Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Claiborne Fox Jackson
Claiborne Fox Jackson, known as C. F. Jackson, was an American politician who was the 15th Governor of Missouri from January 3,1861, until his deposition on July 23,1861. In the run-up to the Civil War, he claimed to be anti-secession, in order to get elected Governor, when Union troops in St. Louis jailed the local militia, fighting broke out and Jackson declared Missouri to be a free republic. In July however, the Unionist members of the Missouri State Legislature voted to him from office. However, Jackson refused to accept the action as valid, before this could happen, Jackson died of stomach cancer at Little Rock. Claiborne Fox Jackson, son of Dempsey Carroll and Mary Orea Molly Jackson, was born in Fleming County, Kentucky, in 1826 Jackson moved with several of his older brothers to Missouri, settling in the Howard County town of Franklin. The Jackson brothers established a general mercantile store, where young Claiborne worked until 1832. Claiborne Jackson organized, and was elected captain of, a unit of Howard County volunteers for the conflict, Claiborne Jackson married Jane Breathhitt Sappington, daughter of prominent frontier physician John Sappington, in early 1831 but she died within a few months of the nuptials.
Returning from the war, Jackson chose not to resume his business partnership with his brothers, in 1833 he married Louisa Catherine Sappington, sister of his late first wife. He worked with his father-in-law in the manufacture and sale of Dr. Sappingtons Anti-Fever Pills, the pills were widely distributed and a best-seller, especially in the American south and the then-Mexican southwest due to Saline Counties proximity to the Santa Fe Trailhead. Subsequently, both men and their family became quite wealthy and influential. Tragedy struck again however in May,1838 when Louisa Jackson died and it is possible this was due to complications of childbirth, as Claiborne and Louisas infant son Andrew Jackson died the next month in June,1838. Claiborne Jacksons next, and final, marriage was to a third Sappington sister, Eliza would survive her husband, dying in 1864. Through his family connections with Dr. Sappington, Claiborne Jackson, Jackson was first elected to the Missouri House of Representatives in 1836, representing Saline County.
He moved to the Howard County seat of Fayette, Missouri—then a center of power in the state—in 1838. This would pay great political dividends in his career, Claiborne Jackson would serve a total of twelve years in the Missouri House, including terms as Speaker in 1844 and 1846. In 1840 Claiborne Jackson very nearly found himself involved in a duel over politics, writing anonymously to a Fayette, Missouri newspaper, Jackson made accusations that the Whig candidate for Missouri Governor that year, John B. Clark, was guilty of election fraud, more harsh words were exchanged and eventually Clark challenged Jackson to a duel before cooler heads prevailed and the matter was settled without gunplay. Later, once Clark had switched party allegiance to the Democrats, he, Claiborne Jackson was elected to the state senate in 1848
West Virginia in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War. In the summer of 1861, Union troops under General George McClellan drove off Confederate troops under General Robert E. Lee and this essentially freed Unionists in the northwestern counties of Virginia to form their own government as a result of the Wheeling Convention. After Lees departure, western Virginia continued to be a target of Confederate raids, guerrilla warfare gripped the new state, especially in the Allegheny Mountain counties to the east, where loyalties were much more divided than in the Unionist northwest part of the state. On April 17,1861, the Virginia state convention in Richmond declared secession, nearly all delegates from counties west of the Allegheny Mountains voted against secession, and most people and officials in that area refused any directions from the secessionist state government. On May 15, western Virginia Unionists convened the first session of the Wheeling Convention, many of the delegates were informally or self-appointed, so the Convention only denounced secession and called for a formal election of delegates.
The elected delegates met in the session on 11 June. On 20 June the Convention declared that by acceding to secession, the officials of the government in Richmond had forfeited their offices. The Convention elected replacements for these offices, creating the Restored Government of Virginia. The Restored government was supported in areas where secession was opposed. Union troops held the three northernmost counties in the Shenandoah Valley, and despite the views of most residents. At the Wheeling Convention, some proposed the immediate establishment of a separate state. However, other delegates pointed out that the creation of a new state would require the consent of Virginia, thus it was necessary to establish the Restored Government of Virginia to give that consent, which was granted 20 August 1861. A referendum in October 1861 approved statehood, a convention met. Congress approved statehood that December, with the condition that slavery must be abolished in the new state and this condition required a new constitutional convention and referendum.
The revised constitution provided for the abolition of slavery, which took effect on 3 February 1865. On 20 June 1863, the newly proclaimed state of West Virginia was admitted to the Union, including all the western counties, all the northern states had free public school systems before the war, but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in 1863, over bitter opposition it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves. When Union troops occupied parts of eastern Virginia such as Alexandria and Norfolk and they were not included in West Virginia
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
George Graham Vest
George Graham Vest was a U. S. politician. Born in Frankfort, Kentucky, he was known for his skills in oration, Vest, a lawyer as well as a politician, served as a Missouri Congressman, a Confederate Congressman during the Civil War, and finally a US Senator. He is best known for his a mans best friend closing arguments from the trial in which damages were sought for the killing of a dog named Old Drum on October 18,1869. Vest graduated from Centre College, Kentucky, in 1848 and from the law department of Transylvania University, Kentucky and he was admitted to the bar in 1853 and planned to move to California. However, while en route, he stopped in Pettis County, vests client was acquitted but soon burned at the stake by an angry mob. Vests own life was threatened, but he nonetheless decided to stay in Missouri permanently. In 1854 he married Sallie Sneed of Danville and they had three children, two sons and a daughter. In 1860, after moving to Boonville, Missouri, he was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives, as a Missouri representative he was chairman of the Committee on Federal Relations.
Vest served in the House until late 1861 during which he wrote the Vest Resolutions in which he denounced coercion of the South, when the Civil War broke out Vest was a strong states rights advocate during the Missouri secession crisis, and eventually sided with the Confederacy. He proposed the Secession Ordinance that was passed by the Missouri legislature in October 1861, the following year, he briefly served as judge advocate with the Army of Missouri, commanded by former Governor Sterling Price. He served in the House of Representatives of the Confederate Congress from February 1862 to January 12,1865, after the war he returned to Pettis County moving to Sedalia and resumed his law practice. It was at time in 1869 that Vest was asked to represent Charles Burden and Old Drum in the case that would make him famous. Vest took the case tried on September 23,1870, in which he represented a client whose hunting dog, a foxhound named Drum, had been killed by a sheep farmer, Leonidas Hornsby. The farmer had previously announced his intentions to kill any dog found on his property, the owner was suing for damages in the amount of $50.
During the trial, Vest stated that he would win the case or apologize to every dog in Missouri, vests closing argument to the jury made no reference to any of the testimony offered during the trial, and instead offered a eulogy of sorts. Vests Eulogy on the Dog is one of the most enduring passages of prose in American courtroom history, Vest won the case. A statue of the dog stands in front of the Warrensburg, courthouse and a bust of the dog resides in the Missouri Supreme Court building in Jefferson City, Missouri. The speech has been used in movies which are set in Missouri and involve sheep owners who allegedly shoot the dog but are shot themselves by the dogs owners, who are tried for murder
Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War. It was one of a number of forts planned after the War of 1812, combining high walls and heavy masonry. Work started in 1829, but was incomplete by 1860, when South Carolina seceded from the Union, the First Battle of Fort Sumter opened on April 12,1861, when Confederate artillery fired on the Union garrison. These were the first shots of the war, and continued all day, the fort had been cut off from its supply line and surrendered the next day. The Second Battle of Fort Sumter was an attempt by the Union to retake the fort. Although the fort was reduced to rubble, it remained in Confederate hands until it was evacuated as General Sherman marched through South Carolina in February 1865, Fort Sumter is open for public tours as part of the Fort Sumter National Monument operated by the National Park Service. Named after General Thomas Sumter, Revolutionary War hero, Fort Sumter was built following the War of 1812, construction began in 1829, and the structure was still unfinished in 1861, when the Civil War began.
Seventy thousand tons of granite were imported from New England to build up a bar in the entrance to Charleston Harbor. The fort was a brick structure,170 to 190 feet long, with walls five feet thick. It was designed to house 650 men and 135 guns in three tiers of gun emplacements, although it was never filled near its full capacity and he secretly relocated companies E and H of the 1st U. S. Artillery to Fort Sumter on his own initiative, without orders from his superiors and he thought that providing a stronger defense would delay an attack by South Carolina militia. The fort was not yet complete at the time and fewer than half of the cannons that should have been available were in place, due to military downsizing by President James Buchanan. Over the next few months repeated calls for evacuation of Fort Sumter from the government of South Carolina and three hired tug boats with added protection against small arms fire to be used to tow troop and supply barges directly to Fort Sumter. By April 6,1861 the first ships began to set sail for their rendezvous off the Charleston Bar, the first to arrive was Harriet Lane, the evening of April 11,1861.
