Anishinabek Educational Institute
Anishinabek Educational Institute is an Aboriginal-owned and controlled post-secondary institution in Canada. Aboriginal institutes partner with colleges and universities to offer students degree programs, certificate programs and diploma programs. AEI was founded to provide greater access to post-secondary education for Aboriginal peoples. AEI delivers post-secondary programs approved by the Ministry of Training and Universities; the educational curriculum was adapted to meet the needs of Aboriginal learners to ensure it reflects community needs, cultural heritage and identity. The AEI main office is located on the Nipissing First Nation, its satellite campuses are on Fort William First Nation and Munsee-Delaware First Nation; the Main Campus is 1 Migiizi Miikan in North Bay. The Munsee-Delaware Campus is located 533 Thomigo Road in Muncey; the Fort William Campus is located in Suite A in Fort William First Nation. In June 1993, The Union of Ontario Indians, at the Anishinabek Grand Council on the Chippewa's of Kettle & Stony Point First Nation, the Chiefs in Assembly directed the Union of Ontario Indians Education Directorate to develop a model of an Anishinabek post-secondary institution.
The model includes provisions for a community-based delivery system. In June 1994, the Chiefs at the Anishinabek Grand Council on the Rocky Bay First Nation, directed that, the Education Directorate formally establish the Anishinabek Educational Institute in accordance with the model, submitted and ratified; the Anishinabek Educational Institute is mandated by the Anishinabek General Assembly, to provide quality education and training programs for First Nation Anishinabek communities. AEI offers university programs through agreements with public colleges and universities. AEI's mission is: to provide a comfortable, supportive learning environment that promotes the traditional values of sharing and respect. To provide community-based programming which will better prepare the student success in an ever-changing world. To remain by and for Anishnabek People. AEI offers courses of study in partnership with all levels of government. Business Diploma Native Early Childhood Education First Nation Child Welfare Advocate Certificate Native Community Worker - Traditional Aboriginal Healing Methods Diploma Pre Health Sciences Certificate Social Service Worker Diploma Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Certificate Native Community Worker - Traditional Registered Practical Nursing Diploma The Government of Canada sponsors an Aboriginal Bursaries Search Tool that lists over 680 scholarships and other incentives offered by governments and industry to support Aboriginal post-secondary participation.
Official website Adult Learner Friendly Institutions Canada Anishinabek Nation - Union of Ontario Indians Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council
Mississauga First Nation
Mississauga First Nation is one of the six First Nations that make up the Mississauga Nations. It is located directly west of Blind River, Canada, on the Mississagi River 8 Reserve; the word Mississauga is an anglicized version of the Ojibwe word Misswezahging, which means ‘a river with many outlets.’ This name comes from the Mississaugi River, a bird-foot delta, a haven for fish and waterfowl and is a jointly managed Provincial Park. The Smoke Signal, Mississaugi First Nation News "Mississisauga", Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Wyandot people or Wendat called the Huron Nation and Huron people, are an Iroquoian-speaking peoples of North America who emerged as a tribe around the north shore of Lake Ontario. They traditionally spoke the Wyandot language, a Northern Iroquoian language, were believed to number over 30,000 at the time of European encounter in the second decade of the 17th century. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandot had settled in the large area from the north shores of most of present-day Lake Ontario, northwards up to Georgian Bay. From this homeland, they encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615; the historical Wyandot emerged in the late 17th century from the remnants of two earlier groups: the Wyandot Confederacy and the Tionontati. They were located in the southern part of what is now the Canadian province of Ontario around Georgian Bay. Drastically reduced in number by epidemic diseases after 1634, they were dispersed by war in 1649 from the Iroquois based in New York.
Today the Wyandot have a First Nations reserve in Canada. They have three major settlements in the United States, two of which are organized as independently governed, federally recognized tribes. Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages; the Huron Range spanned the region from downriver of the source of the St. Lawrence River, along three-quarters of the northern shore of Lake Ontario, to the territory of the related Neutral people, extending north from both ends to wrap around Georgian Bay—which became their territorial center after their 1649 defeat and dispossession. Early theories placed Huron origin in the St. Lawrence Valley, with some arguing for a presence near present-day Montreal and former sites of the historic St. Lawrence Iroquoian peoples. Wendat is an Iroquoian language. Early 21st-century research in linguistics and archaeology confirm an historical connection between the Huron and the St. Lawrence Iroquois, but all of the Iroquoian-speaking peoples shared some aspects of their culture, including the Erie people, any or all of the Six Nations of the Iroquois, or the defunct Susquehannock tribe.
In 1975 and 1978, archeologists excavated a large 15th-century Huron village, now called the Draper Site, in Pickering, Ontario near Lake Ontario. In 2003 a larger village was discovered five kilometres away in Whitchurch-Stouffville; the sites each had been surrounded by a palisade. The Mantle Site had more than 70 multi-family longhouses. Canadian archeologist James F. Pendergast states: Indeed, there is now every indication that the late precontact Huron and their immediate antecedents developed in a distinct Huron homeland in southern Ontario along the north shore of Lake Ontario. Subsequently they moved from there to their historic territory on Georgian Bay, where they were encountered by Champlain in 1615. In the early 17th century, this Iroquoian people called themselves the Wendat, an autonym which means "Dwellers of the Peninsula" or "Islanders"; the Wendat historic territory was bordered on three sides by the waters of Georgian Bay and Lake Simcoe. Early French explorers referred to these natives as the Huron, either from the French huron, or from hure.
According to tradition, French sailors thought that the bristly hairstyle of Wendat warriors resembled that of a boar. French fur traders and explorers called them the "bon Iroquois". An alternate etymology from Russell Errett in 1885 is that the name is from the Iroquoian name Irri-ronon, a name applied to the Erie nation, they pronounced the name as Hirri-ronon in French, known as Hirr-on, spelled in its present form, Huron. William Martin Beauchamp concurred in 1907 that Huron was at least related to the Iroqouian root ronon. Other etymological possibilities come from the Algonquin words tu-ron; the Wendat were not a tribe, but a confederacy of four or more tribes who had mutually intelligible languages. According to tradition, this Wendat Confederacy was initiated by the Attignawantans and the Attigneenongnahacs, who made their alliance in the 15th century, they were joined by the Arendarhonons about 1590, the Tahontaenrats around 1610. A fifth group, the Ataronchronons, may not have attained full membership in the confederacy, may have been a division of the Attignawantan.
The largest Wendat settlement, capital of the confederacy, was located at Ossossane. Modern-day Elmvale, Ontario developed near that site, they called their traditional territory Wendake. Related to the people of the Huron Confederacy were the Tionontate, a group whom the French called the Petun, for their cultivation of that crop, they were divided into two groups: the Deer and the Wolves. Considering that they formed the nucleus of the tribe known as the Wyandot, they too may have called themselves Wendat. Tuberculosis was endemic among the Huron, aggravated by the close and smoky living conditions in the longhouses. Despite this, the Huron on the whole were healthy; the earliest written accounts of the Huron were made by the French, who began exploring North America in the 16th century. News of the Europeans reached the Huron when Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River in the early 17th century; some Hur
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Manitou, akin to the Iroquois orenda, is the spiritual and fundamental life force among Algonquian groups in the Native American mythology. It is omnipresent and manifests everywhere: organisms, the environment, etc. Aashaa monetoo means "good spirit", while otshee monetoo means "bad spirit." When the world was created, the Great Spirit, Aasha Monetoo, gave the land to the indigenous peoples, the Shawnee in particular. The term manitou was in widespread use at the time of early European contact. In 1585, when Thomas Harriot recorded the first glossary of an Algonquian language, Roanoke, he included the word mantóac, meaning "gods". Similar terms are found in nearly all of the Algonquian languages. In some Algonquian traditions, Gitche Manitou refers to supreme being; the term has analogues dating to before European contact, the word uses of gitche and manitou themselves existed prior to contact. After contact, Gitche Manitou was adopted by some Anishinaabe Christian groups, such as the Ojibwe, to refer to the monotheistic God of Abrahamic tradition due to missionary syncretism.
Algonquian religion acknowledges shamans, or medicine men, who used manitou to see the future, change the weather, heal illness. Ojibwe shamans were healers who used their spiritual connection to cure patients, since illness was believed to be caused by magic and spirits. To communicate with spirits and manipulate manitou, a shaman would enter a trance, induced by singing, drum beats, or the use of hallucinogens. Non-shamans could interact with spirits by embarking upon a "vision quest," by means of prayer, hallucinogens, and/or removing themselves from the society of others. A person who underwent vision quests would be visited by an "animal, voice, or object," which would become his guardian spirit. In shamanistic tradition, manitous are connected to achieve a desired effect. In the Anishinaabeg tradition, manidoowag are one aspect of the Great Connection; the Anishinaabeg use the term manidoowish to speak of small animal manidoowag, manidoons to speak of insect manidoowag. Both manidoowish and manidoons mean "little spirit."
Manitou has made its way into the names of several places in North America. The name of Lake Manitoba derives from the area called manitou-wapow, or "strait of the Manitou" in Cree or Ojibwe, referring to the strange sound of waves crashing against rocks near the Narrows of the lake. Manitoba is home to Whiteshell Provincial Park’s petroforms, symbols made from rocks, which serve as reminders of the instructions given to the Anishinaabe by the Creator; the Anishinaabe Midewiwin, or Grand Medicine Society, considers the area containing the petroforms to be Manito Ahbee, the place where God sits. It is the site. Manitoulin Island, called mnidoo mnis, or "island of the Great Spirit," by the Odawa, is important to the Ojibwe, or Anishinaabe, because of its many sacred sites and sounding rocks. Native peoples continue to dwell on the island, host to several reserves; the Fox Indians, or Meskwaki, believed. When the lodge stove was lit and water was sprinkled on the stones, manitou left those stones in the steam from the evaporating water and entered the body of the person in the lodge.
Manitou migrated throughout the person’s body, driving out everything that inflicted pain. Before the manitou returned to the stone, it imparted some of its nature to the body, according to the Fox Indians, was why one felt so well after having been in the sweat lodge. In Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, the Manitou Islands and the water body between them and the mainland, the Maintou Passage.
A lingua franca known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect when it is a third language, distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons but for cultural, religious and administrative convenience, as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities; the term is taken from the medieval Mediterranean Lingua Franca, a Romance-based pidgin language used as a lingua franca in the Mediterranean Basin from the 11th to the 19th century. A world language – a language spoken internationally and learned and spoken by a large number of people – is a language that may function as a global lingua franca. Lingua Franca refers to any language used for communication between people who do not share a native language.
It can refer to hybrid languages such as pidgins and creoles used for communication between language groups. It can refer to languages which are native to one nation but used as a second language for communication between groups. Lingua Franca is a functional term, independent of any linguistic language structure. Whereas a vernacular language is the native language of a specific geographical community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, for trade, political or academic reasons. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines. Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Portuguese and Russian, serve a similar purpose as industrial/educational lingua francas, across regional and national boundaries. International auxiliary languages created with the purpose of being lingua francas such as Esperanto and Lingua Franca Nova have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas.
The term lingua franca derives from Mediterranean Lingua Franca, the language that people around the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean Sea used as the main language of commerce and diplomacy from late medieval times during the Renaissance era, to the 18th century. At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be used as the "lingua franca" of the region. In Lingua Franca, lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is "Frankish", but the name applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire; the Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca was first recorded in English during the 1670s, although an earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from 1632, where it is referred to as "Bastard Spanish".
As as the late 20th century, some restricted the use of the generic term to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language. The term is well established in its naturalization to English, why major dictionaries do not italicize it as a "foreign" term, its plurals in English are lingua francas and linguae francae, with the first of those being first-listed or only-listed in major dictionaries. The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity. Latin and Koine Greek were the lingua francas of the Hellenistic culture. Akkadian and Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. In certain countries, the lingua franca is the national language. Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – has the same function in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is spoken throughout the country. Persian is both the lingua franca of Iran and its national language.
