Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period.
After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by the former, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies - Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.
S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate Internationa
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Mississippi Highway 25
Mississippi Highway 25 runs from I-55 in Jackson, Mississippi to the Tennessee state line north of Iuka. The controlled-access part from Jackson to Starkville connects the state capital with the main campus of Mississippi State University; as of June 28, 2006, 150 miles of continuous four-lane divided highway is open between Starkville and Jackson, Mississippi. The last leg to open was the 11.9-mile, $27-million section from the intersection of Highway 19 north of Louisville, Mississippi, to Noxapater Creek in Winston County. This is one of the culminations of the 1987 Four-Lane Highway Program for improving Mississippi roadways. On May 10, 2006 the next-to-last leg, a 10.1-mile, $23-million section, opened from the Oktibbeha County line west into Winston County. All of Highway 25, except for the portion between West Point and Fulton, will be an at least four-lane divided highway by the mid-2010s, per Mississippi House Bill 725 of the 1998 session. From south to north Jackson, Mississippi Flowood, Mississippi Carthage, Mississippi Louisville, Mississippi Starkville, Mississippi West Point, Mississippi Aberdeen, Mississippi Amory, Mississippi Smithville, Mississippi Fulton, Mississippi Belmont, Mississippi Tishomingo, Mississippi Iuka, Mississippi List of Mississippi state highways Magnolia Meanderings Mississippi Department of Transportation
Corinth is a city in and the county seat of Alcorn County, United States. The population was 14,573 at the 2010 census, its ZIP codes are 38834 and 38835. Corinth was founded in 1853 as Cross City, so-called because it served as a junction for the Mobile & Ohio and Memphis & Charleston railroads, it was the town's early newspaper editor, W. E. Gibson, who suggested its current name for the city of Corinth in Greece that served as a crossroads. Corinth's location at the junction of two railroads made it strategically important to the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard retreated to Corinth after the Battle of Shiloh, pursued by Union Major General Henry W. Halleck. General Beauregard abandoned the town when General Halleck approached, letting it fall into the Union's hands. Since Halleck approached so cautiously, digging entrenchments at every stop for over a month, this action has been known as the Siege of Corinth; the Union sent Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans to Corinth as well and concentrated its forces in the city.
The Second Battle of Corinth took place on October 3−4, 1862, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn attempted to retake the city. Battery Williams Siege and Battle of Corinth Sites Coliseum Theatre- built in the early 20th century in the Colonial Revival style Corinth National Cemetery Downtown Corinth Historic District Dr. Joseph M. Bynum House—a home in the Late Gothic Revival style built in the late 19th century Federal Siege Trench Fort Robinette —site of the Civil War Interpretive Center Jacinto Courthouse —built in the mid-19th century in the Federal style L. C. Steele House Midtown Corinth Historic District Moores Creek site—a prehistoric Native American site from 3000 to 3500 B. C. Old U. S. Post Office Rienzi Commercial Historic District Thomas F. Dilworth House Union Battery F, Battle of Corinth Union Earthworks Veranda House —built in 1857, it served as headquarters for Confederate generals during the Battle of Corinth Corinth is located in northeast Mississippi at the intersection of U.
S. Route 45 and U. S. Route 72, it is the county seat of Alcorn County, the smallest county in area in the state of Mississippi. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.3 square miles, of which 30.2 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.43%, is water. Eastview, Tennessee, 9.85 miles Farmington, 3.97 miles Guys, Tennessee, 7.24 miles Kossuth, 8.21 miles Michie, Tennessee, 9.75 miles Ramer, Tennessee, 10.92 miles Bridge Creek Elam Creek Phillips Creek Turner Creek The climate is humid subtropical like all the Mississippi but with frequent and regular gusts of snow. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,054 people, 6,220 households, 3,800 families residing in the city; the population density was 461.5 people per square mile. There were 7,058 housing units at an average density of 231.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.28% White, 21.60% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.73% of the population. There were 6,220 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. Of all households, 35.6% were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,436, the median income for a family was $35,232. Males had a median income of $29,027 versus $21,071 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,452. About 18.2% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 23.9% of those age 65 or over.
