Assateague Island is a 37-mile long barrier island located off the eastern coast of the Delmarva peninsula facing the Atlantic Ocean. The northern two-thirds of the island is in Maryland; the Maryland section contains the majority of Assateague Island National Seashore and Assateague State Park. The Virginia section contains Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and a one-mile stretch of land containing the lifeguarded recreational beach and interpretive facilities managed by the National Park Service, it is best known for its herds of feral horses, pristine beaches, the Assateague Lighthouse. The island contains numerous marshes and coves, including Toms Cove. Bridge access for cars is possible from both Maryland and Virginia, though no road runs the full north/south length of the island. Like all barrier islands, Assateague has changed in form over the years; the structure of barrier islands is determined by movement of sand in the littoral zone, the land-facing side of the island. At one time, the island was connected to the lowest point of Fenwick Island.
However, the 1933 Chesapeake -- Potomac hurricane created an inlet south of Maryland. This inlet separated the two landforms, it would have silted back due to the littoral drift that ran from north to south. However, after the storm, between 1933 and 1935 a permanent system of artificial jetties was built to preserve the inlet as a navigation channel; as a result, the island has drifted westward, the two landmasses are now over 0.62 miles apart. While this process has benefitted Ocean City, creating wider beaches and better fishing access, it caused erosion problems on Assateague. Between 1933 and the early 1960s, federal interest in creating a national seashore on the island alternated with periodic pushes for development. In 1950, a 15-mile section of the Maryland side of Assateague was plotted for development, a paved road, Baltimore Boulevard, was constructed to traverse the new development; the Ash Wednesday Storm of 1962 destroyed or covered most of Baltimore Boulevard, many of the structures on the island were destroyed.
Although some private landowners on the island supported re-development, by this time the state of Maryland supported a national seashore and legislation was introduced in the United States Congress. After Congressional efforts did not produce final legislation in 1964, new legislation in 1965 was successful and Assateague Island National Seashore was formed; the entirety of Assateague Island is owned and operated by three different agencies: the NPS, Maryland State Parks, United States Fish and Wildlife Service. All of the land on the island north of the Maryland-Virginia state line is the Assateague Island National Seashore, with the exception of the smaller Assateague State Park; the national seashore was established in 1965 to preserve the barrier island and surrounding waters, provide recreational opportunities. All of the island south of the state border in Virginia is the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, with the exception of a one-mile stretch of land including the recreational beach and interpretive facilities managed by the NPS.
The Refuge was established in 1943 to provide habitat for migratory birds snow geese. The U. S. Geological Survey has initiated studies aimed at mitigating the potential sea-level rise on this barrier island complex; the National Park Service allows off-road vehicles with permits in certain areas. A large number of visitors travel to the island to surf fish during the striped bass migration. On the Maryland side, only 145 vehicles are permitted on the beach at any given time. Sections of the beach are periodically closed to protect wildlife, or after storm damages, amongst other reasons. Car camping sites are available in both the National Seashore and Assateague State Park by reservation. Backcountry sites are available from the National Seashore. There is no camping available from the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Pets are prohibited in all areas except certain parts of the National Seashore and parts of the state park. Kayak touring is a popular way to see the wildlife on the calmer bay side.
The best times to backcountry camp are in the fall. Summer months are known for heavy mosquito populations on the bay side. Assateague State Park comprises 800 acres and lies in Maryland within the National Seashore; the state park is the most developed area on the island with 350 campsites. Most of the water around the island is within the boundaries of the national seashore; the island has a land area of 24.4 square miles and has no resident population in either Maryland or Virginia, though a few retained property rights until 2006. These were hunting camps. Large populations of birds inhabit the island, including American oystercatcher, great blue heron, snowy egret. There are over 320 species; these include gulls and other shorebirds along with raptors and waterfowl. The piping plover is a threatened species; the feral horse population of Assateague Island is alternately known as the Assateague horse in Maryland and the Chincoteague Pony in Virginia. This distinction, made both on per-breed and per-individual basis, is sometimes a matter of disagreement.
The traditional definition of a horse or a pony is based on whether the animal in question falls over or under 14.2 hands. The equines on the island have a horse phenotype, it is argued that their small size is due to environmental, rather than genetic conditions. The National Park Service p
Lexington, consolidated with Fayette County and denoted as Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in Kentucky and the 60th-largest city in the United States. By land area, Lexington is the 28th largest city in the United States. Known as the "Horse Capital of the World," it is the heart of the state's Bluegrass region, it has a nonpartisan mayor-council form of government, with 12 council districts and three members elected at large, with the highest vote-getter designated vice mayor. In the 2017 U. S. Census Estimate, the city's population was 321,959, anchoring a metropolitan area of 512,650 people and a combined statistical area of 856,849 people. Lexington ranks 10th among US cities in college education rate, with 39.5% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree. It is the location of the Kentucky Horse Park, The Red Mile and Keeneland race courses, Rupp Arena, Transylvania University, the University of Kentucky, Bluegrass Community and Technical College; this area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans.
European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century. Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was considered Fincastle County, Virginia, 17 years before Kentucky became a state. A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell, camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek at the site of the present-day McConnell Springs. Upon hearing of the colonists' victory in the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, they named their campsite Lexington, it was the first of many American places to be named after the Massachusetts town. The risk of Native American uprisings against colonialism delayed permanent settlement for four years. In 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, Col. Robert Patterson and 25 companions came from Fort Harrod and erected a blockhouse, they built a stockade, establishing a settlement known as Bryan's Station. In 1780, Lexington was made the seat of Virginia's newly organized Fayette County.
Colonists defended it against the British Army and allied Shawnee uprising in 1782, during the last part of the American Revolutionary War. The town was chartered on May 1782, by an act of the Virginia General Assembly; the First African Baptist Church was founded c. 1790 by Peter Durrett, a Baptist preacher and slave held by Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide "The Travelling Church", a group migration of several hundred pioneers led by the preacher Lewis Craig and Captain William Ellis from Orange County, Virginia to Kentucky in 1781, it is the third-oldest in the United States. In 1806, Lexington was a rising city of the vast territory to the west of the Appalachian Mountains. In the early 19th century, planter John Wesley Hunt became the first millionaire west of the Alleghenies; the growing town was devastated by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the congregation of Christ Church Episcopal.
London Ferrill, second preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed in the city to serve the suffering victims. Additional cholera outbreaks occurred in the early 1850s. Cholera was spread by people using contaminated water supplies, but its transmission was not understood in those years; the wealthier people would flee town for outlying areas to try to avoid the spread of disease. Planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers and domestic servants. In the city, slaves worked as domestic servants and artisans, although they worked with merchants, in a wide variety of trades. Plantations raised commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, thoroughbred horse breeding and racing became established in this part of the state. In 1850, one-fifth of the state's population were slaves, Lexington had the highest concentration of slaves in the entire state, it had a significant population of free blacks, who were of mixed race. By 1850, First African Baptist Church, led by London Ferrill, a free black from Virginia, had a congregation of 1,820 persons, the largest of any, black or white, in the entire state.
Many of 19th-century America's leading political and military figures spent part of their lives in the city, including U. S. President Abraham Lincoln and Confederate President Jefferson Davis. S. Senator and Vice President John C. Breckinridge. S. Senator, Secretary of State Henry Clay, who had a plantation nearby. Lincoln's wife Mary Todd Lincoln was born and raised in Lexington, the couple visited the city several times after their marriage in 1842. During the 19th century, migrants moved from central Kentucky to Missouri, they established their traditional crops and livestock in Middle Tennessee and an area of Missouri along the Missouri River. While Kentucky stayed in the Union during the American Civil War, the residents of different regions of the state had divided loyalties. In 1935 during the Great Depression, the Addiction Research Center was created as a small research unit at the U. S. Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington. Founded as one of the first drug rehabilitation clinics in the nation, the ARC was affiliated with a federal prison.
Expanded as the first alcohol and drug rehabilitation hospital i
Markings on horses are distinctive white areas on an otherwise dark base coat color. Most horses have some markings, they help to identify the horse as a unique individual. Markings do not change over the course of the horse's life. Most markings have pink skin underneath most of the white hairs, though a few faint markings may have white hair with no underlying pink skin. Markings may appear to change when a horse grows or sheds its winter coat, however this difference is a factor of hair coat length. On a gray horse, markings visible at birth may become hidden as the horse turns white with age, but markings can still be determined by trimming the horse's hair then wetting down the coat to see where there is pink skin and black skin under the hair. Recent studies have examined the genetics behind white markings and have located certain genetic loci that influence their expression. In addition to white markings on a base coat, there are other markings or patterns that are used to identify horses as with Appaloosa, Pinto or Brindle, as well as artificial markings such as branding.
Facial markings are described by shape and location. There may be more than one distinct facial if so, will be named separately; when a white marking extends over an eye, that eye may be blue instead of brown, though this is not seen in all cases. Common facial markings are: Blaze: a wide white stripe down the middle of the face. Strip, stripe, or race: a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face. Bald Face: a wide blaze, extending to or past the eyes. Some, but not all, bald faced horses have blue eyes. Star: a white marking between or above the eyes. If a stripe or blaze is present, a star must be wider than the vertical marking to be designated separately. Snip: a white marking on the muzzle, between the nostrils. Additional terms used to describe facial markings include the following: Faint: A small but permanent marking that consists of white hairs without any underlying pink skin. Interrupted: A marking a strip or blaze, broken and not solid for the entire length of the face. Connected: Occasionally used to describe distinctively different markings that happen to be joined to one another Irregular or crooked: A marking a strip or blaze, that does not have a more or less straight path.
Lip markings: have no specialized names are described by location, such as "lower lip," "chin", etc. Lip markings may indicate presence of the sabino color pattern. Leg markings are described by the highest point of the horse's leg, covered by white; as a general rule, the horse's hoof beneath a white marking at the coronary line will be light-colored. If a horse has a partial marking or ermine spots at the coronary band, the hoof may be both dark and light, corresponding with the hair coat above. Where the leopard gene is present, the hoof may be striped if markings are not visible at the coronary band. From tallest to shortest, common leg markings are: Stocking: white marking that extends at least to the bottom of the knee or hock, sometimes higher. Sock: white marking that extends higher than the fetlock but not as high as the knee or hock; this marking is sometimes called a "boot." Fetlock or Sock: white marking that extends over the fetlock called a "boot." Pastern: white marking that extends above the top of the hoof, but stops below the fetlock.
Coronet: white just above the hoof, around coronary band no more than 1 inch above the hoof. Additional terms used to describe white leg markings include: Irregular: A marking within the broad confines of a given height, but with uneven edges. Indicated by the highest point of the white. Most used to describe certain types of stockings. Partial: An irregular marking that only extends up part of the leg to the height indicated, sometimes with the other side of the leg dark. Used to describe socks and other short markings. "High White:" White stockings that extend above the knee or hock, sometimes extending past the stifle onto the flank or belly, considered characteristic of the sabino color pattern. Bend-Or spots: Dark faint spotting seen on horses with a Chestnut or Palomino coat color. Ermine marks: The occurrence of black marks on a white marking, most seen on leg markings just above the hoof. May cause the hoof to be striped. "Medicine hat": An unusual type of Pinto or Paint coloring where the horse has dark ears and poll, but surrounded on all sides of the head and neck by white.
Shield: A dark Pinto marking where the horse has a dark colored chest, surrounded by white on the shoulders, legs and neck. Used to describe the rarer example of a horse with a dark head surrounded by white. Horses may have isolated body spots that are not large or numerous enough to qualify them as an Appaloosa, Pinto or Paint; such markings are simply called "body spots," sometimes identified by location, i.e. "belly spot," "flank spot," etc. When this type of isolated spotting occurs, it is the action of the sabino gene. Horses may develop white markings over areas where there was an injury to the animal, either to cover scar tissue from a cut or abrasion, or to reflect harm to the underlying skin or nerves. One common type of scarring that produces patches of white hairs are "saddle marks," which are round or oval marks on either side of the withers, produced by a pinching saddle, worn over a long period of time. Birdcatcher spots are small white spots between 1 mm and 1 inch in diameter.
