Damietta known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see. It is located at the Damietta branch, an eastern distributary of the Nile, 15 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. In Ancient Egypt, the city was known as Tamiat, but in the Hellenistic period it was called Tamiathis. Mentioned by the 6th-century geographer Stephanus Byzantius, the town became known as Damiata and as Damietta, which derived from an ancient Egyptian word "Damt" that means the ability, since Damietta had the ability to combine the salt water of the Mediterranean Sea and the fresh water of the Nile in one place. Other historians note that the city was called "Tam Heet" which means the city of the water or the city of the running water. Another derivation of the name might be meaning city of North. Under Caliph Omar, the Arabs took the town and resisted the attempts by the Byzantine Empire to recover it in 739, 821, 921 and 968.
The Abbasids used Alexandria, Damietta and Siraf as entry ports to India and the Tang Empire of China. Damietta was an important naval base during the Abbasid and Fatimid periods; this led to several attacks by the Byzantine Empire, most notably the sack and destruction of the city in May 853. Damietta was again important in the 13th centuries during the time of the Crusades. In 1169, a fleet from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, with support from the Byzantine Empire, attacked the port, but it was defeated by Saladin. During preparations for the Fifth Crusade in 1217, it was decided that Damietta should be the focus of attack. Control of Damietta meant control of the Nile, from there the crusaders believed they would be able to conquer Egypt. From Egypt they could attack Palestine and recapture Jerusalem; when the port was besieged and occupied by Frisian crusaders in 1219, Francis of Assisi arrived to peaceably negotiate with the Muslim ruler. The siege devastated the population of Damietta. In October 1218 reinforcements arrived including the Papal Legate Pelagius with the English earls Ranulf of Chester, Saer of Winchester and William Aubigny of Arundel, together with Odonel Aubigny, Robert Fitzwalter, John Lacy of Chester, William Harcourt and Oliver, the illegitimate son of King John.
In 1221 the Crusaders attempted to march to Cairo, but were destroyed by the combination of nature and Muslim defences. Damietta was the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France, his fleet arrived there in 1249 and captured the fort, which he refused to hand over to the nominal king of Jerusalem, to whom it had been promised during the Fifth Crusade. However, having been taken prisoner with his army in April 1250, Louis was obliged to surrender Damietta as ransom. Hearing that Louis was preparing a new crusade, the Mamluk Sultan Baibars, in view of the importance of the town to the Crusaders, destroyed it in 1251 and rebuilt it with stronger fortifications a few kilometres from the river in the early 1260s, making the mouth of the Nile at Damietta impassable for ships. Hellenistic Tamiathis became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the Metropolitan see of Pelusium, the capital of the Roman province of Augustamnica Prima, to which Tamiathis belonged, its bishop Heraclius took part in the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Helpidius was a signatory of the decree of Patriarch Gennadius of Constantinople against simony in 459. Bassus was at the Second Council of Constantinople. In a letter from Patriarch Michael I of Alexandria read at the Photian Council of Constantinople, mention is made of Zacharias of Tamiathis, who had attended a synod that Michael had convened in support of Photius. Bishops too of Tamiathis are named in other documents. In 1249, when Louis IX of France captured the town, it became for a short time the seat of a Latin Church bishop; the Latin bishopric, no longer residential, is today listed by the Catholic Church twice as a titular see under the names Tamiathis and Damiata, each at time of episcopal or archiepiscopal]] rank, of the Latin and Melkite Catholic Churches, for the Catholic Church, having been until the early 20th century an important centre for that church. The diocese was nominally restored in the 17th century when established as Latin Titular archbishopric of Tamiathis of the Romans and had the following incumbents of the intermediary rank: Bernardino Spada Cardinal Cesare Facchinetti Neri Corsini Angelo Maria Ranuzzi Ercole Visconti Marco Antonio Ansidei Raffaele Cosimo De Girolami Paul Alpheran de Bussan, Sovereign Military Order of Malta Vincenzo Maria de Francisco e Galletti, Dominican Order Bonaventura Prestandrea, Conventual Franciscans Bartolomeo Pacca Giovanni Francesco Compagnoni Marefoschi Giovanni Giacomo Sinibaldi * Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci Diego Planeta Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano Eugène-Louis-Marie Lion, O.