Corinth School District: Corinth High School—grades 9–12 with an enrollment of 473 Corinth Middle School—grades 5–8 with an enrollment of 265 Corinth Elementary School—grades K–4 Easom High School Alcorn School District: Alcorn Alternative School Alcorn Central Elementary—grades K–4, with enrollment of 520 Alcorn Central Middle School—grades 5–8 with an enrollment of 539 Alcorn Central High School—grades 9–12 with an enrollment of 515 Biggersville Elementary—grades K–6 with an enrollment of 161 Biggersville High School—grades 7–12 with an enrollment of 236 Kossuth Elementary School—grades K–4 with an enrollment of 562 Kossuth High School—grades 9–12 with an enrollment of 438 Kossuth Middle School—grades 5–8 with an enrollment of 499 Corinth Public Library—part of the Northeast Regional Library System Northeast Mississippi Museum Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center Artist Guild Museum and Shop Museum of Southern Culture Black History Museum Veranda Health Center Magnolia Regional Health Center U
Iuka is the county seat of Tishomingo County, United States. Its population was 3,059 at the 2000 census. Woodall Mountain, the highest point in Mississippi, is located just south of Iuka. Iuka is built on the site of a Chickasaw Indian village, thought to have been subordinate to the settlement at Underwood Village; the name "Iuka" comes from the name of one of the chiefs of the village. Iuka was founded by a wagon train scout. Euro-American settlers arrived with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad in 1857. Before the American Civil War, the town boasted an all-female college, a boys' military academy, a fine hotel; the Civil War brought widespread devastation when a major engagement here occurred on September 19, 1862. The Battle of Iuka resulted in 1200 to 1500 wounded; the dead Confederate soldiers were buried in a long trench that became Shady Grove Cemetery. The first normal school built in the former Confederacy after the Civil War, Iuka Normal Institute, was built here. However, the town did not return to prosperity for many years.
The building of Pickwick Landing Dam and Pickwick Lake by the Tennessee Valley Authority brought activity back to the town. In 1904, water from Iuka's mineral springs won first prize for the purest and best mineral water at the World's Fair in St. Louis; the population of Iuka was 2,974 in 2019. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.7 square miles, all land. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". As of the census of 2000, there were 3,059 people, 1,325 households, 809 families residing in the city; the population density was 316.6 people per square mile. There were 1,550 housing units at an average density of 160.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.14% White, 7.09% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.59% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population.
There were 1,325 households out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.8% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.77. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.5% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 26.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 72.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,082, the median income for a family was $36,863. Males had a median income of $30,449 versus $20,658 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,261. About 16.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.6% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.
A Major employer in Iuka's industrial sector is Alliant Techsystems, a major U. S. aerospace and defense contractor. Iuka is home to the only museum in the United States dedicated to aprons. J. P. Coleman State Park Mineral Springs Park Jaybird Park Iuka Dixie Youth Baseball Fields Iuka Softball Complex Iuka Youth Soccer Fields Tishomingo County High School Iuka Middle School Iuka Elementary School WKZU "Kudzu 104.9" W279AZ 103.7 W226AJ 93.1 WOWL "FUN 91.9" WADI 95.3 "The Bee" WRMG "TV-12" U. S. Route 72 Mississippi Highway 25 Norfolk Southern Railway Kansas City Southern Railway Iuka Airport North Mississippi Medical Center - Iuka Iuka Public Library The Secret Sisters, a singing and songwriting duo from neighboring Colbert County, wrote a song called "Iuka" for their album Put Your Needle Down. Greg Puckett, a country singer/songwriter from Iuka, MS, wrote a song called "Sittin in Iuka" for his album A Certain Man. Battle of Iuka Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Rheta Grimsley Johnson Woodall Mountain Yellow Creek Nuclear Power Plant City of Iuka, Mississippi Historical Archives of Tishomingo County Pickwick Reservoir Iuka Airport
The Mississippi Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Mississippi. The bicameral Legislature is composed of the lower Mississippi House of Representatives, with 122 members, the upper Mississippi State Senate, with 52 members. Both Representatives and Senators serve four-year terms without term limits; the Legislature convenes at the Mississippi State Capitol in Jackson. The Constitution of Mississippi gives the state legislature the authority to determine rules of its own proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, expel a member with a two-thirds vote of the membership of his or her chamber. A bill may originate in either house, be amended or rejected in the other, must be read by its title on three different days in each house, unless two-thirds of the house dispenses with the rules; the Mississippi Constitution prohibits amending a bill to change its original purpose. Bills amended in the second house, must return for a vote to accept amendments; the Governor of Mississippi has the power to veto legislation, but legislators can override the veto with a two-thirds decision.
Members of the Mississippi House of Representatives are elected to four-year terms and State Senators are elected to four-year terms. State legislators earn $10,000 per year. Mississippi State Capitol Mississippi House of Representatives Mississippi Senate American Legislative Exchange Council members Mississippi Legislature
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid