Hydraulics is a technology and applied science using engineering and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids or fluids. At a very basic level, hydraulics is the version of pneumatics. Fluid mechanics provides the foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In fluid power, hydraulics are used for the generation, hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design and fluid control circuitry, pumps. The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the body within the heart. Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with surface flow, such as occurring in rivers, lakes, estuaries. Its sub-field open channel flow studies the flow in open channels, the word hydraulics originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός which in turn originates from ὕδωρ and αὐλός. Early uses of water power date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, other early examples of water power include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the Turpan water system in ancient Central Asia.
The Greeks constructed sophisticated water and hydraulic power systems, an example is the construction by Eupalinos, under a public contract, of a watering channel for Samos, the Tunnel of Eupalinos. An early example of the usage of hydraulic wheel, probably the earliest in Europe, is the Perachora wheel, notable is the construction of the first hydraulic automata by Ctesibius and Hero of Alexandria. Hero describes a number of working machines using hydraulic power, such as the force pump, in ancient China there was Sunshu Ao, Ximen Bao, Du Shi, Zhang Heng, and Ma Jun, while medieval China had Su Song and Shen Kuo. Du Shi employed a waterwheel to power the bellows of a blast furnace producing cast iron, Zhang Heng was the first to employ hydraulics to provide motive power in rotating an armillary sphere for astronomical observation. In ancient Sri Lanka, hydraulics were used in the ancient kingdoms of Anuradhapura. The discovery of the principle of the tower, or valve pit. By the first century AD, several irrigation works had been completed.
The coral on the rock at the site includes cisterns for collecting water. They were among the first to use of the siphon to carry water across valleys. They used lead widely in plumbing systems for domestic and public supply, hydraulic mining was used in the gold-fields of northern Spain, which was conquered by Augustus in 25 BC
Egg roll is a term used for many different foods around the world. The term egg roll is used in North America to refer to variations of fried foods involving filling wrapped in flat bread. The dish is considered a subtype of the roll in mainland China. Egg rolls are considered distinct from spring rolls outside of mainland China, there is another version known as Popiah which has a soft pan cooked wrapper with vegetable stuffing that are stir fried or steamed in a separate process. Egg rolls are usually stuffed with pork, shrimp, or chicken, adding cabbage, bean sprouts and other vegetables, and deep fried. This variety of the egg roll is very common and popular, across even regional varieties of American Chinese food, the Vietnamese chả giò is often called egg roll on menus in English-speaking countries, even though the wrapper is made out of rice paper rather than eggs and flour. In West Bengal, and especially Kolkata, egg roll refers to an egg wrapped inside a paratha fried flat-bread. After the paratha has been prepared, an egg is cracked on a pan and while the egg is still uncooked and it is cooked until the egg is well done and is stuck to the paratha.
After that, the contents are removed from the pan and sliced raw onions, sliced chilis, sliced cucumbers, a squeeze of fresh lemon juice. An optional choice is adding tomato ketchup at the end and it is wrapped in paper and served as a take away street food. This delicacy was specially invented for the Colonial Britishers living in the Calcutta as a quick snack, in Britain and Australia, an egg roll can refer to a fried egg in a bread roll. The terms pancake roll, mini spring roll, or spring roll are often used by Chinese restaurants in the UK and Australia to describe what is called an egg roll in the United States. In France, a similar hors dœuvre is called a nem from the northern Vietnamese nem or nem rán, and it is made from rice paper rolls that are fried. In Australia there is what is known as the Chiko Roll. A Mexican egg roll is an egg roll filled with beans, cheese. It is deep-fried and served with cream or salsas. In many Chinese restaurants in Mexico, egg rolls are comparable to those in the U.
S, other variations on the egg roll, especially common on menus of bar appetizers in the Northeastern United States, include the pizza roll and the cheese steak roll
Dominoes or dominos is a family of games played with rectangular domino tiles. Each domino is a tile with a line dividing its face into two square ends. Each end is marked with a number of spots or is blank, the backs of the dominoes in a set are indistinguishable, either blank or having some common design. The domino gaming pieces make up a set, sometimes called a deck or pack. The traditional Sino-European domino set consists of 28 dominoes, featuring all combinations of spot counts between zero and six, a domino set is a generic gaming device, similar to playing cards or dice, in that a variety of games can be played with a set. The earliest mention of dominoes is from Song dynasty China found in the text Former Events in Wulin by Zhou Mi, modern dominoes first appeared in Italy during the 18th century, but how Chinese dominoes developed into the modern game is unknown. Italian missionaries in China may have brought the game to Europe, the name domino is most likely from the resemblance to a kind of carnival costume worn during the Venetian Carnival, often consisting of a black-hooded robe and a white mask.
Contrary to the coinage of the word polyomino as a generalization, european-style dominoes are traditionally made of bone or ivory, or a dark hardwood such as ebony, with contrasting black or white pips. Alternatively, domino sets have made from many different natural materials, other hardwoods, ceramic clay. Modern sets use a different color for the dots of each different end value to facilitate finding matching ends. Occasionally, one may find a set made of card stock like that for playing cards. Such sets are lightweight and inexpensive, and like cards are more susceptible to disturbances such as a sudden breeze. Sometimes, dominoes have a pin in the middle. Each progressively larger set increases the number of pips on an end by three, so the common extended sets are double-nine, double-12, double-15, and double-18. Andrew Lo asserts that Zhou Mi meant dominoes when referring to pupai, the earliest known manual written about dominoes is the 《宣和牌譜》 written by Qu You, but some Chinese scholars believe this manual is a forgery from a time.
In the Encyclopedia of a Myriad of Treasures, Zhang Pu described the game of laying out dominoes as pupai, although the character for pu had changed, traditional Chinese domino games include Tien Gow, Pai Gow, Che Deng, and others. Chinese dominoes with blank faces were known during the 17th century, many different domino sets have been used for centuries in various parts of the world to play a variety of domino games. Each domino originally represented one of the 21 results of throwing two six-sided dice, one half of each domino is set with the pips from one die and the other half contains the pips from the second die
Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
Mister Rogers Neighborhood is an American half-hour childrens television series that was created and hosted by namesake Fred Rogers. The series is aimed primarily at preschool ages 2 to 5, despite this, a number of stations have chosen to continue airing the reruns independently of the PBS feed. Eleven years after Mister Rogers Neighborhood concluded, PBS debuted an animated spin-off and it was this program where many of the puppets and music used in the series were developed, such as King Friday XIII, and Curious X the Owl. It was the time when Rogers began wearing his famous sneakers, the show won a Sylvania Award for best childrens show, and was briefly broadcast nationally on the NBC Television Network. Rogers moved to Toronto, Ontario in 1961 to work on a new series based on The Childrens Corner which was called Misterogers, most importantly, Rogers appeared on camera in the new show rather than only appearing through puppets or characters. Fred Rainsberry, head of Childrens Programming at CBC, persuaded Rogers to appear on camera in the new show after seeing him interact with children.
Ernie Coombs, one of the Americans whom Rogers brought with him to develop the CBC show, would remain with CBC. Coombs first appeared as Mr. Dressup in the CBC program Butternut Square, Coombs helped to develop what became Mr. Dressup which continued for several decades. In 1966, Rogers acquired the rights to his program from the CBC and moved the show to WQED in Pittsburgh, where he had worked on The Childrens Corner. He renamed the show Misterogers Neighborhood, which initially aired regionally in the northeastern US through EEN, including stations in Boston, Washington, D. C. The 100 episodes of the show incorporated the Neighborhood of Make-Believe segments from the CBC episodes with additional reality-based opening and closing material produced in Pittsburgh. The series was cancelled in 1967 due to lack of funding, the first national broadcast of Misterogers Neighborhood appeared on most NET stations on February 19,1968. In 1970, when PBS replaced NET, it inherited this program, around the same time the show had a slight title change, to the more-familiar Mister Rogers Neighborhood.