It is not yet known what controls t
A weanling is an animal that has just been weaned. The term is used to refer to a type of young horse, a foal, weaned between six months and a year. Once it is a year old, the horse is referred to as a yearling; the word is sometimes used to describe young cattle and pigs, but "weaner" is more common in the United States. Lyons and Jennifer J. Denison. Bringing Up Baby. Primedia Enthusiast Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-929164-12-2. Describes methods of training a young horse from birth until it is old enough to ride
A feral horse is a free-roaming horse of domesticated stock. As such, a feral horse is not a wild animal in the sense of an animal without domesticated ancestors. However, some populations of feral horses are managed as wildlife, these horses are popularly called "wild" horses. Feral horses are descended from domestic horses that strayed, escaped, or were deliberately released into the wild and remained to survive and reproduce there. Away from humans, over time, these animals' patterns of behavior revert to behavior more resembling that of wild horses; some horses that live in a feral state but may be handled or managed by humans if owned, are referred to as "semi-feral". Feral horses live in groups called a band, harem, or mob. Feral horse herds, like those of wild horses, are made up of small bands led by a dominant mare, containing additional mares, their foals, immature horses of both sexes. There is one herd stallion, though a few less-dominant males may remain with the group. Horse "herds" in the wild are best described as groups of several small bands who share a common territory.
Bands are on the small side, as few as three to five animals, but sometimes over a dozen. The makeup of bands shifts over time as young animals are driven out of the band they were born into and join other bands, or as young stallions challenge older males for dominance. However, in a given closed ecosystem, to maintain genetic diversity, the minimum size for a sustainable free-roaming horse or burro population is 150–200 animals. Horses which live in an untamed state but have ancestors who have been domesticated are not true "wild" horses. There are no known wild horses in existence today; the best-known examples of feral horses are the "wild" horses of the American west. When Europeans reintroduced the horse to the Americas, beginning with the arrival of the Conquistadors in the 15th century, some horses escaped and formed feral herds known today as Mustangs. Australia has the largest population of feral horses in the world, with in excess of 400,000 feral horses; the Australian name equivalent to the'Mustang' is the Brumby, feral descendants of horses brought to Australia by English settlers.
In Portugal, there are two populations of free-ranging feral horses, known as Sorraia in the southern plains and Garrano in the northern mountain chains. There are isolated populations of feral horses in a number of other places, including Sable Island off the coast of Nova Scotia, Assateague Island off the coast of Virginia and Maryland, Cumberland Island and Vieques island off the coast of Puerto Rico; some of these horses are said to be the descendants of horses who managed to swim to land when they were shipwrecked. Others may have been deliberately brought to various islands by settlers and either left to reproduce or abandoned when assorted human settlements failed. More than 400 feral horses live in the foothills of Cincar mountain, between Livno and Kupres and Herzegovina, in an area of 145 square kilometres; these animals, which descend from horses set free by their owners in the 1950s, enjoy a protected status since 2010. A modern feral horse population is found in the Dibru-Saikhowa National Park and Biosphere reserve of Assam, in north-east India, is a herd of 79 feral horses descended from animals that escaped army camps during World War II.
In North America, feral horses are descendants of horses that were domesticated in Europe, although many ancient, prehistoric subspecies now extinct did evolve in North America. While there are similarities shown in certain genes of both modern and fossil North American horses, they are not believed to be members of the same species. In the western United States, certain bands of horses and burros are protected under the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971. Modern types of feral horses that have a significant percentage of their number living in a feral state though there may be some domesticated representatives, include the following types and breeds: Alberta Mountain Horse or Alberta "Wildie", found in the foothills of the Eastern Slopes of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada Banker horse, on the Outer Banks of North Carolina Brumby, the feral horse of Australia Chincoteague Pony, on Assateague Island off the coasts of Virginia and Maryland Cumberland Island horse, on Cumberland Island off the coast of southern Georgia Danube Delta horse, in and around Letea Forest, between the Sulina and Chilia branches of the Danube Elegesi Qiyus Wild Horse, Canada.
Sorraia, a feral horse native to southern Portugal Sable Island Horse found on an island off the coast of Nova Scotia Welsh Pony domesticated, but a feral population of about 180 animals roams the Carneddau hills of North Wales. Other populations roam the eastern parts of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Delft Island Feral Horses are believed to be the descendants of horses kept on the island from the time of De
Rand McNally is an American technology and publishing company that provides mapping and hardware for the consumer electronics, commercial transportation and education markets. The company is headquartered with a distribution center in Richmond, Kentucky. In 1856, William Rand opened a printing shop in Chicago and two years hired a newly arrived Irish immigrant, Andrew McNally, to work in his shop; the shop did big business with the forerunner of the Chicago Tribune, in 1859 Rand and McNally were hired to run the Tribune's entire printing operation. In 1868, the two men, along with Rand's nephew George Amos Poole, established Rand McNally & Co. and bought the Tribune's printing business. The company focused on printing tickets and timetables for Chicago's booming railroad industry, the following year supplemented that business by publishing complete railroad guides. In 1870, the company expanded into printing business directories and an illustrated newspaper, the People's Weekly. According to company lore, during the Great Chicago Fire in 1871, Rand McNally had two of the company's printing machines buried in a sandy beach of Lake Michigan, the company was up and running again only a few days later.
