Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil. A blade or squeegee is moved across the screen to fill the open mesh apertures with ink, a reverse stroke causes the screen to touch the substrate momentarily along a line of contact; this causes the ink to wet the substrate and be pulled out of the mesh apertures as the screen springs back after the blade has passed. One color is printed at a time, so several screens can be used to produce a multicoloured image or design. There are various terms used for what is the same technique. Traditionally the process was called screen printing or silkscreen printing because silk was used in the process, it is known as serigraphy, serigraph printing. Synthetic threads are used in the screen printing process; the most popular mesh in general use is made of polyester. There are special-use mesh materials of nylon and stainless steel available to the screen printer.
There are different types of mesh size which will determine the outcome and look of the finished design on the material. Screen printing first appeared in a recognizable form in China during the Song Dynasty, it was adapted by other Asian countries like Japan, was furthered by creating newer methods. Screen printing was introduced to Western Europe from Asia sometime in the late 18th century, but did not gain large acceptance or use in Europe until silk mesh was more available for trade from the east and a profitable outlet for the medium discovered. Early in the 1910s, several printers experimenting with photo-reactive chemicals used the well-known actinic light–activated cross linking or hardening traits of potassium, sodium or ammonium chromate and dichromate chemicals with glues and gelatin compounds. Roy Beck, Charles Peter and Edward Owens studied and experimented with chromic acid salt sensitized emulsions for photo-reactive stencils; this trio of developers would prove to revolutionize the commercial screen printing industry by introducing photo-imaged stencils to the industry, though the acceptance of this method would take many years.
Commercial screen printing now uses sensitizers less toxic than bichromates. There are large selections of pre-sensitized and "user mixed" sensitized emulsion chemicals for creating photo-reactive stencils. A group of artists who formed the National Serigraph Society, including WPA artists Max Arthur Cohn and Anthony Velonis, coined the word Serigraphy in the 1930s to differentiate the artistic application of screen printing from the industrial use of the process."Serigraphy" is a compound word formed from Latin "sēricum" and Greek "graphein". The Printers' National Environmental Assistance Center says "Screenprinting is arguably the most versatile of all printing processes. Since rudimentary screenprinting materials are so affordable and available, it has been used in underground settings and subcultures, the non-professional look of such DIY culture screenprints have become a significant cultural aesthetic seen on movie posters, record album covers, shirts, commercial fonts in advertising, in artwork and elsewhere.
Credit is given to the artist Andy Warhol for popularising screen printing as an artistic technique. Warhol's silk screens include his 1962 Marilyn Diptych, a portrait of the actress Marilyn Monroe printed in bold colours. Warhol was supported in his production by master screen printer Michel Caza, a founding member of Fespa. Sister Mary Corita Kent, gained international fame for her vibrant serigraphs during the 1960s and 1970s, her works were rainbow colored, contained words that were both political and fostered peace and love and caring. American entrepreneur and inventor Michael Vasilantone started to use and sell a rotatable multicolour garment screen printing machine in 1960. Vasilantone filed for patent on his invention in 1967 granted number 3,427,964 on February 18, 1969; the original machine was manufactured to print logos and team information on bowling garments but soon directed to the new fad of printing on T-shirts. The Vasilantone patent was licensed by multiple manufacturers, the resulting production and boom in printed T-shirts made this garment screen printing machine popular.
Screen printing on garments accounts for over half of the screen printing activity in the United States. Graphic screenprinting is used today to create mass or large batch produced graphics, such as posters or display stands. Full colour prints can be created by printing in CMYK. Screen printing lends itself well to printing on canvas. Andy Warhol, Arthur Okamura, Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, Harry Gottlieb and many other artists have used screen printing as an expression of creativity and artistic vision. Another variation, digital hybrid screen printing is a union between analog screen printing and traditional digital direct to garment printing, two of the most common textile embellishment technologies in use today. Digital hybrid screen printing is an automatic screen-printing press with a CMYK digital enhancement located on one of the screen print stations. Digital hybrid screen printing is capable of variable data options, creating endless customizations, with the added ability of screen print specific techniques.