The show was in production from February 19,1968 to February 20,1976, the studio in Pittsburgh where the series was taped was renamed The Fred Rogers Studio, in honor of Rogers himself. Rogers made a point to behave naturally on camera rather than acting out a character. I believe that kids can spot a phony a mile away, the half-hour episodes were punctuated by a puppet segment chronicling occurrences in the Neighborhood of Make-Believe. From 1979 to 1981, a version of the opening sequence was used. Usually, the camera goes from the neighborhood to out on the porch of the Rogers television house and this is the same model electric trolley that in the program will transport viewers into the Neighborhood of Make-Believe
Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood
Daniel Tigers Neighborhood is an American-Canadian animated childrens television series produced by The Fred Rogers Company,9 Story Media Group, and Out of the Blue Enterprises. It debuted on most PBS stations on September 3,2012, the series centers around Daniel Tiger. The series features other children of the characters from the Neighborhood of Make-Believe, such as Katerina Kittycat, Miss Elaina, O the Owl, two 11-minute segments are linked by a common socio-emotional theme, such as disappointment and sadness or anger, or being thankful and appreciative. The theme uses a musical phrase, which the show calls strategy songs, to reinforce the theme. Many of the songs are available in albums or as singles under the artist name Daniel Tigers Neighborhood. The first two albums are Big Feelings and Lifes Little Lessons and that conversation led to the creation of Daniel Tigers Neighborhood. PBS initially ordered 40 episodes, which were broadcast between September 3,2012, and February 21,2014, PBS Kids has renewed the show for a second season of 25 episodes, which premiered on August 18,2014.
On July 7,2015, the show was renewed for a season of 25 episodes. Cartoon Network UKs sister pre-school channel Cartoonito premiered Daniel Tigers Neighborhood on March 1,2016, a smaller selection of current episodes is available through the PBS Kids app on several digital media player and tablet/smartphone platforms. The program is targeted at preschool-aged children, it teaches emotional intelligence and its content follows a curriculum based on Fred Rogers teaching and new research into child development. Daniel Tiger - Daniel lives on Jungle Beach with his parents, in season 2, he became a big brother when Baby Margaret was born. His favorite toy is a tiger named Tigey, which he named after Tigey the Adventure Tiger. Daniel normally wears a red sweater and red sneakers. He differs in appearance from the character he is based on from the Mr. Rogers Neighborhood television show. In his house, the wardrobe and much of his home furnishings, are allusions to Mr. Rogers studio house. In the first episode of season 2, she was pregnant, dad Tiger - Daniels father works at the clock factory where he maintains various clocks and is responsible for chime time.
He wears a blue sweater and blue sneakers. He is loosely based upon the Daniel Striped Tiger puppet from Mister Rogers Neighborhood, Baby Margaret - Daniels new baby sister who was introduced in Season 2
Itzhak Perlman is an Israeli-American violinist and pedagogue. In 2015, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Perlman was born in Tel Aviv in 1945, British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel. His parents and Shoshana Perlman, were natives of Poland and had immigrated to Palestine in the mid-1930s before they met. Perlman first became interested in the violin after hearing a classical music performance on the radio, at the age of three, he was denied admission to the Shulamit Conservatory for being too small to hold a violin. Perlman contracted polio at age four and he made a good recovery, learning to walk with crutches. Today, he uses crutches or an electric Amigo scooter for mobility, Perlman appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show twice in 1958, and again in 1964, on the same show with the Rolling Stones. He made his debut at Carnegie Hall in 1963 and won the Leventritt Competition in 1964, soon afterward, he began to tour widely. On July 5,1986, he performed on the New York Philharmonics tribute to the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty, the orchestra, conducted by Zubin Mehta, performed in Central Park.
In 1987, he joined the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra for their concerts in Warsaw and he has performed and recorded with his friend and fellow Israeli violinist Pinchas Zukerman on numerous occasions over the years. As well as playing and recording the music for which he is best known, Perlman has played jazz, including an album made with jazz pianist Oscar Peterson. Perlman has been a soloist for a number of film such as the theme of the 1993 film Schindlers List by John Williams. More recently, he was the violin soloist for the 2005 film Memoirs of a Geisha along with cellist Yo-Yo Ma, Perlman played selections from the musical scores of the movies nominated for Best Original Score at the 73rd Academy Awards with Yo-Yo Ma and at the 78th Academy Awards. Perlman played at the state attended by Queen Elizabeth II on May 7,2007. He performed John Williamss Air and Simple Gifts at the 2009 inauguration ceremony for Barack Obama along with Yo-Yo Ma, Gabriela Montero, and Anthony McGill. While the quartet did play live, the music played simultaneously over speakers, Perlman was quoted as saying, It would have been a disaster if we had done it any other way.
In 1975, Perlman accepted a faculty post at the Conservatory of Music at Brooklyn College, in 2003, Mr. Perlman was named the holder of the Dorothy Richard Starling Foundation Chair in Violin Studies at the Juilliard School, succeeding his teacher, Dorothy DeLay. Perlman teaches at the Juilliard School for the pre-college program and he currently teaches students one-on-one at the Perlman Music Program on Long Island, NY, rarely holding master classes. The Perlman music program, founded in 1995 by Toby Perlman and Suki Sandler, over time, it expanded to a year-long program
Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting part of a historic district in the city of Williamsburg, United States. Colonial Williamsburgs 301-acre Historic Area includes buildings from the century, as well as 17th-century, 19th-century, Colonial Revival structures. The Historic Area is an interpretation of a colonial American city, with exhibits of dozens of restored or re-created buildings related to its colonial, Colonial Williamsburgs motto has been That the future may learn from the past. One of the largest history projects in the nation and a tourist attraction, it is part of the Historic Triangle of Virginia, the site was once used for conferences by world leaders and heads of state, including U. S. presidents. It was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1960, costumed employees work and dress as people did in the era, sometimes using colonial grammar and diction. Colonial Williamsburgs portion of the Historic Area begins east of the College of William & Marys College Yard, Colonial Williamsburg is a historical landmark and a living history museum.
Its core runs along Duke of Gloucester Street and the Palace Green that extends north and south perpendicular to it and this area is largely flat, with ravines and streams branching off on the periphery. Surviving colonial structures have been restored as close as possible to their 18th-century appearance, with traces of buildings, many of the missing colonial structures were reconstructed on their original sites beginning in the 1930s. Animals and dependencies add to the environment, four taverns have been reconstructed for use as restaurants and two for inns. There are craftsmens workshops for period trades, including a shop, a shoemakers, blacksmiths, a cooperage, a cabinetmaker, a gunsmiths, a wigmakers. There are merchants selling tourist souvenirs, reproduction toys, pottery, the Public Gaol served as a jail for the colonists. Former notorious inmates include the pirate Blackbeards crew who were kept in the jail while they awaited trial in 1704, Colonial Williamsburg operations extend to Merchants Square, a Colonial Revival commercial area designated a historic district in its own right.
Nearby are the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum and DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum, locals and employees frequently call Colonial Williamsburg CW. The Jamestown statehouse, housing Virginias government at the time, burned down on October 20,1698, the legislators consequently moved their meetings to the College of William and Mary in Virginia at Middle Plantation, putting an end to Jamestowns 92-year run as Virginias colonial capital. Interested Middle Plantation landowners donated some of their holdings to advance the plan, Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg by Governor Francis Nicholson, who was first among the proponents of the change, in honor of King William III of England. Nicholson said that at Williamsburg clear and crystal springs burst from the champagne soil, by champagne, he meant excellent or fertile. Nicholson had the city surveyed and a laid out by Theodorick Bland taking into consideration the brick College Building. The grid seems to have obliterated all but the remnants of a plan that laid out the streets in the monogram of King William and Queen Mary
The Aviary is a 2005 independent film about the ups and downs in the personal life of a flight attendant, coping with a transfer to a new city, finding a new love, and everything in between. It was written and produced by Abe Levy and Silver Tree, Summer Pozzi, a Chicago-based flight attendant for an unnamed airline, is mentally preparing to quit her job and marry Jim, her soon-to-be airline pilot boyfriend. During a layover, she gets a call asking her to transfer to San Francisco. Then, Jim tells her he refused to take an exam to be a pilot. Shaken and disappointed, Summer decides to go ahead with the transfer, once in San Francisco, she moves into a small apartment with three other flight attendants, one of them who was supposed to be moving out. During a layover, she meets Julian, the captain of her dreams
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, gels, Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking. Food colorants are used in a variety of non-food applications including cosmetics, home craft projects. People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the flavor in anything from candy to wine. During the Middle Ages, the economy in the European countries was based on agriculture, under feudalism, aesthetic aspects were not considered, at least not by the vast majority of the generally very poor population. This situation changed with urbanization at the beginning of the Modern Age, one of the very first food laws, created in Augsburg, Germany, in 1531, concerned spices or colorants and required saffron counterfeiters to be burned. With the onset of the revolution, people became dependent on foods produced by others.
These new urban dwellers demanded food at low cost, analytical chemistry was still primitive and regulations few. Copper arsenite was used to recolor used tea leaves for resale and it caused two deaths when used to color a dessert in 1860. Again his tea if mixed or green, he would not escape without the administration of a little Prussian blue. Many color additives had never tested for toxicity or other adverse effects. Historical records show that injuries, even deaths, resulted from tainted colorants, in 1851, about 200 people were poisoned in England,17 of them fatally, directly as a result of eating adulterated lozenges. Originally, these were dubbed coal-tar colors because the materials were obtained from bituminous coal. Many synthesized dyes were easier and less costly to produce and were superior in coloring properties when compared to naturally derived alternatives, some synthetic food colorants are diazo dyes. Diazo dyes are prepared by coupling of a compound with a second aromatic hydrocarbons.
The resulting compounds contain conjugated systems that absorb light in the visible parts of the spectrum. The attractiveness of the synthetic dyes is that their color, the color of the dyes can be controlled by selecting the number of azo-groups and various substituents. Yellow shades are often achieved by using acetoacetanilide, Red colors are often azo compounds
Speedy Delivery is a 2008 documentary film directed and produced by Paul B. The film follows the story of David Newell, better known as Mr. McFeely from the childrens television show Mister Rogers Neighborhood. Shot in Pittsburgh, Speedy Delivery is a study of Newell. Made on a budget of $4,000, the film was funded by grants from two universities, Carnegie Mellon University and Pomona College, McFeely around his own neighborhood, Pennsylvania, examining the two roles he has played for over forty years. This company created and produced Mister Rogers Neighborhood during the majority of its years on air since its debut in 1967, the film follows David Newell on four appearances located in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Beginning in Pittsburgh, he appears at the opening of the Schenley Plaza Carousel, next, he travels to Baltimore, Maryland to help open up a special Mister Rogers traveling exhibit, including a replica of the set. Finally, he returns to Pittsburgh for two appearances in Bridgeville and Cranberry Park.
There are two cuts of Speedy Delivery, the theatrical cut runs approximately one hour and twelve minutes. The television cut runs approximately fifty seven minutes, standard for PBS specifications, the theatrical cut is available on DVD and includes a directors commentary. Speedy Delivery is airing regionally on PBS stations across the nation
Children's Museum of Pittsburgh
The Childrens Museum of Pittsburgh is a hands-on interactive childrens museum in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is in the Allegheny Center neighborhood in Pittsburghs Northside, the neighboring Buhl Planetarium building was vacated by 1991 when it was superseded by the nearby Carnegie Science Center. The museum grew from a mobile museum started at the Three Rivers Arts Festival in 1972. In the early 2000s, it was announced the museum would be expanding from the old Beaux Arts-style post office into the neighboring vacant Art Deco Buhl Planetarium. A plan was devised by Koning Eizenberg Architecture, Inc. to connect the two structures with a modern glass addition over what was a street called Allegheny Square. The street was vacated and realigned and the addition was built, the Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh became the largest Silver LEED certified museum in the country in March 2006. To offer teaching moments about the new museum, many of the building’s structural and mechanical systems are left exposed.
In 2010, officials announced plans to rehab a rundown park in front of the museum, the centerpiece of the new park will be a fog sculpture by Ned Kahn. The park opened on June 23,2012 during a community celebration, in its seasonal Backyard, the museum grounds includes an interactive environment called Allegheny Waterworks which incorporates preserved local architectural relics. Among its sculptures are reliefs of Joe Magarac and other figures, designed by sculptor Charles Keck, the Childrens Museum of Pittsburgh houses several ongoing exhibits as well as rotating exhibits. The MAKESHOP, Studio, Garage, Theater, located within the museum are iconic items from the show Mister Rogers Neighborhood. These include the original puppets, one of Fred Rogers sweaters, the Childrens Museum of Pittsburgh presents a wide variety of programs for children in fields ranging from dance and rocket building to quilting and robotics. Visiting artists offer workshops in a host of media, including pottery, Japanese paper cutting, the Museums extensive outreach program offers performances, after school programs, artist days and festival programs for schools and groups throughout the year.
Educational field trips are offered for schools and other groups. The museum has collaborated with a number of institutions and programs, such as the University of Pittsburgh. Childrens Museum of Pittsburgh official site
A teddy bear is a soft toy in the form of a bear. Developed apparently simultaneously by toymakers Morris Michtom in the U. S, since the creation of the first teddy bears which sought to imitate the form of real bear cubs, teddies have greatly varied in form and material. They have become collectors items, with older and rarer teddies appearing at public auctions, Teddy bears are among the most popular gifts for children and are often given to adults to signify love, congratulations, or sympathy. The name teddy bear comes from former United States President Theodore Roosevelt, the name originated from an incident on a bear hunting trip in Mississippi in November 1902, to which Roosevelt was invited by Mississippi Governor Andrew H. Longino. There were several other hunters competing, and most of them had killed an animal. A suite of Roosevelts attendants, led by Holt Collier, cornered and they called Roosevelt to the site and suggested that he should shoot it. Morris Michtom saw the drawing of Roosevelt and was inspired to create a teddy bear and he created a tiny soft bear cub and put it in the shop window with a sign Teddys bear, after sending a bear to Roosevelt and receiving permission to use his name.
The toys were a success and Michtom founded the Ideal Novelty. At the same time in Germany, the Steiff firm, unaware of Michtoms bear, Steiff exhibited the toy at the Leipzig Toy Fair in March 1903, where it was seen by Hermann Berg, a buyer for George Borgfeldt & Company in New York. He ordered 3000 to be sent to the United States, the story is disputed - Gunther Pfieffer notes that it was only recorded in 1953 and says it is more likely that the 55 PB was not sufficiently durable to survive until the present day. Although Steiff and Michtom were both making teddy bears at around the time, neither would have known of the others creation due to poor transatlantic communication. Early teddy bears were made to look like bears, with extended snouts. Modern teddy bears tend to have eyes and foreheads and smaller noses. Teddy bears are manufactured to represent different species of bear, such as polar bears and grizzly bears. Commercially made, mass-produced teddy bears are made as toys for children.
These bears either have safety joints for attaching arms and they must have securely fastened eyes that do not pose a choking hazard for small children. These plush bears must meet a standard of construction in order to be marketed to children in the United States. There are companies, like Steiff, that sell handmade collectible bears that can be purchased in stores or over the Internet, the majority of teddy bears are manufactured in countries such as China and Indonesia