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Mississippian (geology)

The Mississippian is a subperiod in the geologic timescale or a subsystem of the geologic record. It is the earlier/lower of two subperiods of the Carboniferous period lasting from 358.9 to 323.2 million years ago. As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Mississippian are well identified, but the exact start and end dates are uncertain by a few million years; the Mississippian is so named because rocks with this age are exposed in the Mississippi River valley. The Mississippian was a period of marine transgression in the Northern Hemisphere: the sea level was so high that only the Fennoscandian Shield and the Laurentian Shield were dry land; the cratons were surrounded by extensive delta systems and lagoons, carbonate sedimentation on the surrounding continental platforms, covered by shallow seas. In North America, where the interval consists of marine limestones, it is treated as a geologic period between the Devonian and the Pennsylvanian. During the Mississippian an important phase of orogeny occurred in the Appalachian Mountains.

It is a major rock-building period named for the exposures in the Mississippi Valley region. The USGS geologic time scale shows its relation to other periods. In Europe, the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian are one more-or-less continuous sequence of lowland continental deposits and are grouped together as the Carboniferous system, sometimes called the Upper Carboniferous and Lower Carboniferous instead. In the official geologic timescale, the Mississippian is subdivided into three stages: Serpukhovian Visean Tournaisian The lower two come from European stratigraphy, the top from Russian stratigraphy. Besides Europe and Russia, there are many local subdivisions that are used as alternatives for the international timescale. In the North American system, the Mississippian is subdivided into four stages: Chesterian Meramecian Osagean Kinderhookian "The Carboniferous Period". University of California. Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15. "Foraminifera Gallery Database search for Mississippian Foraminifera". Archived from the original on 2019-03-15. Retrieved 2019-03-15

Hilde Purwin

Hilde Purwin was a German journalist. She had an unusually powerful memory, she was recruited by the Sicherheitsdienst in October 1939. She worked as a security services "mail clerk" but in July 1940 was transferred to Berlin where she became an Italian interpreter. In July 1942 she was sent to Rome where at various stages she worked, ostensibly, as a secretary and/or an interpreter. Between September 1943 and July 1944 she played a pivotal role in the so-called "Ciano operation". After the defeat of Nazi Germany the American intelligence services benefited from her wartime intelligence gathering, they acquired valuable additional intelligence because she took extra carbon copies - unbeknownst to German intelligence - of more than 700 sheets that she had translated from Italian source documents into German during the final months of the war. She sorted and sequenced these, buried them in a large sealed tin under the strawberry patch beside the apple tree in the garden at the family home where her widowed mother still lived.

In 1946 the United States military administration in Germany employed her as a simultaneous translator and recruited her for intelligence work. They gave her a new identity, she became "Hilde Blum" born in 1920 and was mandated, under the code name "Gambit", to identify and unmask Soviet agents operating in Berlin. However, after a few years she decided that she did not wish to spend the rest of her life in espionage activities, she joined the Berlin Telegraf as a volunteer reporter, rose to become a distinguished political correspondent. She formed a good working relationship with West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, he picked her out for impromptu "interviews" in the lobby or restaurant at the Bundestag though he liked to open their discussions with the insight, "I do know that you vote for the wrong side, Mrs. Purwin" ("Ich weiß ja, dat Se falsch wählen, Frau Purwin" - Hilde Purwin was a Social Democrat supporter and made no secret of the fact. Two marriages and time spent in the espionage community left Hilde Purwin with an unusually wide range of names by which she may be identified in sources.

Hildegard Gertrud Burkhardt was born in Obernissa, a small village few kilometers to the east of Erfurt in what would have been seen as southern central Germany. Her early childhood was spent in Obernissa; the family moved to a house alongside the elegant Belvederer Allee in Weimar, twenty or so minutes to the east of Erfurt. According to at least one source this was so that the family's talented daughter could be enrolled at the "Realgymnasium" there and benefit from the excellent languages teaching which the school provided, her father, Eduard Burkhardt, was a teacher. Hildegard, born in 1919, was the elder of her parents' two recorded children, her brother Rolf was born two years later. 1933, the year the Nazis took power, was the year of her fourteenth birthday. It was the year in which her father died, she completed her schooling in 1937 and went to Dresden to take a "Pfichtjahr" working as a childcare helper for the Madaus family who were the owners of a major pharmaceuticals company. A year she went to Leipzig to undertake an intensive languages course, sufficient to qualify her for work as a simultaneous translator in Italian soon afterwards.

She had intended to follow her year in Leipzig with a further year undertaking a similar course in francophone Lausanne in order to attain equivalent fluency in French but that plan was closed off by the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939. She was recruited by the Sicherheitsdienst, the SS's security and intelligence agency, through her local government employment office in September/October 1939. Commentators accept Burkhardt's contention that her first promotion within the German intelligence services took place only after she had raised the issue with her boss, it would not be the last time that she would demonstrate a combination of self belief and professional ambition which at that time might well have been considered unladylike. She informed "SS Sturmbannführer Hermann" that "she was good with languages and wished to use them", she was transferred in July 1940 from the provincial mail room in Weimar to "Amt VI", the department in Berlin that dealt with political foreign intelligence.

Her work involved translating reports from Italian agents. She reviewed Italian and Vatican newspapers and provided translations of those "showing certain anti-German tendencies". In this respect she was therefore being required to apply certain analytical skills and judgements alongside the basic clerical and organisational tasks associated with a secretarial role. In July 1941 she was posted to the wartime German embassy in Rome, employed as the secretary to Guido Zimmer. Zimmer was the senior member of "Amt VI" at the diplomatic mission, mandated to "sort out" the "intelligence situation" in Rome, he seems to have failed, was recalled to Berlin in November 1941. His secretary, Hilde Burkhardt, was recalled with him and resumed her work in Berlin as an Italian language interpreter. However, in July 1942 she returned to the Rome embassy, now as secretary to Zimmer's successor, Helmut Looss. Looss was recalled to Berlin, from where he was sent to work on the Russian front, after a short time in Rome.

After the war ended Hildegard Beetz was invited to compile a detailed description of her work for the German intelligence services. Somewh

Hans Wehr

Hans Bodo Gerhardt Wehr was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster from 1957–1974, he published the Arabisches Wörterbuch, published in an English edition as A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J Milton Cowan. For the dictionary Wehr created a transliteration scheme to represent the Arabic alphabet; the latest edition of the dictionary is Arabic -- German only. Wehr joined the National Socialist Party in 1940, wrote an essay arguing that the German government should ally with "the Arabs" against England and France; the dictionary project was funded by the Nazi government, which intended to use it to translate Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf into Arabic

Mirassol Futebol Clube

Mirassol Futebol Clube known as Mirassol is a Brazilian football club from Mirassol, São Paulo state. On November 9, 1925, the club was founded as Mirassol Esporte Clube. In 1960, another club was founded in Grêmio Recreação Esporte Cultura Mirassol. Both clubs became rivals until 1963, when they were playing in São Paulo State Championship Third Level. In 1964, Mirassol Esporte Clube and Grêmio Recreação Esporte Cultura Mirassol fused, the new club was named Mirassol Atlético Clube. In 1982, Mirassol Atlético Clube folded, the club was renamed to Mirassol Futebol Clube. In 1997, Mirassol won its first title, the São Paulo State Championship Third Level, beating União Barbarense, Olímpia, São Caetano in the final four group stage. In 2007, the club finished in second in its group in the São Paulo State Second Level semifinal stage, thus being promoted for the first time in club's history to São Paulo State Championship Top Level. São Paulo State Championship Third Level: 1997 The club's home matches are played at Municipal José Maria de Campos Maia stadium, which has a maximum capacity of 14,534 people.

Mirassol's colors are green. The club's mascot is a lion. Leãozinho, meaning Little Lion, is Mirassol's nickname. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Official website Mirassol Futebol Clube at Arquivo de Clubes

The Tractate Middoth

"The Tractate Middoth" is a short ghost story by British author M. R. James, it was published in 1911 in James's second collection of ghost stories. Mr. Garrett, an employee of a university library, searches for a Mishnaic tractate for John Eldred, an impatient library patron, he encounters a black-clad clergyman who seems interested in the book. The clergyman's appearance–his head appears to be enshrouded in cobwebs and he smells of mould and dust–causes Garrett a severe shock and he faints, he is sent home to recover, decides to recuperate at the seaside. On the train to his destination, he meets the elderly Mrs. Simpson and her daughter, proprietors of a boarding house who offer him lodgings. Over the course of his stay, they become friendly; the Simpsons confide in him that they are losing a struggle with a rival heir to the estate of an eccentric clergyman named Rant, who died two decades earlier. As they describe the situation, Garrett realizes; the tractate contains a hidden secret will that would supersede an earlier last will and testament, Garrett decides to help the Simpsons by preventing Eldred from destroying this document.

Returning to the library, he finds that the tractate has been found and shipped to Eldred at the Rant estate. He arrives too late to stop Eldred from receiving the parcel; as he stalks Eldred back to the Rant mansion, he sees a dark form emerge from cobwebs at the side of the road, Eldred drops dead. An inquest finds black dust on the dead man's face and in his mouth, but the real cause of death is heart failure; the tractate becomes evidence. When it appears that Eldred had been tearing out a page when he died, the missing will is discovered and decrypted, written in a code script that looks like Hebrew. By its terms, Mrs. Simpson inherits the estate possessed by Eldred, Garrett and her daughter marry. On 7 May 1951, an American television adaptation of the story was broadcast as "The Lost Will of Dr Rant", as part of the Lights Out mystery series, it starred Leslie Nielsen. On 26 February 1966, a version of the story adapted by Dennis Webb was broadcast by ATV and Thames Television as part of the Mystery and Imagination series of ghost story adaptations.

It starred David Buck and John Crocker. On 25 December 2007 the story was read on BBC Radio 4 by Derek Jacobi as part of the M R James at Christmas series. On 25 December 2013, a version of the story adapted by Mark Gatiss was broadcast by the BBC2 as part of the long-running A Ghost Story for Christmas series, it starred Sacha Dhawan, John Castle, Louise Jameson, Una Stubbs, David Ryall, Eleanor Bron, Nick Burns and Roy Barraclough. The full text of The Tractate Middoth at Wikisource The Tractate Middoth public domain audiobook at LibriVox Edwards, Roger. "The Tractate Middoth". Contains Moderate Peril. Retrieved 28 May 2015

Pallas (crater)

Pallas is a eroded lunar impact crater located to the north of the Sinus Medii. It was named after the German-born Russian natural historian Peter Simon Pallas. To the northwest is the smaller but less worn crater Bode. Pallas shares a low wall with the crater Murchison, attached to the southeast, there are two gaps in the shared rim; the outer wall of Pallas is worn and somewhat distorted in shape. The associated crater Pallas A lies across the northwest rim; the inner floor of Pallas has been flooded by lava, leaving a flat surface. The crater possesses a central peak complex. On November 15, 1953, the physician and amateur astronomer Dr. Leon H. Stuart took a picture of the Moon that appeared to show a flare of light about 16 km southeast of Pallas; the flare was estimated to last for about 8–10 seconds. The report was published in a 1956 issue of a newsletter; however the incident was dismissed by professionals of the period as more a meteoroid entering the Earth's atmosphere. Many years Dr. Bonnie Buratti of JPL saw the photograph and decided to investigate.

Assisted by a graduate student, she identified a 1.5 km. diameter crater imaged by the Clementine spacecraft. The crater has the correct size and albedo to match the expected impact energy; some astronomers now agree that Dr. Stuart may indeed have photographed an asteroid impact on the Moon. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Pallas. Pallas at The Moon Wiki Wood, Chuck. "Move Over Orbiter". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on August 23, 2017. Wood, Chuck. "Rimae Weird". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on August 23, 2017. - appeared on the August 24, 2004 LPOD Wood, Chuck. "Rubbly Lineations". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on August 23, 2017. Wood, Chuck. "Textured Ejecta". Lunar Photo of the Day. - Rimae Bode includes Pallas crater