The Hindustani language is the lingua franca of Northern India. Many Indian states have adopted the Three-language formula in which students in Hindi speaking states are taught: " Hindi; the order in non-Hindi speaking states is: " the regional language. Hindi has emerged as a lingua franca for the locals of Arunachal Pradesh, a linguistically diverse state in Northeast India, it is estimated. The only documented sign language used as a lingua franca is Plains Indian Sign Language, used across much of North America, it was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Alongside or a derivation of Plains Indian Sign Language was Plateau Sign Language, now extinct. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research
The Midewiwin or the Grand Medicine Society is a secretive religion of some of the indigenous peoples of the Maritimes, New England and Great Lakes regions in North America. Its practitioners are called Midew, the practices of Midewiwin are referred to as Mide. Male Midew are called Midewinini, sometimes translated into English as "medicine man"; the preverb mide can be translated as "mystery," "mysterious," "spiritual," "sanctified," "sacred," or "ceremonial", depending on the context of its use. The derived verb midewi, thus means "be in/of mide." The derived noun midewiwin means "state of being in midewi." Mide is translated into English as "medicine" though mide conveys the idea of a spiritual medicine, opposed to mashkiki that conveys the idea of a physical medicine. A practitioner of Midewiwin is called a midew, which can be rendered as mide'o... both forms of the word derived from the verb midewi, or as a medewid, a gerund form of midewi. A male practitioner is called a midewinini and a female practitioner a midewikwe.
Due to the body-part medial de' meaning "heart" in the Anishinaabe language, "Midewiwin" is sometimes translated as "The Way of the Heart." Blessing shares a definition he received from Thomas Shingobe, a "Mida" of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in 1969, who told him that "the only thing that would be acceptable in any way as an interpretation of'Mide' would be'Spiritual Mystery'." However, fluent speakers of Anishinaabemowin caution that there are many words and concepts that have no direct translation to English. According to historian Michael Angel, the Midewiwin is a "flexible, tenacious tradition that provided an institutional setting for the teaching of the world view of the Ojibwa people". Among the Anishinaabeg, Midewiwin is ascribed to Wenaboozho as its founder. However, among the Abenakis, Midewiwin is ascribed to Mateguas, who upon his death and needing to comfort his brother, still alive, bestowed the Midewiwin to his grieving brother Gluskab. However, Hoffman records that according to the Mille Lacs Indians chief Bayezhig, Midewiwin has its origin as: "In the beginning, Midemanidoo made the midemanidoowag.
He first created two men, two women. Midemanidoo made them rational beings, he took them in his hands. When there were people he placed them upon the earth, but he soon observed that they were subject to sickness and death, that unless he provided them with the Sacred Medicine they would soon become extinct."Between the position occupied by Gichi Manidoo and the earth were four lesser manidoog with whom Gichi Manidoo decided to commune, to impart to them the mysteries by which the Anishinaabeg could be benefited. So he first spoke to a manidoo and told him all he had to say, who in turn communicated the same information to the next, he in turn to next, who communed with the next, they all met in council, determined to call in the four wind manidoog. After consulting as to what would be best for the comfort and welfare of the Anishinaabeg, these manidoog agreed to ask Gichi Manidoo to communicate the Mystery of the Sacred Medicine to the people."Gichi Manidoo went to the Sun Spirit and asked him to go to the earth and instruct the people as had been decided upon by the council.
The Sun Spirit, in the form of a little boy, went to the earth and lived with a woman who had a little boy of her own."This family went away in the autumn to hunt, during the winter this woman’s son died. The parents were so much distressed that they decided to return to the village and bury the body there; when the dead boy was thus hanging upon the poles, the adopted child—who was the Sun Spirit—would play about the camp and amuse himself, told his adopted father he pitied him, his mother, for their sorrow. The adopted son said he could bring his dead brother to life, whereupon the parents expressed great surprise and desired to know how that could be accomplished."The adopted boy had the party hasten to the village, when he said, “Get the women to make a wiigiwaam of bark, put the dead boy in a covering of wiigwaas and place the body on the ground in the middle of the wiigiwaam.” On the next morning after this had been done, the family and friends went into this lodge and seated themselves around the corpse."When they had all been sitting for some time, they saw through the doorway the approach of a bear, which came towards the wiigiwaam, entered it, placed itself before the dead body and said, “ho, ho, ho, ho,” when he passed around it towards the left side, with a trembling motion, as he did so, the body began quivering, the quivering increased as the bear continued until he had passed around four times, when the body came to life again and stood up.
The bear called to the father, sitting in the distant right-hand corner of the wiigiwaam, addressed to him the following words:"The little bear boy was the one who did this. He remained among the Anishinaabeg and taught them the mysteries of the Midewiwin. H