P. Eugenio Lachat, Missionaries of the Precious Blood (18
Al-Azhar University is a university in Cairo, Egypt. Associated with Al-Azhar Mosque in Islamic Cairo, it is Egypt's oldest degree-granting university and is renowned as "Sunni Islam’s most prestigious university". In addition to higher education, Al-Azhar oversees a national network of schools with two million students; as of 1996, over 4000 teaching institutes in Egypt were affiliated with the University. Founded in 970 or 972 by the Fatimids as a centre of Islamic learning, its students studied the Qur'an and Islamic law in detail, along with logic, grammar and how to calculate the phases of the moon, it was one of the first universities in the world, the only one in the Arabic world to survive as a modern university including secular subjects in the curriculum. Today it is Islamic learning in the world. In 1961 additional non-religious subjects were added to its curriculum, its mission is to propagate Islamic culture. To this end, its Islamic scholars render edicts on disputes submitted to them from all over the Sunni Islamic world regarding proper conduct for Muslim individuals and societies.
Al-Azhar trains Egyptian government-appointed preachers in proselytization. Its library is considered second in importance in Egypt only to the Egyptian National Library and Archives. In May 2005, Al-Azhar in partnership with a Dubai information technology enterprise, IT Education Project launched the H. H. Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Project to Preserve Al Azhar Scripts and Publish Them Online to publish online access to the library's entire rare manuscripts collection, comprising about seven million pages of material. Al-Azhar University is one of the relics of the Isma'ili Shi'a Fatimid dynasty era of Egypt, descended from Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad and wife of Ali son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad. Fatimah, was called Al-Zahra, it was named in her honor, it was founded as mosque by the Fatimid commander Jawhar at the orders of the Caliph and Ismaili Imam Al-Muizz as he founded the city for Cairo. It was in Jamadi al-Awwal in the year AH 359, its building was completed on the 9th of Ramadan in the year AH 361.
Both Al-'Aziz Billah and Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah added to its premises. It was further repaired and extended by Al-Mustansir Billah and Al-Hafiz Li-Din-illah. Fatimid Caliphs always encouraged scholars and jurists to have their study-circles and gatherings in this mosque and thus it was turned into a university which has the claim to be considered as the oldest University still functioning. Studies began at Al-Azhar in the month of Ramadan, 975. According to Syed Farid Alatas, the Jami'ah had faculties in Islamic law and jurisprudence, Arabic grammar, Islamic astronomy, Islamic philosophy, logic; the Fatimids gave attention to the philosophical studies at the time when rulers in other countries declared those who were engaged in philosophical pursuits as apostates and heretics. The Greek thought found a warm reception with the Fatimids who expanded the boundaries of such studies, they paid much attention to philosophy and gave support to everyone, known for being engaged in the study of any branch of philosophy.
The Fatimid Caliph invited many scholars from nearby countries and paid much attention to college books on various branches of knowledge and in gathering the finest writing on various subjects and this in order to encourage scholars and to uphold the cause of knowledge. These books were destroyed by Saladin. In the 12th century, following the overthrow of the Isma'ili Fatimid dynasty, Saladin converted Al-Azhar to a Shafi'ite Sunni center of learning. Therefore, "The Encyclopaedia of Islam" writes that, "He had all the treasures of the palace, including the books, sold over a period of ten years. Many were burned, thrown into the Nile, or thrown into a great heap, covered with sand, so that a regular "hill of books" was formed and the soldiers used to sole their shoes with the fine bindings; the number of books said to have disposed of varies from 120,000 to 2,000,000." Abd-el-latif delivered lectures on Islamic medicine at Al-Azhar, while according to legend the Jewish philosopher Maimonides delivered lectures on medicine and astronomy there during the time of Saladin though no historical proof has corroborated this.
In 1961, Al-Azhar was re-established as a university under the government of Egypt's second President Gamal Abdel Nasser when a wide range of secular faculties were added for the first time, such as business, science, medicine and agriculture. Before that date, the Encyclopaedia of Islam classifies the Al-Azhar variously as madrasa, center of higher learning and, since the 19th century, religious university, but not as a university in the full sense, referring to the modern transition process as "from madrasa to university". An Islamic women's faculty was added in the same year, six years after Zaib-un-Nissa Hamidullah had been the first woman to speak at the university. Al-Azhar has a membership that represents the theological schools of Al-Ashari and Al-Maturidi, the four schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, the seven main Sufi orders. Al-Azhar has had an antagonistic relationship with Salafism. According to a 2011 report issued by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Al Azhar is Sufi in character: Adherence to a Sufi order has long been standard for both professors and students in the al-Azhar mosque and univer
Qalyub is a city containing a rural marakiz, an urban one. It is located in the Qalyubia Governorate of Egypt, in the northern part of the Cairo metropolitan area, at the start of the Nile Delta. In 1986, it had a population of 84,413 inhabitants, which grew to 106,804 residents by 2006, a more than average growth. Qalyub is the commercial center for a significant agricultural region, some records indicate that Qalyub has had a farmer's market for close to one thousand years; the people of Qalyub have proven to be self-reliant like in 1905 when they built their own 500-bed hospital with no help from the state. Years the community received money from USAID for the hospital and the school, however, as in many rural villages, the Ministry of Social Affairs angered residents for not doing enough for them. In 1982, the Basic Village Service Program, under the auspices of USAID, had twenty-five water projects slated for Qalyub. On February 13, 2005, Qalyub was the location of a politically significant strike over the benefits and the privatization of the Qalyub Spinning Company.