The first Rand McNally map, created using a new cost-saving wax engraving method, appeared in the December 1872 edition of its Railroad Guide. Rand McNally became an incorporated business in 1873; the Business Atlas, containing maps and data pertinent to business planning, was first published in 1876. The atlas is still updated today, now titled the Commercial Marketing Guide; the Trade Book department was established in 1877, publishing such titles as The Locust Plague in the United States. Rand McNally began publishing educational maps in 1880 with its first line of maps and geography textbooks, soon followed by a world atlas; the company began publishing general literature in 1884 with its first title, The Secret of Success, the Textbook department was established in 1894 with The Rand McNally Primary School Geography. In 1894, the company opened an office in New York City headed by Caleb S. Hammond, who started his own map company, C. S. Hammond & Co.. Rand McNally published its first road map, the New Automobile Road Map of New York City & Vicinity, in 1904.
In 1910, the company acquired the line of Photo-Auto Guides from G. S. Chapin, which provided photographs of routes and intersections with directions. Andrew McNally II took photos on his honeymoon for the Chicago-to-Milwaukee edition; the company continued to expand its book publishing business, with best-selling children's books such as The Real Mother Goose in 1916 and Kon-Tiki in 1950. Rand McNally was the first major map publisher. One of its cartographers, John Brink, invented a system, first published in 1917 on a map of Peoria, Illinois. In addition to creating maps with numbered roads, Rand McNally erected many of the actual roadside highway signs; this system was subsequently adopted by state and federal highway authorities. The oil industry developed an interest in road maps, enticing Americans to explore and consume more gasoline. In 1920, Rand McNally began publishing road maps for the Gulf Oil Company, to be distributed at its service stations. By 1930, Rand McNally had two major road map competitors, General Drafting and Gousha, the latter of, founded by a former Rand McNally sales representative.
The Rand McNally Auto Chum to become the ubiquitous Rand McNally Road Atlas, debuted in 1924. The first full-color edition was published in 1960 and in 1993, it became digitized; the Goode's School Atlas, named for its first editor, Dr. J. Paul Goode, was published in 1923, it became a standard text for high college geography curricula. Retitled Goode's World Atlas, it is now in its 22nd edition; the first Rand McNally Travel Store was opened in New York City in 1937. In the 1990s it became a chain with 29 locations, but by 2005 all were closed as a cost-saving measure. Rand McNally moved its headquarters from Chicago to suburban Skokie, Illinois in 1952; the company opened its Versailles, book publishing plant in 1962 with 300,000 square feet and 23 employees. In 1994, the plant was the first to implement a new Kodak computer-to-plate printing system; when the plant was sold in 1997, it was over 1,000,000 square feet and employed 1,255 people. In 1961, because the company was not satisfied with the ability of existing map projections to create intuitive depictions of the entire world, it commissioned Dr. Arthur H. Robinson to develop what became known as the Robinson projection, which became popular and was used extensively for constructing maps of the entire world.
Rand McNally began creating maps digitally in 1982. In 1989, Rand McNally donated its extensive collection of maps to the Newberry Library. Now in possession of Gousha's archives as well, Rand McNally donated that map archive to the Newberry in late 2002. With a string of acquisitions and growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Rand McNally employed over 4,000 people in four business groups; the company had been majority-owned by the McNally family since 1899, but by 1997 the family had decided to divest its interest. In late September, 2018, Rand McNally moved its headquarters back to Chicago. After more than 60 years in suburban Skokie, Ill. the company returned to Chicago, setting up shop on West Bryn Mawr Avenue. Rand McNally has always been a held or "pink sheet" company, with stock held by few parties and thinly traded; when Rand retired in 1899, he sold his shares in the company to