On Thursday, April 11,1861, Beauregard sent three aides, Colonel James Chesnut, Jr, captain Stephen D. Lee, and Lieutenant A. R. Chisolm to demand the surrender of the fort. Anderson declined, and the returned to report to Beauregard. After Beauregard had consulted the Confederate Secretary of War, Leroy Walker, he sent the aides back to the fort, the aides waited for hours while Anderson considered his alternatives and played for time. The aides left the fort and proceeded to the nearby Fort Johnson, Chesnut ordered the fort to open fire on Fort Sumter
Sterling Price was a soldier, lawyer and politician from the U. S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, following the war, Price took his remaining troops to Mexico rather than surrender, unsuccessfully seeking service with the Emperor Maximillian there. He ultimately returned to Missouri, where he died in poverty and was buried in St. Louis, Sterling Old Pap Price was born near Farmville, in Prince Edward County, Virginia on September 14,1809, into a family of Welsh origin. His father was Pugh Price, whose ancestor John Price was born in Brecknock, Wales, in 1584, Price attended Hampden–Sydney College in 1826 and 1827, studying law and working at the courthouse near his home. He was admitted to the Virginia bar and opened a law practice, in the fall of 1831, Price and his family moved to Fayette, Missouri. A year later, they moved to Keytesville, where he ran a hotel, on May 14,1833, he married Martha Head of Randolph County, Missouri.
They had seven children, five surviving to adulthood - Edwin Williamson, Celsus, Martha Sterling and his report was favorable to the Mormons, stating they were not guilty of any offenses and that in his opinion the charges had been brought by their enemies. Following the Mormon capitulation in November 1838, Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs to Caldwell County ordered Price a company of men to protect the LDS from further depredations. He was elected to the Missouri State House of Representatives from 1836 to 1838, and again from 1840 to 1844, and was chosen as its speaker. He was elected as a Democrat to the 29th United States Congress, serving from March 4,1845, to August 12,1846, Price raised the Second Regiment, Missouri Mounted Volunteer Cavalry and was appointed its colonel on August 12,1846. He marched his regiment under Alexander Doniphan to Santa Fe, where he assumed command of the Territory of New Mexico after Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, departed for California. Price served as governor of New Mexico, and put down the Taos Revolt.
President James K. Polk promoted Price to brigadier general of volunteers on July 20,1847 and this was the last battle of the war, taking place days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been ratified by the United States Congress on March 10. Although reprimanded by Secretary of War William L. Marcy and ordered to return with his army to New Mexico and he was honorably discharged on November 25,1848, and returned to Missouri as a hero. Price now became an owner, and raised tobacco on the Bowling Green prairie. Popular because of his war service, he was easily elected Governor of Missouri in 1852, during his tenure, Washington University in St. Although the state passed an act to increase the governors salary. Price became the states Bank Commissioner from 1857 to 1861 and he secured a rail line through his home county, now forming part of the Norfolk and Western Railway
Camp Jackson affair
After capturing the entire unit, Lyon marched the captives into town in order to parole them. En route, hostile secessionist crowds gathered, and after a gunshot, Lyons men fired into the mob, killing at least 28 civilians. Several days of rioting throughout St. Louis followed, pro-slavery locals were particularly angered by the presence in Lyon’s force of many German abolitionists who had fled the failed revolutions of 1848. The violence ended only after martial law was imposed and Union regulars were dispatched to the city, Missouri was a slave state, and many of its leaders were Southern sympathizers who favored secession and joining the Confederacy when the Civil War began. However, there were few slaves and slaveowners in Missouri. Over half the population of St. Louis was composed of recent immigrants, many were Forty-Eighters who had been active in the failed revolutions of 1848-49 in the German states. Nevertheless, by early 1861, both pro- and anti-secession factions in Missouri were organizing military and paramilitary forces, secessionists organized as Minutemen, often assisted by state officials.
On February 13, Brigadier General Daniel M. Frost enrolled five companies of St. Louis-area Minutemen as the new 2nd Regiment of the Missouri Volunteer Militia. That same month, a new law banned militia activity outside the framework of the state-regulated MVM, in February, Missouri elected a Constitutional Convention to amend the state constitution and decide the issue of secession. On March 21, the Convention voted 98 to 1 against secession, on April 20, several days after the Battle of Fort Sumter, a pro-Confederate mob seized the Liberty Arsenal in Liberty and expropriated about 1,000 rifles and muskets. This sparked fears that Confederates would seize the much larger St. Louis Arsenal, Harney, an elderly career officer, wished to avoid open conflict with secessionist forces. On April 23, the War Department replaced Harney with Captain Nathaniel Lyon as acting commander, most of Lyons early recruits were Forty-Eighters and Wide Awakes. According to one estimate, 80% of the volunteers in the first Missouri Volunteer regiments were German-American immigrants, the anti-slavery foreign-born Germans were prejudicially targeted by pro-slavery native-born Missourians.
