The Calusa were a Native American people of Floridas southwest coast. Calusa society developed from that of peoples of the Everglades region. Previous indigenous cultures had lived in the area for thousands of years, at the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the historic Calusa were the people of the Caloosahatchee culture. They are notable for having developed a culture based on estuarine fisheries rather than agriculture. Calusa territory reached from Charlotte Harbor to Cape Sable, all of present-day Charlotte and Lee counties, and may have included the Florida Keys at times. They had the highest population density of south Florida, estimates of population at the time of European contact range from 10,000 to several times that. Calusa influence may have extended to the Ais tribe on the central east coast of Florida. Early Spanish and French sources referred to the tribe, its town and its chief as Calos, Caalus. Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, a Spaniard held captive by the Calusa in the 16th century, by the early 19th century, Anglo-Americans in the area used the term Calusa for the people.
It is based on the Creek and Mikasuki ethnonym for the people who had lived around the Caloosahatchee River. Juan Rogel, a Jesuit missionary to the Calusa in the late 1560s, noted the name as Carlos. Rogel stated that the name was Caalus, and that the Spanish had changed it to Carlos. Marquardt quotes a statement from the 1570s that the Bay of Carlos, in the Indian language is called Escampaba, for the cacique of this town, who afterward called himself Carlos in devotion to the Emperor. Escampaba may be related to a place named Stapaba, which was identified in the area on an early 16th-century map, paleo-Indians entered what is now Florida at least 12,000 years ago. By around 5000 BC, people started living in villages near wetlands, favored sites were likely occupied for multiple generations. Floridas climate had reached current conditions and the sea had risen close to its present level by about 3000 BC, People commonly occupied both fresh and saltwater wetlands. Because of their reliance on shellfish, they accumulated large shell middens during this period, many people lived in large villages with purpose-built earthwork mounds, such as those at the Horrs Island.
People began creating fired pottery in Florida by 2000 BC, by about 500 BC, the Archaic culture, which had been fairly uniform across Florida, began to devolve into more distinct regional cultures
Tallahassee /ˌtæləˈhæsi/ is the capital of the U. S. state of Florida. It is the county seat and only incorporated municipality in Leon County, Tallahassee became the capital of Florida, the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2015, the population was 189,907, making the city the 126th-largest city in the United States, the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 377,924 as of 2015. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Northwest Florida region as well as the center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nations thirty-eighth best public university by U. S. News & World Report and it is home to the Florida A&M University, one of the countrys largest historically black universities by total enrollment. Tallahassee is home to the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governors Mansion, the city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce.
It is a regional center for scientific research. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time, Tallahassee is currently ranked as the 18th best college town in the nation by Best College Reviews. During the 17th century several Spanish missions were established in the territory of the Apalachee to procure food, the largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee, has been partially reconstructed by the state of Florida. They found large areas of cleared land previously occupied by the Apalachee tribe, the Mississippian Indians built mounds near Lake Jackson around AD1200, which survive today in the Lake Jackson Archaeological State Park. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachees, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee, hernando de Soto and his expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in what is now Tallahassee in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations this site is now known to be located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol, the DeSoto encampment is believed to be the first place Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, the first battle took place on November 12,1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown, just west of present day Tallahassee had refused Jacksons orders to relocate, Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, and driving off its occupants. The Indians retaliated, by killing 50 soldiers and civilians, Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jacksons adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner, Tallahassee became the capital of Florida during the second legislative session. It was chosen as it was equidistant from St. Augustine and Pensacola. The first session of Floridas Legislative Council—as a territory of the United States—met on July 22,1822 at Pensacola, the second session was in St. Augustine and required western delegates to travel perilously around the peninsula on a twenty-eight-day trek
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Leon County, Florida
Leon County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 275,487, the county seat is Tallahassee, which serves as the state capital. The county is named after the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, Leon County is included in the Tallahassee, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Tallahassee is home to two of Floridas major public universities, Florida State University and Florida A&M University, Leon County residents have the highest average level of education among Floridas 67 counties. Originally part of Escambia and Gadsden County, Leon County was created in 1824 and it was named after Juan Ponce de León, the Spanish explorer who was the first European to reach Florida. During the 1850s and 1860s, Leon County was a kingdom and ranked fifth of all Florida. Also see Plantations of Leon County, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 702 square miles, of which 667 square miles are land and 35 square miles are water. Unlike much of Florida, most of Leon County has rolling hills, the highest point is 280 feet, located in the northern part of the county. S.
