Six Nations of the Grand River
Six Nations is the largest First Nations reserve in Canada. As of the end of 2017, it has a total of 27,276 members, it is the only reserve in North America that has representatives of all six Iroquois nations living together. These nations are the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida and Tuscarora; some Lenape live in the territory. The Six Nations reserve is bordered by the County of Brant, Norfolk County, Haldimand County, with a subsection reservation, the New Credit Reserve, located within its boundaries; the acreage at present covers some 46,000 acres near the city of Ontario. This represents 5% of the original 950,000 acres of land granted to the Six Nations by the 1784 Haldimand Treaty. Many of the Iroquois people allied with the British during the American Revolutionary War warriors from the Mohawk, Cayuga and Seneca nations; some warriors of the Oneida and Tuscarora allied with them, as warfare was decentralized. These nations had longstanding trade relations with the British and hoped they might stop European-American encroachment on their territories.
These allies were from the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. After the colonists' victory, the British government ceded all of its territory in the colonies to their new government under a peace treaty, including that belonging to the Six Nations: without consulting them or making them party to treaty negotiations; the Crown worked to resettle native Loyalists in Canada and provide some compensation for lands lost in the new United States. The Crown hoped to use these new settlers, both Native Americans and European Americans, to develop agriculture and towns in areas west of Quebec, the territory known as Upper Canada; the new lands granted to Six Nations reserves were all near important Canadian military targets and placed along the border to prevent any American invasion. The growth of the Six Nations community was hampered. Land in the 17th and 18th centuries, granted a certain measure of power to their owners. Influential leaders such as Joseph Brant and Deseronto were prevented from granting land to business owners who could have brought industry and agriculture to their lands.
Rules and laws were created to prevent the growth of political support for these men by banning all non natives from living and owning any business on reserves. Many complained that much of lands granted were rock ridden, making the land untenable. After the war, Mohawk leaders John Deseronto and Joseph Brant met with the British officer Frederick Haldimand to discuss the loss of their lands in New York. Haldimand promised to resettle the Mohawk near the Bay of Quinte, on the northeast shore of Lake Ontario, in present-day Ontario, Canada. Haldimand purchased from other First Nations a tract 12 by 13 miles on the Bay of Quinte, which he granted to the Mohawk.. About 200 Mohawk settled with Deseronto at what is now called the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory, Ontario; the group of Mohawk led by John Deseronto, who died in the town named after him, settled on the Bay of Quinte known as Tyendinaga. These were Mohawk of the Lower Castle. Brant decided. Mohawk of the Upper Castle joined him in settling on the Grand River, as did bands of the other Six Nations.
By the Haldimand Proclamation of October 25, 1784, the government granted a reserve of land to the Mohawk Nation and Six Nations bands in appreciation of their support for The Crown during the revolution. Joseph Brant led a large group of Iroquois to settle in what is now referred to as "Six Nations of the Grand River." A 1785 census recorded 1,843 Natives living on the Grand River reserve, including 548 Mohawk, 281 Cayuga, 145 Onondaga, 262 Oneida, 109 Tuscarora, 98 Seneca. There were 400 persons from other tribes, including Delaware, others from southern territory, such as the Nanticoke and some Creek and Cherokee. African-American slaves were brought to Six Nations and Brantford by Joseph Brant. Brant encourages members of his family to marry local Blacks, absorbing them into the population on the reserve. From the 1830's to the 1860's many runaway slaves, escaping through the Underground Railroad, were received and absorbed into the population of Six Nations. Along with the African-Americans who settled in the area around Cainsville, Joseph Brant invited several Anglo-American white families to live on the grant veterans of Brant's Volunteers and Butler's Rangers from New York, who had fought with him during the war.
