in the destruction in San Franciscos Marina District during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. A state of soil liquefaction occurs when the stress of soil is reduced to essentially zero.
This may be initiated by either monotonic loading or cyclic loading, in both cases a soil in a saturated loose state, and one which may generate significant pore water pressure on a change in load are the most likely to liquefy. As pore water pressure rises a progressive loss of strength of the soil occurs as effective stress is reduced and it is more likely to occur in sandy or non-plastic silty soils, but may in rare cases occur in gravels and clays. A flow failure may initiate if the strength of the soil is reduced below the required to maintain equilibrium of a slope or footing of a building for instance. This can occur due to loading or cyclic loading, and can be sudden. A historical example is the Aberfan disaster, casagrande referred to this type of phenomena as flow liquefaction although a state of zero effective stress is not required for this to occur. The term cyclic refers to the occurrence of a state of soil when large shear strains have accumulated in response to cyclic loading. A typical reference strain for the occurrence of zero effective stress is 5% double amplitude shear strain.
This is a soil test based definition, usually performed via cyclic triaxial, cyclic direct simple shear and these tests are performed to determine a soils resistance to liquefaction by observing the number of cycles of loading at a particular shear stress amplitude before it fails. Failure here is defined by the shear strain criteria
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses the cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco. The Bay Areas nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 Companies in the United States, and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics and diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay, the inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes, Moraga, walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord and Pleasant Hill comprises Central Contra Costa County.
The cities of Antioch, Brentwood and the areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the Livermore, and the San Ramon Valleys and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley, Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley, and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo, Danville and its namesake, San Ramon. The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay by BART, Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, the outer East Bays infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades, the region north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County, Sonoma County, Napa County, the city of Fairfield, being part of Solano County, is often considered the easternmost city of the North Bay. With few exceptions, this region is affluent, Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state.
The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with areas of undeveloped open space, farmland. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bays largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. The North Bay is the section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service. The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley, geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula, is known locally as The Peninsula, many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides, the north and west. The city squeezes roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles, on any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourism
McCovey Cove is the unofficial name of a section of San Francisco Bay beyond the right field wall of AT&T Park, home of the San Francisco Giants, named after famed Giants first baseman Willie McCovey. The proper name for the cove is China Basin, which is the mouth of Mission Creek as it meets the bay, the cove is bounded along the north by AT&T Park, with a ferry landing and a breakwater at the northeast end. The southern shore is lined by China Basin Park and McCovey Point, to the east, it opens up to San Francisco Bay, while the west end of the cove is bounded by the Lefty ODoul Bridge, named after San Francisco ballplayer and manager Lefty ODoul. The name was coined thanks to two sportswriters, mark Purdy of the San Jose Mercury News wrote an article suggesting naming the body of water after McCovey, though his original suggestions were McCovey Channel, McCovey Stream or McCovey Run. Purdy noted the more lyrical name of McCovey Cove was suggested by his colleague Leonard Koppett, the name did not take long to become very popular, although the moniker has never become official.
On game days, fans take to the water of McCovey Cove in boats and even in kayaks and this echoes what used to happen during McCoveys playing days. Before Candlestick Parks upper deck was extended, the area behind right field was occupied by three small sections and a lot of open space. Kids in those bleachers would gather behind the right field fence when Stretch would come to the plate, the fact that balls can be hit into a water basin over the right field wall in San Francisco is somewhat of a tribute/salute to Willie McCoveys legend when he visited Montreal. Although there have been sightings in the bay, there have been no reported shark sightings in the cove. Just beyond the wall is a waterfront promenade, where fans can watch the game through the walls archways, free of charge. Across the cove from the ballpark is McCovey Point and China Basin Park, at his feet are small plaques commemorating the winners of the Willie Mac Award, named in McCoveys honor. Along the southern shore of the cove, between McCovey Point and the ODoul Bridge, is a walkway featuring plaques showing the Opening Day Roster of every Giants team from 1958 through 1999.
Just south of the statue of Willie McCovey is Barry Bonds Junior Giants Field, Splash hits are recorded only when Giants players hit home runs that land in McCovey Cove on the fly. These hits are tallied on a counter on the right field wall. As of August 21,2016,71 splash hits have been hit into the Bay by Giants players since the park opened,35 of those were by Barry Bonds, nine other Giants players have accomplished the feat just once. Carlos Beltráns Splash Hit on September 14,2011, marked his 300th career home run, klesko is currently the only player to have splash hits as both a Giant and as an opposing player through the 2012 season. Tyler Colvins splash hit on May 12,2014, was his first hit for the Giants, the only player to hit water was Prince Fielder of the Milwaukee Brewers, who hit one into-the-water foul. Fielder would eventually hit McCovey Cove with a ball on July 20,2008
A culvert is a structure that allows water to flow under a road, trail, or similar obstruction from one side to the other side. Typically embedded so as to be surrounded by soil, a culvert may be made from a pipe, in the United Kingdom the word can be used for a longer artificially buried watercourse. A structure that carries water above land is known as an aqueduct, Culverts are commonly used both as cross-drains for ditch relief and to pass water under a road at natural drainage and stream crossings. A culvert may be a structure designed to allow vehicle or pedestrian traffic to cross over the waterway while allowing adequate passage for the water. Culverts come in sizes and shapes including round, flat-bottomed, pear-shaped. The culvert type and shape selection is based on a number of factors including requirements for performance, limitation on upstream water surface elevation. The process of removing culverts, which is becoming increasingly prevalent, is known as daylighting, in the UK, the practice is known as deculverting.
Culverts can be constructed of a variety of materials including cast-in-place or precast concrete, galvanized steel, aluminum, or plastic, two or more materials may be combined to form composite structures. For example, open-bottom corrugated steel structures are built on concrete footings. Culverts must be sized and installed, and protected from erosion. Most agencies adhere to these standards when designing, engineering, if the failure is sudden and catastrophic, it can result in injury or loss of life. Sudden road collapses are often at poorly designed and engineered culvert crossing sites, water passing through undersized culverts will scour away the surrounding soil over time. This can cause a failure during medium-sized rain events. There are more than 5,000,000 culverts currently in use in the United States alone, continued inspection and replacement of these structures is crucial for infrastructure and safety. Accidents due to culvert failure can occur if a culvert has not been adequately sized.
Improperly designed backfill support around aluminum or plastic culverts can result in material collapse or failure from inadequate load support. Soil and sand carried through a culvert can wear away the galvanizing of a culvert, allowing it to corrode and eventually collapse. This happened at a culvert near Gosford, New South Wales in 2007, safe and stable stream crossings can accommodate wildlife and protect stream health while reducing expensive erosion and structural damage