Lyons next action, by order of the War Department, was to move the arms held in the St. Louis Arsenal out of reach of Missouri secessionists. Early in the morning of April 26, nearly 21,000 rifles were loaded on the steamer City of Alton, the remainder were held for issue to Lyons Missouri Volunteers. Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson had been elected in 1860 on the ticket of the pro-Union Douglas faction of the Democratic Party, the most significant obstacle was the St. Louis Arsenal, which was heavily fortified with thick walls. In mid-April 1861, Jackson wrote to Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his letter was carried by militia officers Colton Green and Basil Wilson Duke. Around May 1, Jackson called out part of the Missouri Volunteer Militia for maneuvers near St. Louis, the MVM set up Camp Jackson, about 4.5 miles northwest of the arsenal
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Arkansas is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the states diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States, the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, the largest city in the eastern part of the state is Jonesboro. The largest city in the part of the state is Pine Bluff. The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15,1836, in 1861 Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
Upon returning to the Union in 1868, the state would continue to suffer due to its reliance on slavery. White rural interests continued to dominate the politics until the Civil Rights Movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice. The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows, restaurants and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research, have all lived in Arkansas. The name Arkansas derives from the root as the name for the state of Kansas. The Kansa tribe of Native Americans are closely associated with the Sioux tribes of the Great Plains, the word Arkansas itself is a French pronunciation of a Quapaw word, meaning land of downriver people or the Sioux word akakaze meaning people of the south wind. In 2007, the legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring the possessive form of the states name to be Arkansass which has been followed increasingly by the state government.
Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, as well as Tennessee, the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The state line along the Mississippi River is indeterminate along much of the border with Mississippi due to these changes. Arkansas can generally be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half, the highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains. The southern lowlands include the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Arkansas Delta and this dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas
Missouri in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries, only Virginia, Missouri was initially settled by Southerners traveling up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The compromise was that Maine would enter the Union as a state to balance Missouri. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state. The violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, and indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott and therefore that African-Americans could not initiate legal action in any court, even when they clearly had what would otherwise be a valid claim. The decision calmed the skirmishes between Missouri and Kansas partisans, but its publicity enraged abolitionists nationwide and contributed to the rhetoric that led to the Civil War.
In 1860, it took 25 days for a message to reach the Pacific coast from what was the westernmost railroad terminus at St. Joseph, the firm of Russell and Waddell proposed to do it in 10 days using a relay system of horses. The resulting Pony Express began operations on April 3,1860, Ulysses S. Grants first commission in the Civil War was to protect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, which delivered its mail. Scarcely a year after the ride from Missouri to San Francisco. By 1860, Missouris initial southern settlers had been supplanted with a more diversified non-slave-holding population, including former northerners, particularly German, the policy was first put forth in 1860 by outgoing Governor Robert Marcellus Stewart, who had Northern leanings. It was notionally reaffirmed by incoming Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, who had Southern leanings, however, stated in his inaugural address that in case of federal coercion of southern states, Missouri should support and defend her sister southern states.
A Constitutional Convention to discuss secession was convened with Sterling Price presiding, the delegates voted to stay in the Union and supported the neutrality position. At the time of the 1860 U. S. Census, Missouris total population was 1,182,012, most of the slaves lived in rural areas rather than cities. Of the 299,701 responses to Occupation,124,989 people listed Farmers and 39,396 listed Farm Laborers, the next highest categories were Laborers and Merchants. Less than half the population was listed as native-born. Those who had migrated from other states were predominantly from Kentucky, Virginia, Indiana,906,540 people were listed as born in the United States. Of the 160,541 foreign-born residents of Missouri, most came from the German states, England, France, in the election of 1860, Missouris newly elected governor was Claiborne Fox Jackson, a career politician and an ardent supporter of the South
Boonville is a city in Cooper County, Missouri, USA. The population was 8,319 at the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Cooper County. The city was the site of an early in the American Civil War on July 17,1861. The area has been called Boones Lick and the route from the lick to St. Charles/St, Missouri is called the Boones Lick Trail. The eastern terminus near Boonville at Franklin, Missouri is considered the start of the Santa Fe Trail. The first pioneers were Hannah and Stephen Cole, who settled in 1810, during skirmishes with Native Americans in the War of 1812 they moved to a fort on the north side of the Missouri River. That fort subsequently became the first county seat of Howard County, after the war, the town was formally laid out in 1817 by Asa Morgan and Charles Lucas. Boonville was named the county seat in 1818, the Cooper County Jail was built in 1848 and remained in place until 1979 with a claim that it was the longest-serving jail in Missouri history. In 1855, Thespian Hall opened and now claims to be the oldest continuously running theatre west of the Allegheny Mountains, more than 400 buildings are listed on National Register of Historic Places listings in Cooper County, Missouri.
The city was a target because of its location on the Missouri Pacific Railroad. The track was taken over by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. In the 1980s, the section that traversed the town was converted to parkland. Today, the Katy Trail is the longest rails to trails system in the United States, in 2008, Anheuser-Busch InBev opened the Warm Springs Ranch west of Boonville as the primary breeding farm for the Budweiser Clydesdales. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 7.21 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,319 people,2,918 households, the population density was 1,207.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,294 housing units at a density of 478.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83. 1% White,13. 3% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 6% Asian,0. 3% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 9% of the population. 32. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.94