To encourage his loyalist friends to settle there, Brant gave them larger grants than the government had given other loyalists in other areas of Upper Canada. Some Canadians objected to Brant giving such land grants to whites in the reserve area; this was the beginning of attempts to curtail any growth. As the government did for European Americans, the Indian department provided the Aboriginals with some tools and other provisions for resettlement, including such items as saws, axes and chisels, they received help in establishing schools and churches, in acquiring farm equipment and other necessities. Conditions were difficult in the first years on the frontier, as the government did not provide enough supplies or assistance to any of the resettled loyalists, neither Native Americans nor European Americans, they had to create new settlements out of woodlands. In 1785, the government built the fir
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Hiawatha First Nation
The Hiawatha First Nation is an Ojibway First Nations reserve located on the north shore of Rice Lake east of the Otonabee River in Ontario, Canada. It is found in Otonabee Township 30 kilometers south of Peterborough; the reserve consists of 1,952 acres of land of which 1523 are under certificates of possession. Indigenous peoples occupied this area for thousands of years before European contact. Nearly 2000 years ago, people of the Point Peninsula Complex built a series of earthen mounds for ceremonial and burial purposes. Archaeological excavations have shown the people had sophisticated knowledge to build the massive earthworks. Nine mounds or burial places have been located at the south end of the park. Serpent Mounds Park includes an effigy mound, four to six feet high and nearly two hundred feet long, with a related egg-shaped mound by its mouth. In 2006 the population was 483, a 62.6% increase since 2001. There were 195 private dwellings. Indian reserves assigned to the First Nation are: Hiawatha First Nation Indian Reserve, 6 km southeast of Peterborough 868.20 ha.
Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A, in Peterborough County, comprising islands in Pigeon and Stony Lakes. 139.60 ha. - this reserve is shared with 2 other First Nations. Hiawatha First Nation - Mississaugas of Rice Lake Copy of the Treaty Made November 15, 1923 between his Majesty the King and the Mississauga Indians of Rice Lake, Mud Lake, Scugog Lake and Alderville A History of the Rice Lake Indians by Mary Jane Muskratte Simpson, Alderville, 1953 Indian and Northern Affairs Canada - First Nation Profile
Haldimand County is a rural city-status single-tier municipality on the Niagara Peninsula in Southern Ontario, Canada, on the north shore of Lake Erie, on the Grand River. Municipal offices are located in Cayuga; the county is adjacent to Norfolk County, the County of Brant, the City of Hamilton, the Regional Municipality of Niagara. Haldimand's history has been associated with that of neighbouring Norfolk County. Haldimand was first created from a portion of Norfolk, it was named after the governor of the Province of Quebec Sir Frederick Haldimand. In 1844 the land was surrendered by Six Nations to the Crown in an agreement, signed by the vast majority of Chiefs in the Haldimand tract. From 1974 to 2000, Haldimand County and Norfolk County were merged to form the Regional Municipality of Haldimand-Norfolk. See Norfolk County History for the period when Haldimand and Norfolk were governed as a single unit. Beginning in February 2006, a land dispute by native protesters began near Caledonia over a housing development being built on the outskirts of town, which members of the nearby Mohawk Six Nations people claim is rightfully their land.
The population centres in Haldimand are Caledonia, Hagersville and Cayuga. Part of the Six Nations Reserve is within the geographic area of Haldimand County, but is independent of the county. Most of Haldimand is agricultural land, although some heavy industry, including the Nanticoke Generating Station, is located here. Smaller communities within the municipality are Attercliffe Station, Bodri Bay, Brookers Bay, Canborough, Cheapside, Crescent Bay, Empire Corners, Featherstone Point, Garnet, Hoover Point, Little Buffalo, Moulton Station, Mount Carmel, Mount Healy, Nelles Corners, Peacock Point, Port Maitland, Rainham Centre, Sims Lock, South Cayuga, Stromness, Sweets Corners, Willow Grove, Woodlawn Park and York; the ghost towns of Cook's Station, Dufferin, Indiana Lambs Corners, Sandusk, Varency, are located within Haldimand. Haldimand County area 284,817 acres was formed from part of the land grant to the Six Nations in 1783; the County was purchased by treaty and opened for general settlement in 1832.
It was first settled by white veterans of Butler's Rangers established there by Joseph Brant. A large number of Germans were among the first settlers. Canborough, area 21,586 acres. Granted in 1794 by Joseph Brant to John Dochstader of Butler's Rangers. Purchased by Benjamin Canby in 1810 for 5,000, he named the village-site "Canborough. Community centre: Canborough, Darling and it touches Dunnville Dunn, area 15,122 acres. Opened for settlement in 1833. Community centre: Dunnville Moulton, area 27,781 acres. Landowner Henry John Boulton named the township from the Boulton family seat in England. North Cayuga, area 32,825 acres. Oneida, area 32,598 acres. Joseph Brant granted a 999 year lease of part of Oneida and Seneca townships to Henry Nelles, of Butler's Rangers and his sons, Abraham, William and John. Community centres were: Caledonia and Hagersville. Rainham, area 25,705 acres Community centres: Balmoral, Rainham Centre and Fisherville. Seneca, area 41,721 acres. Community centres: York and Caledonia Sherbrooke, area 5,098 acres, the smallest township in Ontario.