Highway 27 U. S. Highway 90 U. S, the layers above the basement are carbonate rock created from dying foraminifera, bryozoa and corals from as early as the Paleocene, a period of ~66—55.8 Ma. During the Eocene and Oligocene, the Appalachian Mountains began to uplift and the rate increased enough to fill the Gulf Trough with quartz sands, silts. The first sedimentation layer in Leon County is the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone in the part of the county as stated by the United States Geological Survey. The Early Miocene sedimentation in Leon County is Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formation, marks Formation and found in the northern two-thirds of the county. The Pliocene is represented by the Miccosukee Formation scattered within the Torreya Formation, sediments were laid down from the Pleistocene epoch through Holocene epoch and are designated Beach ridge and trail and undifferentiated sediments. During the Pleistocene, what would be Leon County emerged and submerged with each glacial and interglacial period, interglacials created the topography of Leon as it is known now.
The population density was 413.2 people per square mile, there were 123,423 housing units at an average density of 185 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 63. 0% White,30. 3% Black or African American,0. 3% Native American,2. 9% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,5. 6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was out with 20. 0% under the age of 18,26. 3% from 18 to 24,22. 7% from 25 to 44,22. 4% from 45 to 64
San Marcos de Apalache Historic State Park
The Spanish first built wooden buildings and a stockade in the late 17th and early 18th centuries here, which were destroyed by a hurricane. The stone fort was built beginning in 1753 and it came under successive control by Great Britain, the United States and, the Confederacy during the American Civil War. The Confederate Army built a Marine hospital from the materials of the fort, the US took control of the site again in 1865, and the fort site was abandoned. On November 13,1966, the area was designated a National Historic Landmark because of its significance. Designated as a National Engineering Landmark, the site has been highlighted on the Florida Native American Heritage Trail. The historic park is located in the vicinity of St. Marks,363, at 148 Old Fort Road. In 1679, the Spanish built a stockade at this site which they called San Marcos de Apalache. It was part of their expansion in the northwestern Florida area. A settlement developed around the beginning about 1733. Another wooden structure was built about 1753, the wooden fort was destroyed and the garrison drowned, during a hurricane.
In 1759, the Spanish began to build a stone fort and they abandoned it to Indians for use as a trading post after ceding this territory to the British following the defeat of France in the Seven Years War, aka the French and Indian War. The British had a garrison at the fort, following the American Revolutionary War, the British traded some territory with Spain, which took over West and East Florida again. Spanish forces reoccupied the San Marcos fort in 1783, and they strengthened its defenses, American settlers began penetrating the Southeast after the Revolution, settling deeper into Georgia and into the Mississippi and Alabama Territories. General Andrew Jackson led some raids into this area during the Seminole Wars and had his forces seize the fort in 1818, the U. S. occupied it for nearly a year. Marks military cemetery was established at that time, for the burial of men who died at the garrison, a total of 19 men were buried in the cemetery, most died from diseases, including dysentery and consumption.
In 1821, the United States purchased the Floridas from Spain, in 1839, during Floridas long U. S. territorial period, the Federal government built a marine hospital here, using stones and other materials from the old fort. It provided care for seamen and area yellow fever victims. During the Civil War, the Confederate army took over the fort, U. S. forces regained control in 1865, in the last year of the war
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from the Pope in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, the austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties, Saint Clare, under Franciss guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223, the degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals.
The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases, Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, the name of original order, Friars Minor, means lesser brothers, and stems from Francis of Assisis rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. Francis adopted of the tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First Order The First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are commonly called simply the Franciscans and this Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.
Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum, St. Francis thus referred to his followers as Fraticelli, meaning Little Brothers. Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the Observants, most commonly simply called Franciscan friars, official name, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or simply Capuchins, official name, Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name, Friars Minor Conventual, Second Order The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as The Poor Ladies, The Poor Enclosed Nuns
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet, the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592, walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city. The sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havanas harbor in 1898 was the cause of the Spanish–American War. Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one, Old Havana and the suburban districts. The city is the center of the Cuban government, and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses, the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country, the city attracts over a million tourists annually, the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005.
Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982, the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana features a tropical climate, in May 2015, Havana was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Doha, La Paz, Durban and Kuala Lumpur. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names, an alternate theory is that Habana is derived from the Middle Dutch word havene, referring to a harbour, etymologically related to the English word haven. All attempts to found a city on Cubas south coast failed, however, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river. The town that became Havana finally originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havanas harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name, the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana.
Shortly after the founding of Cubas first cities, the served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555, ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the bay fueled Havanas agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water. On December 20,1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City, on, the city would be officially designated as Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies by the Spanish Crown
The Potano tribe lived in north-central Florida at the time of first European contact. Their territory included what is now Alachua County, the half of Marion County. This territory corresponds to that of the Alachua culture, which lasted from about 700 until 1700, the Potano were among the many tribes of the Timucua people, and spoke a dialect of the Timucua language. The Pánfilo de Narváez expedition passed to the west of Potano territory in 1528, while not engaging with the Potano, the Spanish incursion spread new infectious diseases and incited warfare by competing tribes in the area. In 1539 Hernando de Soto led an army through Potano territory, there were 700 or more people in de Sotòs army. They forced villagers to give up stored food to them, by the time de Sotòs army reached Potano territory, he was intent on spending the winter in the Apalachee domain, and the army passed through quickly. The army passed through Potano towns that the Spanish called Itaraholata, Utinamochana, Mala-paz, at the time the French established Fort Caroline, the Potano were at war with the Utina, a chiefdom ruled by Chief Utina or Outina.
The French supported the Utina and helped defeat the Potano, after Spain expelled France from Florida, it supported the Utina. In 1584 the Potano killed a Spanish captain leading an invasion into Potano territory, to punish them, a second Spanish expedition attacked and killed many Potano and drove the rest from their towns. After that attack, the town of Potano was moved to the Fox Pond site near the Devils Millhopper northwest of Gainesville, in the 1580s Spanish Franciscan missionaries reached the Potano, first with visits by an itinerant missionary. A visita named Apula was established in the town of Potano, a couple of visitas existed in Potano territory in the 1590s. In 1606 Spanish missionaries established a doctrina, San Francisco de Potano and this was the first doctrina west of the St. Johns River. Another doctrina, San Miguel de Potano, and a visita, Santa Ana de Potano, were established within a few miles of San Francisco de Potano. Another visita, San Buenaventura de Potano, was established at the site of the town of Potano in 1607 or 1608 by Fray Francisco Pareja.
The missionaries reported that they had baptized more than 1,000 adult Potanos by 1607, the missions of San Miguel and San Buenaventura disappeared from Spanish records within a few years. In 1656 the Potano participated in the Timucuan rebellion against the Spanish authorities, the Spanish prevailed after eight months. During the fighting, they had burned most of the Timucuan towns and missions, after the rebellion, the Spanish re-established the Potano missions. In 1672 the Potano suffered many deaths from an unidentified disease, one colonial estimate figured the population of the Potano at 3,000 in 1650
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers made contact with living in a number of Mississippian cities, described their cultures. By the time of United States westward expansion two hundred years later, Native Americans were generally not knowledgeable about the civilizations that produced the mounds and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. At one time, the mound builder was applied to the people believed to have constructed these earthworks. In the 16th through 19th centuries and Americans generally thought that an other than one related to the historic Native Americans had built the mounds. The namesake cultural trait of the Mound Builders was the building of mounds and these burial and ceremonial structures were typically flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, and sometimes a variety of other forms.
They were generally built as part of villages that arose from more dense populations, with a specialization of skills. The early earthworks built in Louisiana c.3500 BCE are the ones known to be built by a hunter-gatherer culture. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at over 100 feet tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. At its peak about 1150 CE, Cahokia was a settlement with 20, 000-30,000 people. Some effigy mounds were constructed in the shapes or outlines of culturally significant animals, the most famous effigy mound, Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, ranges from 1 to just over 3 feet tall. 20 feet wide, over 1,330 feet long, many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures. The general term, mound builder, covered their shared architectural practice of earthwork mound construction and this practice, believed to be associated with a cosmology that had a cross-cultural appeal, may indicate common cultural antecedents.
The first mound building was a marker of political and social complexity among the cultures in the Eastern United States. Watson Brake in Louisiana, constructed about 3500 BCE during the Middle Archaic period, is the oldest dated mound complex in North America and it is one of eleven mound complexes from this period found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. We can conclude that these mound builders were very organized people, hundreds or even thousands of workers had to dig up tons of earth with the hand tools available. Then the dirt had to be moved long distances. The most complete reference for these earthworks is Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written by Ephraim G. Squier and it was published in 1848 by the Smithsonian