United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
History of the Kansas City metropolitan area
The history of the Kansas City metropolitan area begins in the 19th century as Frenchmen from St. Louis, Missouri moved up the Missouri River to trap for furs and trade with the Native Americans. The Kansas City metropolitan area, straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, was a point for commerce. Kansas City, Missouri was founded in 1838 and defeated its rival Westport to become the predominant city west of St. Louis, the area played a major role in the westward expansion of the United States. The Santa Fe, and Oregon trails ran through the area, in 1854, when Kansas was opened to Euro-American settlement, the Missouri-Kansas border became the first battlefield in the conflict in the American Civil War. The first documented French visitor to the Kansas City area was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, Bourgmont was on the lam from French authorities after deserting his post as commander of Fort Detroit, after being criticized for his handling of a Native American attack on the fort.
He lived with a Native American wife in the Missouri village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, Missouri, in these documents, he described the junction of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, being the first to refer to them by those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the first reasonably accurate map of the area, the French rewarded Bourgmont by giving him their highest honors and naming him commander of the Missouri. He built the first fort in 1723 at Fort Orleans, near his Brunswick home, to celebrate the success of the venture, he took the Native American chiefs on a junket to Paris to hunt with Louis XV and see the glory of France at Versailles and Fontainebleau. Bourgmont got promoted to official status and stayed in Normandy. According to legend, the Native Americans slaughtered everybody in the Fort Orleans garrison. The Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French continued their fur trade on the river under Spanish license.
Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the Lewis and Clark Expedition left St. Louis on a mission to reach the Pacific Ocean, in 1804, Lewis and Clark camped for three days at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers in todays Kansas City, Kansas. In 1808, Fort Osage was established 20 miles from the confluence of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers near present-day Sibley, in 1812, after Louisiana officially became a state, the remaining portions of the original Louisiana Territory north of Arkansas were renamed the Missouri Territory. As part of the Missouri Compromise in 1821, Congress admitted Missouri to the union as the 24th state, since 1800, the confluence has moved about a quarter mile up the Missouri River. Missouri joined the Union in 1821 and, after the Treaty of St. Louis in 1825, in 1826, the Prophet Tenskwatawa established a village in Argentine, Kansas. During 1833, only the Black Bobs band of Shawnee resisted the relocation efforts and they settled in northeastern Kansas, near Olathe and along the Kansas River in Monticello, near Gum Springs.
Tenskwatawa died in 1836 at his village in Kansas City, the language of the first European settlement in Kansas City was French. He referred to the post as the village of the Kansa, in 1825, after Indians agreed to leave the westernmost six miles of Missouri to the confluence of the Kansas, the area was referred to as Chouteaus
Claiborne Fox Jackson
Claiborne Fox Jackson, known as C. F. Jackson, was an American politician who was the 15th Governor of Missouri from January 3,1861, until his deposition on July 23,1861. In the run-up to the Civil War, he claimed to be anti-secession, in order to get elected Governor, when Union troops in St. Louis jailed the local militia, fighting broke out and Jackson declared Missouri to be a free republic. In July however, the Unionist members of the Missouri State Legislature voted to him from office. However, Jackson refused to accept the action as valid, before this could happen, Jackson died of stomach cancer at Little Rock. Claiborne Fox Jackson, son of Dempsey Carroll and Mary Orea Molly Jackson, was born in Fleming County, Kentucky, in 1826 Jackson moved with several of his older brothers to Missouri, settling in the Howard County town of Franklin. The Jackson brothers established a general mercantile store, where young Claiborne worked until 1832. Claiborne Jackson organized, and was elected captain of, a unit of Howard County volunteers for the conflict, Claiborne Jackson married Jane Breathhitt Sappington, daughter of prominent frontier physician John Sappington, in early 1831 but she died within a few months of the nuptials.
Returning from the war, Jackson chose not to resume his business partnership with his brothers, in 1833 he married Louisa Catherine Sappington, sister of his late first wife. He worked with his father-in-law in the manufacture and sale of Dr. Sappingtons Anti-Fever Pills, the pills were widely distributed and a best-seller, especially in the American south and the then-Mexican southwest due to Saline Counties proximity to the Santa Fe Trailhead. Subsequently, both men and their family became quite wealthy and influential. Tragedy struck again however in May,1838 when Louisa Jackson died and it is possible this was due to complications of childbirth, as Claiborne and Louisas infant son Andrew Jackson died the next month in June,1838. Claiborne Jacksons next, and final, marriage was to a third Sappington sister, Eliza would survive her husband, dying in 1864. Through his family connections with Dr. Sappington, Claiborne Jackson, Jackson was first elected to the Missouri House of Representatives in 1836, representing Saline County.
He moved to the Howard County seat of Fayette, Missouri—then a center of power in the state—in 1838. This would pay great political dividends in his career, Claiborne Jackson would serve a total of twelve years in the Missouri House, including terms as Speaker in 1844 and 1846. In 1840 Claiborne Jackson very nearly found himself involved in a duel over politics, writing anonymously to a Fayette, Missouri newspaper, Jackson made accusations that the Whig candidate for Missouri Governor that year, John B. Clark, was guilty of election fraud, more harsh words were exchanged and eventually Clark challenged Jackson to a duel before cooler heads prevailed and the matter was settled without gunplay. Later, once Clark had switched party allegiance to the Democrats, he, Claiborne Jackson was elected to the state senate in 1848
Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War. It was one of a number of forts planned after the War of 1812, combining high walls and heavy masonry. Work started in 1829, but was incomplete by 1860, when South Carolina seceded from the Union, the First Battle of Fort Sumter opened on April 12,1861, when Confederate artillery fired on the Union garrison. These were the first shots of the war, and continued all day, the fort had been cut off from its supply line and surrendered the next day. The Second Battle of Fort Sumter was an attempt by the Union to retake the fort. Although the fort was reduced to rubble, it remained in Confederate hands until it was evacuated as General Sherman marched through South Carolina in February 1865, Fort Sumter is open for public tours as part of the Fort Sumter National Monument operated by the National Park Service. Named after General Thomas Sumter, Revolutionary War hero, Fort Sumter was built following the War of 1812, construction began in 1829, and the structure was still unfinished in 1861, when the Civil War began.
Seventy thousand tons of granite were imported from New England to build up a bar in the entrance to Charleston Harbor. The fort was a brick structure,170 to 190 feet long, with walls five feet thick. It was designed to house 650 men and 135 guns in three tiers of gun emplacements, although it was never filled near its full capacity and he secretly relocated companies E and H of the 1st U. S. Artillery to Fort Sumter on his own initiative, without orders from his superiors and he thought that providing a stronger defense would delay an attack by South Carolina militia. The fort was not yet complete at the time and fewer than half of the cannons that should have been available were in place, due to military downsizing by President James Buchanan. Over the next few months repeated calls for evacuation of Fort Sumter from the government of South Carolina and three hired tug boats with added protection against small arms fire to be used to tow troop and supply barges directly to Fort Sumter. By April 6,1861 the first ships began to set sail for their rendezvous off the Charleston Bar, the first to arrive was Harriet Lane, the evening of April 11,1861.
On Thursday, April 11,1861, Beauregard sent three aides, Colonel James Chesnut, Jr, captain Stephen D. Lee, and Lieutenant A. R. Chisolm to demand the surrender of the fort. Anderson declined, and the returned to report to Beauregard. After Beauregard had consulted the Confederate Secretary of War, Leroy Walker, he sent the aides back to the fort, the aides waited for hours while Anderson considered his alternatives and played for time. The aides left the fort and proceeded to the nearby Fort Johnson, Chesnut ordered the fort to open fire on Fort Sumter
Sterling Price was a soldier, lawyer and politician from the U. S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, following the war, Price took his remaining troops to Mexico rather than surrender, unsuccessfully seeking service with the Emperor Maximillian there. He ultimately returned to Missouri, where he died in poverty and was buried in St. Louis, Sterling Old Pap Price was born near Farmville, in Prince Edward County, Virginia on September 14,1809, into a family of Welsh origin. His father was Pugh Price, whose ancestor John Price was born in Brecknock, Wales, in 1584, Price attended Hampden–Sydney College in 1826 and 1827, studying law and working at the courthouse near his home. He was admitted to the Virginia bar and opened a law practice, in the fall of 1831, Price and his family moved to Fayette, Missouri. A year later, they moved to Keytesville, where he ran a hotel, on May 14,1833, he married Martha Head of Randolph County, Missouri.
They had seven children, five surviving to adulthood - Edwin Williamson, Celsus, Martha Sterling and his report was favorable to the Mormons, stating they were not guilty of any offenses and that in his opinion the charges had been brought by their enemies. Following the Mormon capitulation in November 1838, Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs to Caldwell County ordered Price a company of men to protect the LDS from further depredations. He was elected to the Missouri State House of Representatives from 1836 to 1838, and again from 1840 to 1844, and was chosen as its speaker. He was elected as a Democrat to the 29th United States Congress, serving from March 4,1845, to August 12,1846, Price raised the Second Regiment, Missouri Mounted Volunteer Cavalry and was appointed its colonel on August 12,1846. He marched his regiment under Alexander Doniphan to Santa Fe, where he assumed command of the Territory of New Mexico after Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, departed for California. Price served as governor of New Mexico, and put down the Taos Revolt.
President James K. Polk promoted Price to brigadier general of volunteers on July 20,1847 and this was the last battle of the war, taking place days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been ratified by the United States Congress on March 10. Although reprimanded by Secretary of War William L. Marcy and ordered to return with his army to New Mexico and he was honorably discharged on November 25,1848, and returned to Missouri as a hero. Price now became an owner, and raised tobacco on the Bowling Green prairie. Popular because of his war service, he was easily elected Governor of Missouri in 1852, during his tenure, Washington University in St. Although the state passed an act to increase the governors salary. Price became the states Bank Commissioner from 1857 to 1861 and he secured a rail line through his home county, now forming part of the Norfolk and Western Railway
Liberty is a city in Clay County, Missouri and is a suburb of Kansas City, located in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census the population was 29,149, Liberty is the county seat of Clay County. Liberty is home to William Jewell College, Liberty was settled in 1822, and shortly became the county seat of Clay County. The city was named for the American concept of liberty, in 1830, David Rice Atchison established a law office in Liberty. He was joined three years by colleague Alexander William Doniphan, in October 1838, the two were ordered by Governor Lilburn Boggs to arrest Mormon prophet Joseph Smith Jr. at the Far West settlement in Caldwell County. Immediately after the conclusion of the Mormon War and other Mormon leaders were incarcerated at the Liberty Jail for the winter as Doniphan labored for a trial date. Although Doniphan led a force of Missouri volunteers ordered to capture the leaders, he defended Joseph Smith in trial, while en route to their new venue and his followers escaped and left Missouri for the new Mormon settlement in Nauvoo, Illinois.
49, Jewell Hall, Jewell-Lightburne Historic District, Major Hotel, Miller Building, Mt. Liberty is located at 39°14′27″N 94°25′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 29.15 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,149 people,10,582 households, the population density was 1,004.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,284 housing units at a density of 388.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91. 4% White,3. 6% African American,0. 5% Native American,1. 0% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 9% from other races, and 2. 6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 1% of the population,23. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 36.4 years. 26. 6% of residents were under the age of 18,9. 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24, 26% were from 25 to 44,26. 5% were from 45 to 64, and 11. 1% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the city was 48. 7% male and 51. 3% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 26,232 people,9,511 households, and 6,943 families residing in the city. The population density was 973.3 people per square mile, there were 9,973 housing units at an average density of 370.0 per square mile
Missouri in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries, only Virginia, Missouri was initially settled by Southerners traveling up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The compromise was that Maine would enter the Union as a state to balance Missouri. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state. The violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, and indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott and therefore that African-Americans could not initiate legal action in any court, even when they clearly had what would otherwise be a valid claim. The decision calmed the skirmishes between Missouri and Kansas partisans, but its publicity enraged abolitionists nationwide and contributed to the rhetoric that led to the Civil War.
In 1860, it took 25 days for a message to reach the Pacific coast from what was the westernmost railroad terminus at St. Joseph, the firm of Russell and Waddell proposed to do it in 10 days using a relay system of horses. The resulting Pony Express began operations on April 3,1860, Ulysses S. Grants first commission in the Civil War was to protect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, which delivered its mail. Scarcely a year after the ride from Missouri to San Francisco. By 1860, Missouris initial southern settlers had been supplanted with a more diversified non-slave-holding population, including former northerners, particularly German, the policy was first put forth in 1860 by outgoing Governor Robert Marcellus Stewart, who had Northern leanings. It was notionally reaffirmed by incoming Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, who had Southern leanings, however, stated in his inaugural address that in case of federal coercion of southern states, Missouri should support and defend her sister southern states.
A Constitutional Convention to discuss secession was convened with Sterling Price presiding, the delegates voted to stay in the Union and supported the neutrality position. At the time of the 1860 U. S. Census, Missouris total population was 1,182,012, most of the slaves lived in rural areas rather than cities. Of the 299,701 responses to Occupation,124,989 people listed Farmers and 39,396 listed Farm Laborers, the next highest categories were Laborers and Merchants. Less than half the population was listed as native-born. Those who had migrated from other states were predominantly from Kentucky, Virginia, Indiana,906,540 people were listed as born in the United States. Of the 160,541 foreign-born residents of Missouri, most came from the German states, England, France, in the election of 1860, Missouris newly elected governor was Claiborne Fox Jackson, a career politician and an ardent supporter of the South
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th Congress of the United States on May 8,1820. The measures provided for the admission of the District of Maine as a free to ratify a state constitution that both did not recognize and prohibited slavery within the state. Further, the Compromise provided that the Missouri territory was free to enact a constitution that both recognized as legal and permitted, the institution of chattel slavery. With these actions, the Compromise committed the largest remaining portion of Purchase territory to free soil, South of the parallel no slavery restrictions were imposed in the Arkansas Territory, which became Indian territory and Arkansas. There were not any statements about restrictions or recognition of the institution of slavery at or South of the latitude, President James Monroe signed the legislation on April 6,1820. The compromise bills served to quell the furious sectional debates that had first erupted during the session of the 15th Congress.
On February 3,1819, Representative James Tallmadge, Jr. a Jeffersonian Republican from New York State, had submitted two amendments to Missouris request for statehood. The first proposed to prohibit further slave migration into Missouri. At issue among southern legislators was the encroachment by their northern free state colleagues in what they considered a purely sectional concern, the more populous North held a firm numerical advantage in the House. Jeffersonian Republicans in the North ardently maintained that an interpretation of the Constitution required that Congress act to limit the spread of slavery on egalitarian grounds. The slave-holding states were acutely aware that maintaining a balance in the number of states was necessary to ensure political equilibrium in the US Senate. The South sought to enlist Missouri to maintain Southern political preeminence, the Missouri question in the 15th Congress ended in stalemate on March 4,1819, the House sustaining its northern antislavery position, and the Senate blocking a slavery restricted statehood.
Antislavery agitation grew in the North in the aftermath of the debates, as the 16th Congress assembled in December 1819, the two houses remained thoroughly polarized over slavery in the Louisiana Purchase territories. Thomas of Illinois added a proviso, excluding slavery from all remaining lands of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36 30’ parallel. The combined measures passed the Senate, only to be voted down in the House by those Northern representatives who held out for a free Missouri, speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, in a desperate bid to break the deadlock, divided the Senate bills. The legislation extracted by the served to effect a brokered truce or armistice rather than a genuine compromise. The crux of the Compromise was that it circumvented the deepening disaffection among Jeffersonian Republicans, the Era of Good Feelings, closely associated with the administration of President James Monroe, was characterized by the dissolution of national political identities.
The end of opposition parties meant the end of party discipline, rather than produce political harmony, as President James Monroe had hoped, amalgamation had led to intense rivalries among Jeffersonian Republicans