Opened in 1825 and named from Sir John Coape Sherbrooke, a Governor-General of Canada. The Township was granted by the Indians to William Dickson as a professional fee. Community centres: Stromness and Port Maitland. South Cayuga, area 13,293 acres. Walpole, area 66,213 acres. Community centres were: Hagersville, Selkirk and Nanticoke. Source: Province of Ontario – A History 1615 to 1927 by Jesse Edgar Middleton & Fred Landon, copyright 1927, Dominion Publishing Company, Toronto Population trend: Population in 2006: 45,212 Population in 2001: 43,728 Population total in 1996: 42,041 Only ethnic groups that comprise greater than 1% of the population are included. Note that a person can report more than one group. English: 37.4% "Canadian": 32.7% Scottish: 24.9% Irish: 20.1% German: 18.4% Dutch: 13.4% French: 8.6% Italian: 4.4% Aboriginal: 3.3% Ukrainian: 2.7% Polish: 2.7% Hungarian: 2.4% Welsh: 2.0% British Isles: 1.7% Portuguese: 1.3% The city is within the federal electoral riding of Haldimand—Norfolk and within provincial electoral riding of Haldimand—Norfolk.
Current Mayor: Ken HewittPrevious Mayors: 2004–2010: Marie Trainer 2000–2004: Lorraine Bergstrand Policing in the county is provided by the Haldimand detachment of the Ontario Provincial Police located in Cayuga. Fire services in the county is provided by the Haldimand County Fire Department, created in 2001 following the separation of Haldimand and Norfolk; the department consists of 11 stations located strategically throughout the county. With 300 firefighters and 40 fire apparatuses, it is one of the largest volunteer fire departments in Ontario; the department consists of. Haldimand Conservation Area Selkirk Provincial Park Taquanyah Conservation Area Hedley Forest Conservation Area Canborough Conservation Area Ruigrok Tract Conservation Area Oswego Conservation Area Byng Island Conservation Area Rock Point Provincial Park Mohawk Islan
Caldwell First Nation
The Caldwell First Nation is a First Nations band government whose land base is located in Leamington, Canada. They are an Anishinaabe group, part of the Three Fires Confederacy, comprising the bands Potawatomi and Ojibwa, whose members are of the Mikinaak and the Makwa dodems; the Caldwell First Nation are a distinct and federally recognized Indian band and used to be referred to by such names as: the "Chippewas of Pelee", "Point Pelee Indians" and "Caldwell's band of Indians." The Chippewa are an Anishinaabe-speaking indigenous nation with people within the borders of present-day Canada and the United States. The Anishinaabe are the largest Native American/First Nation peoples north of Mexico, with nearly 78,000 people among various groups in Canada from western Quebec to British Columbia; the Caldwell First Nation, sometimes called "the Chippewas of Point Pelee and Pelee Island," lived as a distinct First Nation in the Point Pelee area from before 1763. Their traditional territory encompassed a broad area corresponding to what is now the Ontario region, extending from the Detroit River along Amherstburg all the way to Long Point Ontario and the Lake Erie Islands.
The heart of their ancestral territory includes the Essex and Kent county areas, in particular the Point Pelee Peninsula and Pelee Island. The Caldwell First Nation considers Point Pelee as "our home" and the neighboring Walpole Island First Nation considers Point Pelee as part of "our house." The Caldwell First Nation served as allies of the British during the War of 1812. In consideration of this service, they were promised land at Point Pelee; the First Nation continued to occupy Point Pelee, with the support of the Canadian government, up until the late 1850s. In the 1920s, many of the band members were forced out of Point Pelee when the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, along with local law enforcement agencies, burned their homes in the area in an effort to force them from their traditional lands. In May 1790, representatives of certain Ottawa, Pottawatomi people and the Huron surrendered a large tract of land in southwestern Ontario, including Point Pelee. However, the Caldwell First Nation neither benefited from that treaty.