A screen is made of a piece of mesh stretched over a frame. The mesh could be made of a synthetic polymer, such as nylon, a finer and smaller aperture for the mesh would be utilized for a design that requires a higher and more delicate degree of detail. For the mesh to be effective, it must be mounted on a frame and it must be unde
Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003. The Shenzhou spacecraft was launched on a Long March 2F launch vehicle. There had been four previous flights of unmanned Shenzhou missions since 1999. China became the third country in the world to have independent human spaceflight capability after the Soviet Union and the United States. Mass: 7,790 kg Perigee: 332 km Apogee: 336 km Inclination: 42.4° Period: 91.2 minutes NSSDC ID: 2003-045A The launch was heralded in the official Chinese state media with newspapers devoting far more space to the launch than any recent event. While the Chinese media portrayed the launch as a triumph for Chinese science and technology and a milestone for Chinese nationalism, it has been pointed out in both Chinese and Western media that Yang Liwei showed the flag of the United Nations in addition to the flag of the People's Republic of China; the state media reported that crop seeds from Taiwan were brought aboard the spacecraft.
General Secretary and President Hu Jintao, in an official celebration at the Great Hall of the People, hailed China's success in launching its first manned spacecraft into orbit, describing it as "an honor for our great motherland, an indicator for the initial victory of the country's first manned space flight and for an historic step taken by the Chinese people in their endeavor to surmount the peak of the world's science and technology."Hu added, "the Party and the people will never forget those who have set up this outstanding merit in the space industry for the motherland, the people and the nation." He expressed congratulations and respect to specialists and people who have contributed to China's space mission development on behalf of the CPC Central Committee, the State Council and the Central Military Commission. The launch was met with praise from around the world. For example, Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi called the launch "a great feat". United States President George W. Bush congratulated Chinese President Hu and wished China continued success.
U. S. State Department spokesman said that the United States wished to "applaud China's success in becoming only the third country to launch people into space". NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe called Shenzhou 5 an "important achievement in human exploration" and wished China "a continued safe human space flight program."The spacecraft has since featured prominently in festivities and celebrations not only in China but in foreign countries, such as official North Korean commemorative stamps showing the first Chinese manned spacecraft alongside the DPRK's first satellite Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1. Chinese space program Tiangong program Shenzhou spacecraft Long March rocket Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center Media related to Shenzhou-5 at Wikimedia Commons http://space.com/missionlaunches/ https://web.archive.org/web/20030921102715/http://www.astronautix.com/articles/couzhou5.htm Spacefacts data about Shenzhou 5
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Kapustin Yar is a Russian rocket launch and development site in Astrakhan Oblast, between Volgograd and Astrakhan. It was established by the Soviet Union on 13 May 1946 and in the beginning used technology and scientific support from defeated Germany. Numerous launches of test rockets for the Russian military were carried out at the site, as well as satellite and sounding rocket launches; the town of Znamensk and Kapustin Yar was built nearby to serve the missile test range. The 4th Missile Test Range "Kapustin Yar" was established by a decree of the Soviet Government "On Questions of Jet Propelled Weapons" on 13 May 1946; the test range was created under the supervision of General-lieutenant Vasily Voznyuk in the desert north end of the Astrakhan region. The first rocket was launched from the site on 18 October 1947; the State R&D Test Range No 8 was established at Kapustin Yar in June 1951. Five atmospheric nuclear tests of small power were performed over the site in 1957-1961; as of 1959 Kapustin Yar was the only publicly known Soviet missile test range.
Non-Soviet observers believed at first that 2 launched from the site. With the further growth and development, Kapustin Yar became a cosmodrome, serving in this function since 1966; the rate of space launches was low 1-2 a year and during the Soviet era, it hosted only the two smallest launch vehicles, the R-12 and R-14 derived Kosmos boosters. There were no space launches at all from 1988-1998; the town of Znamensk was established to support the scientists working on the facilities, their families and supporting personnel. This was a secret city, not shown on maps and requiring official permission to visit. Evidence of the importance of Kapustin Yar was obtained by Western intelligence through debriefing of returning German scientists and spy flights; the first such flight took place in mid-1953 using a high flying Canberra aircraft of the RAF. The UK Government has never admitted such a flight took place nor have any of the supposed participants provided direct evidenceDue to its role as a development site for new technology, Kapustin Yar is the site of numerous Soviet-era UFO sightings and has been called "Russia's Roswell".