The Crown did not realize this and it was publicly acknowledged by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Caldwell First Nation Council members settled the land claim, outstanding for more than 220 years; the Caldwell First Nation is the only federally recognized Indian band in southern Ontario without a reserve land of its own. The Nation is working towards establishing a reserve, which will give members the land base. Official website Caldwell First Nation in Point Pelee National Park article — The Canadian Encyclopedia Caldwell First Nation in Canadian aboriginal reserves article — Encyclopedia britannica Caldwell First Nation — Southern First Nations Secretariat Caldwell First Nation — Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
Mississauga is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario and a suburb of Toronto. It is situated on the shores of Lake Ontario in the Regional Municipality of Peel, bordering Toronto. With a population of 721,599 as of the 2016 census, Mississauga is the sixth-most populous municipality in Canada, third-most in Ontario, second-most in the Greater Toronto Area; the growth of Mississauga is attributed to its proximity to Toronto. During the latter half of the 20th century, the city attracted a multicultural population and built up a thriving central business district, it is home to Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's busiest airport, as well as the headquarters of many Canadian and multinational corporations. Residents of the city are referred to as Mississaugans. At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 1600s, both Iroquoian- and Algonquian-speaking peoples lived in the Credit River Valley area. One of the First Nations groups the French traders found around the Credit River area were the Algonquian Mississaugas, a tribe from the Georgian Bay area.
The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning " Great River-mouth". By 1700 the Mississaugas had driven away the Iroquois, yet during the Beaver Wars they played a neutral or post-emptive role. Toronto Township, consisting of most of present-day Mississauga, was formed on 2 August 1805 when officials from York purchased 84,000 acres of land from the Mississaugas. In January 2010, the Mississaugas and the federal government settled a land claim, in which the band of aboriginal people received $145,000,000, as just compensation for their land and lost income; the original villages settled included: Lakeview, Cooksville, Erindale, Lorne Park, Port Credit and Summerville. This region would become known as Toronto Township. Part of northeast Mississauga, including the Airport lands and Malton were part of Toronto Gore Township. After the land was surveyed, the Crown gave much of it in the form of land grants to United Empire Loyalists who emigrated from the Thirteen Colonies during and after the American Revolution, as well as loyalists from New Brunswick.
A group of settlers from New York City arrived in the 1830s. The government wanted to compensate the Loyalists for property lost in the colonies and encourage development of what was considered frontier. In 1820, the government purchased additional land from the Mississaugas. Additional settlements were established, including: Barbertown, Burnhamthorpe, Derry West, Malton, Meadowvale Village, Mount Charles, Streetsville. European-Canadian growth led to the eventual displacement of the Mississaugas. In 1847, the government relocated them to a reserve in the Grand River Valley, near present-day Hagersville. Pre-confederation, the Township of Toronto was formed as a local government. Except for small villages, some gristmills and brickworks served by railway lines, most of present-day Mississauga was agricultural land, including fruit orchards, through much of the 19th and first half of the 20th century. In the 1920s, cottages were constructed along the shores of Lake Ontario as weekend getaway houses for city dwellers.
17 years in 1937, 1,410.8 acres of land was sold to build the Malton Airport. It became Canada's busiest airport which put the end to the community of Elmbank; the Queen Elizabeth Way highway, one of the first controlled access highways in the world, opened from Highway 27 to Highway 10 in Port Credit, in 1935 and expanded to Hamilton and Niagara in 1939. The first prototypical suburban developments occurred around the same time, in the area south of the Dixie Road/QEW interchange. Development in general moved west from there over time and around established communities. Large-scale developments, such as Erin Mills and Meadowvale sprang up in the 1968 and 1969 respectively; the township settlements of Lakeview, Lorne Park, Erindale, Dixie, Meadowvale Village, Malton were amalgamated by a somewhat unpopular provincial decree in 1968 to form the Town of Mississauga. At the time, both Port Credit and Streetsville were remained as separate entities. A 1965 call for public input on naming the town received thousands of letters offering hundreds of different suggestions.
The town name was chosen by plebiscite over "Sheridan". Political will, as well as a belief that a larger city would be a hegemony in Peel County, kept Port Credit and Streetsville as independent island towns encircled by the Town of Mississauga. In 1974, both were annexed by Mississauga; that year, the sprawling Square One Shopping Centre opened. On 10 November 1979, a 106-car freight train derailed on the CP rail line while carrying explosive and poisonous chemicals just north of the intersection of Mavis Road and Dundas Street. One of the tank cars carrying propane exploded, since other tank cars were carrying chlorine, the decision was made to evacuate nearby residents. With the possibility of a deadly cloud of chlorine gas spreading through Mississauga, 218,000 people were evacuated. Residents were allowed to return home. At the time, it was the largest peacetime evacuation in North American history. Due to the speed and efficiency in which it was conducted, many cities studied and modelled their own emergency plans after Mississauga's.
For many years afterwards, the name "Mississauga" was, to Canadians, associated with a major rail disaster. North American telephone customer