June 3, 1947 Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU No. 2642–817 Kapustin Yar was designated as the location of the new rocket test site, Major General V. I. Voznyuk, the chief of staff of the GPC, a colonel A. G. Karas; the first officers arrived at the future training ground on August 20, 1947. In September 1947, a special brigade of the Reserve of the Supreme Main Command, Major General of Artillery, arrived from Germany A. F. Tveretsky two special trains with equipment taken from Germany. By the beginning of October 1947, in addition to the concrete test stand and bunker, at the 1st site, a launch site with a bunker, a temporary technical position, an installation building were built. Housing construction at the site was not conducted until 1948, builders and testers lived in tent x, dugout x, temporary buildings, lived in peasant izba x village Kapustin Yar. Guide landfill lived in special train. By October 1, 1947, VV Voznyuk reported to the leadership about the readiness of the launch site for launching rockets, on October 14, 1947, the first batch of missiles V-2 arrived at the test site.
On October 18, 1947 at 10:47 Moscow time, the first launch of ballistic missile in the USSR was made. In the period from October 18 to November 13, 1947, 11 V-2 rockets were launched, of which 9 reached the target and 2 crashed. From 1947 to 1957, Kapustin Yar was the only place to test Soviet ballistic missiles. On the test site were tested missiles R-2, R-5, R-12, R-14, etc.. On September 2, 1959, a missile, for the first time in the world, was launched from a missile silo. In 1957-1959, intercontinental cruise missile "Burya" started at the Kapustin Yar proving ground. On May 20, 1960, the Training Center of the Rocket Forces of the Ground Forces was established on the territory of the State Landfill, whose task was to create combat coherence of missile Parts created and retrain rocket specialists, create regulatory documents for all-round missile combat activities parts of the Ground Forces. On March 16, 1962, Kapustin Yar became cosmodrome: Cosmos-1 satellite was launched ”. Subsequently, small research satellites were launched from the Kapustin Yar cosmodrome, to launch which were used launch vehicle of the light class of the series Cosmos ”.
In subsequent years, a large number of various short- and medium-range missiles, cruise missiles and air defense missiles were tested and tested at the test site. According to open data, since the 1950s, at least 11 have been conducted at the Kapustin Yar test site nuclear explosions, the total capacity of, 65 atomic bombs, dropped on Hiroshima. In addition to nuclear tests, 24 thousand guided missiles were blown up in Kapustin Yar, 177 samples of military equipment were tested, 619 missiles were destroyed RSD-10. In 1994, the 4 GPC Russian Ministry of Defense entered the test site Air Defense Forces. In October 1998, the 4th State Central Polygon was transformed into the 4th State Central Interspecific Polygon. In 1998, the “Sary-Shagan” test site
The TKS spacecraft was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station. The spacecraft was designed for both crewed and autonomous uncrewed cargo resupply flights, but was never used operationally in its intended role – only four test missions were flown during the program; the Functional Cargo Block of the TKS spacecraft formed the basis of several space station modules, including the Zarya FGB module on the International Space Station. The TKS spacecraft consisted of two spacecraft mated together, both of which could operate independently: The VA spacecraft, which would have housed the cosmonauts during launch and reentry of a TKS spacecraft, while traveling to and from an Almaz space station, and the Functional Cargo Block which, in order to resupply an Almaz space station, carried docking hardware, a large pressurized cargo compartment. Furthermore, the FGB carried the on-orbit maneuvering engines for the TKS. While the VA carried the reentry hardware, only minimal life support and maneuvering systems, the FGB would have been used as the primary orbital maneuvering system and cargo storage for the TKS spacecraft.
The FGB could be used alone as an unmanned cargo module without a VA spacecraft, which enabled the FGB design to be re-purposed as FGB space station modules on. The VA spacecraft, on the other hand, was intended to be launched as "Almaz APOS", mated with an Almaz-OPS space station core as the primary orbital maneuvering system, instead of an FGB. In the 2010s, Excalibur Almaz planned to use old VA capsules as low-cost cargo return vehicles. However, the company sold much of their equipment and announced that the remainder was to become an educational exhibit; the TKS spacecraft was designed by Vladimir Chelomei and V. N. Bugayskiy as a manned spacecraft launched with Proton rocket alternative to the Soyuz spacecraft for use with Almaz space stations. Development began in 1965; the VA spacecraft was flown separately on four test missions with two craft per launch to test the design, as well as one "all-up" test mission and three resupply missions. The project had further evolved with space station "Modulny" based on the TKS design outline, reworked to dock with Salyut 7, Mir and ISS space stations.
This development was designated Functional Cargo Block. The TKS spacecraft consisted of an 11F74 "Vozvraschaemyi Apparat", attached to an 11F77 "Transportniy Korabl Snabzheniya"; the TKS VA spacecraft was itself a compact and efficient spacecraft. It would reenter the atmosphere within 2 orbits, but could fly autonomously for up to 31 hours; the pressurized crew re-entry capsule was equipped with its own environmental control system, topped with reaction control system, de-orbit braking engine, parachute system, soft landing engines. Although extensively flight tested, it never flew with a crew on board; the VA design was derived from the planned capsule for the Chelomei's LK-1 manned circumlunar spacecraft of the 1960s. It was the basis for Chelomei's LK-700 Lunar Lander crew capsule; the VA was 30 % smaller than its NASA counterpart. The FGB was entered from the VA spacecraft via a short tunnel. At the aft end a pilot station was equipped with controls and windows for manual docking with the Almaz space station.
The docking port was located here. Operational TKS spacecraft would have delivered KSI film return capsules to Almaz stations; these would have been stored around the docking port for transfer to the film capsule airlock for loading. Four flights with eight VA spacecraft without an FGB module were conducted to speed up the development of the TKS spacecraft: Orbital test of a pair of two VA spacecraft Kosmos 881 and Kosmos 882 in 1976-12-15 that started jointly and reentered on the same day. VA #009L/P and VA #009P/P: Launched on 1977-08-04. Launch vehicle failure forty seconds into the flight on a suborbital test of two VA spacecraft. VA #009L/P is destroyed in the resulting booster explosion, VA #009P/P is rescued by the Proton SAS abort system and is recovered safely. On 1978-03-30 pair of two VA spacecraft Kosmos 997 and Kosmos 998 started jointly and reentered separately On 1979-05-23 pair of two VA spacecraft Kosmos 1100 and Kosmos 1101 that started jointly and reentered separately Kosmos 929 was the first flight of a "complete" TKS spacecraft, launched on 17 July 1977 – it was a "solo" test flight and was not destined for a Salyut space station.
The VA capsule returned to Earth 16 August 1977. The remainder of the spacecraft – the FGB – deorbited on 2 February 1978. On 25 April 1981, TKS-2 was launched unmanned as Kosmos 1267, the first FGB to dock with a space station. After separation and recovery of the VA capsule on 24 May 1981, the FGB docked on 19 June with Salyut 6, after 57 days of autonomous flight, it remained attached to the station until both deorbited and were destroyed on 29 July 1982. On 2 March 1983, TKS-3 was launched unmanned as Kosmos 1443; this time, the VA remained attached and the first "complete" TKS docked to Salyut 7 two days after launch. TKS-3 separated from the station on 14 August. After undocking, the FGB and the VA spacecraft separated and the VA spacecraft continued in space for four more days demonstrating autonomous flight, before
The Buran programme known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme", was a Soviet and Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993. In addition to being the designation for the whole Soviet/Russian reusable spacecraft project, Buran was the name given to Orbiter K1, which completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988 and was the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space; the Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket as a launch vehicle. They are treated as a Soviet equivalent of the United States' Space Shuttle, but in the Buran project, only the airplane-shaped orbiter itself was theoretically reusable. While Orbiter K1 was recovered after its first orbital flight in 1988, it was never reused; the Buran programme was started by the Soviet Union as a response to the United States Space Shuttle program. The project was the most expensive in the history of Soviet space exploration.
Development work included sending BOR-5 test vehicles on multiple sub-orbital test flights, atmospheric flights of the OK-GLI aerodynamic prototype. Buran completed one unmanned orbital spaceflight in 1988 before its cancellation in 1993. Orbiter K1, which flew the test flight in 1988 was crushed in a hangar collapse on 12 May 2002 in Kazakhstan; the OK-GLI resides in Technikmuseum Speyer. Although the Buran class was similar in appearance to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter, could operate as a re-entry spaceplane, its internal and functional design was distinct. For example, the main engines during launch were on the Energia rocket and were not taken into orbit by the spacecraft. Smaller rocket engines on the craft's body provided propulsion in orbit and de-orbital burns; the Buran orbital vehicle programme was developed in response to the U. S. Space Shuttle programme, which in the 1980s raised considerable concerns among the Soviet military and Defense Minister Dmitry Ustinov. An authoritative chronicler of the Soviet and Russian space programmes, the academic Boris Chertok, recounts how the programme came into being.
According to Chertok, after the U. S. developed its Space Shuttle programme, the Soviet military became suspicious that it could be used for military purposes, due to its enormous payload, several times that of previous U. S. launch vehicles. The Soviet government asked the TsNIIMash for an expert opinion. Institute director, Yuri Mozzhorin, recalls that for a long time the institute could not envisage a civilian payload large enough to require a vehicle of that capacity; the Buran orbital vehicle was designed for the delivery to orbit and return to Earth of spacecraft and supplies. Both Chertok and Gleb Lozino-Lozinskiy suggest that from the beginning, the programme was military in nature. Commenting on the discontinuation of the programme in his interview to New Scientist, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov confirms their accounts: We had no civilian tasks for Buran and the military ones were no longer needed, it was designed as a military system for weapon delivery, maybe nuclear weapons. The American shuttle has military uses.
Like its American counterpart, the Buran orbital vehicle, when in transit from its landing sites back to the launch complex, was transported on the back of a large jet aeroplane — the Antonov An-225 Mriya transport aircraft, designed in part for this task and remains the largest aircraft in the world to fly multiple times. Before the Mriya was ready, the Myasishchev VM-T Atlant, a variant on the Soviet Myasishchev M-4 Molot bomber, fulfilled the same role; the Soviet reusable space-craft programme has its roots in the beginning of the space age, the late 1950s. The idea of Soviet reusable space flight is old, though it was neither continuous, nor organized. Before Buran, no project of the programme reached production; the idea saw its first iteration in the Burya high-altitude jet aircraft, which reached the prototype stage. Several test flights are known; the Burya had the goal of delivering a nuclear payload to the United States, returning to base. The cancellation was based on a final decision to develop ICBMs.
The next iteration of the idea was Zvezda from the early 1960s, which reached a prototype stage. Decades another project with the same name was used as a service module for the International Space Station. After Zvezda, there was a hiatus in reusable projects until Buran; the development of the Buran began in the early 1970s as a response to the U. S. Space Shuttle program. Soviet officials were concerned about a perceived military threat posed by the U. S. Space Shuttle. In their opinion, the Shuttle's 30-ton payload-to-orbit capacity and, more its 15-ton payload return capacity, were a clear indication that one of its main objectives would be to place massive experimental laser weapons into orbit that could destroy enemy missiles from a distance of several thousands of kilometers, their reasoning was that such weapons could only be tested in actual space conditions and that to cut their development time and save costs it would be necessary to bring them back to Earth for modifications and fine-tuning.
Soviet officials were concerned that the U. S. Sp
The Vostochny Cosmodrome is a Russian spaceport under construction on the 51st parallel north in the Amur Oblast, in the Russian Far East. It is intended to reduce Russia's dependency on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan; the first launch took place on 28 April 2016 at 02:01 UTC. As of December 2018, four launch attempts have been made with three successes. Vostochny is in the Svobodny and Shimanovsk districts of Amur Oblast in the Russian Far East, on the watershed of the Zeya and Bolshaya Pyora rivers 600–800 km from the Pacific Ocean, depending on launch azimuth; the planned total area is 551.5 km2, being a region 30 km in diameter centred on 51.884395°N 128.333932°E / 51.884395. The nearby train station is Ledyanaya and the nearest city is Tsiolkovsky; the cosmodrome's latitude, 51° north, means that rockets will be able to carry the same amount of payload as they can when launched from Baikonur at 46°N. Other arguments for choosing this location include the ability to use sparsely populated areas and bodies of water for the rocket launch routes.
The site's location in the Russian far eastern region allows for easier transport of materials to the site, allows rockets to jettison their lower stages over the ocean. It was expanded as part of the plan of modernization of the supporting infrastructure. Putin said that among places offered was an area on the shore of the Pacific Ocean, near Vladivostok, but that experts recommended not to locate it there since the proximity to the ocean can create problems and delays in launches, as a result the current place was chosen. Russian president Vladimir Putin made several statements emphasizing the importance of the new cosmodrome. In August 2010, he said, "The creation of a new space center... is one of modern Russia's biggest and most ambitious projects". In January 2011, he ordered the government to complete the paperwork as soon as possible so that construction can start on schedule; the general designer of the cosmodrome is Ipromashprom. The main contractor is the Federal Agency for Special Construction.
Construction of the cosmodrome began in January 2011 and, as of 2011, was expected to be completed in 2018. During a visit to the site in July 2011, the newly appointed chief of Roscosmos, Vladimir Popovkin, promised 20 billion rubles for Vostochny during 2012. A month the head of Spetstroy, Grigory Naginsky told the press that the first blueprints for the center went through the project expertise and the first contract worth 1.6 billion rubles was signed with Roscosmos, covering the construction of the railway line and the road. Naginsky promised the completion of the initial makeshift housing for construction workers at the site by 1 October 2011. Although the Angara pad at Vostochny had been planned for completion in 2018, as part of the second phase of the construction of the new launch center, Dmitry Rogozin announced in January 2013 that Angara would fly from Vostochny earlier, in 2015. In the event, Roscosmos announced in November 2014 a postponement, that the first unmanned test mission of Angara would not launch until 2021.
Over 100 construction workers went on strike to protest about unpaid wages in March and April 2015. Following corruption allegations and findings by the Russian Prosecutor General's Office that "a number of labor laws have been violated during the construction. Taking personal control of the cosmodrome's construction."In June 2015, the installation of the support equipment, assembly of the first floor of the command post of the Vostochny Cosmodrome have been handed over to specialists of the Centre for Operation of Space Ground-Based Infrastructure. In October 2015, it was announced that parts of the assembly complex for the Soyuz-2 rocket were designed for a different variant of the rocket and are too small, so that the planned launch date of the first Soyuz-2 from Vostochny Cosmodrome in December 2015 was under question. A spokesperson for a Russian government space infrastructure agency reported that "Work with the rocket at the integration and testing complex now can not be conducted because the facility is not ready", added that "there are still imperfections in the construction".
However this information was disproved by the cosmodrome's operation centre and the rocket was set into the facility. Early plans project. On 1 September 2009, Medvedev signed Presidential decree №562 declaring Spetstroy is the sole contractor of the construction of the cosmodrome. Construction began in January 2011 and is expected to be completed by 2018; the first launch took place on 28 April 2016. Russian engineers are looking to apply the knowledge gained from building the Soyuz launch facilities in Kourou spaceport and the Angara pad at Naro Space Center in South Korea; as a cost-saving measure, no defensive military structures like those at Baikonur cosmodrome will be built at Vostochny. More than 400 social and transport infrastructure facilities, 115 km of roads and 125 km of railroads are projected to be built at the cosmodrome. In December 2011, ARMS-TASS reported with reference to the director of Federal Special Construction Agency, Grigory Naginsky that the hotels and barracks were being constructed within the infrastructure of Vostochny Cosmodro