Qalyub was the site of the Qalyoub train collision in August 2006. Tuk-tuks, small cars, with government-issued license plates, can be seen in modern-day Qalyub as the district has seen a more than average increase in population growth; the Qalyub orthonairovirus is a member of the Bunyaviridae group of vertebrate-infecting viruses and was named after the town
Sharqia Governorate is the 3rd most populous of the governorates of Egypt. Located in the northern part of the country, its capital is the city of Zagazig. Bilbeis is the former capital of Sharqia. A section of the governorate once was part of the Qalyubia Governorate. There is a strong agriculture industry and fish farming in Sharqia; the rate of poverty is more than 60% in this governorate but some social safety networks have been provided in the form of financial assistance and job opportunities. The funding has been coordinated by the country's Ministry of Finance and with assistance from international organizations; the governorate is divided into the following municipal divisions for administrative purposes, with a total estimated population as of July 2017 of 7,192,355. In some instances there is a kism with the same name. According to population estimates, in 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate lived in rural areas, with an urbanization rate of only 23.1%. Out of an estimated 6,485,412 people residing in the governorate in 2015, 4,987,707 people lived in rural areas and 1,497,705 lived in urban areas.
According to the Governing Authority for Investment and Free Zones the governorate is home to two industrial zones. They are located in New Salhia, in 10th of Ramadan; the following cities and towns are located in Sharqia Governorate. El-Said Badawi, sociolinguist Mohamed Morsi, former President of Egypt Ahmed Shafik, former Prime Minister of Egypt and Presidential Candidate for Egyptian presidential election, 2012 Abaza family, the largest family in Sharqia and Egypt's largest family of Circassian origin. Ahmed Subhy Mansour, founder of the Quranist movement Abdel Halim Hafez, popular singer and actor Miral al-Tahawy, award-winning Bedouin novelist Yusuf Abu Rayya, award-winning novelist Husayn Fawzi Al Najjar, political historian and Islamic scholar Magdi Yacoub, professor of cardiothoracic surgery at the National Heart and Lung Institute Sama El Masry, belly dancer, activist Ahmed Fouad Negm, Egyptian vernacular poet Rushdy Abaza, actor Fekry Pasha Abaza and political activist Ahmed'Urabi, the leader of the 1881 nationalist uprising against the British Hamada Helal, Egyptian singer Emad Moteab, Egptian footballer Ahmad Salem, Egyptian actor and engineer El Watan News of Sharqia Governorate
El-Bawiti is a town in the Western desert in Egypt. With 30,000 inhabitants, it is the largest settlement in the Bahariya Oasis. Touristic sites around Bawiti Bawiti Tourist-Information on Wikivoyage about Bawiti
Benha /'benhæ/ Arabic: بنها pronounced spelled Banha , is the capital of the Qalyubia Governorate in north-eastern Egypt. Located between the capital of Cairo and Alexandria, Benha is an important transport hub in the Nile Delta, as rail lines from Cairo to various cities in the Nile Delta pass through Benha. Egyptians call it Benhā el-'asal, which means "Sweet like honey". After Muhammad tasted it, he asked, "Where is it from?" They replied, "From Benha". Muhammad said, "God bless Benha and its honey". According to Muslim Scholars, this Hadith is weak or denied due to the lack of citation and complexity of its source. So Muhammad might have not mentioned anything related to Benha, it is located 48 km north of Cairo. Located on the east bank of the Damietta Branch of the Nile River in the rich farmland of the southern part of the river's delta. Well-irrigated by canals leading off the Delta Barrage, a dam 30 km upstream, the surrounding farmland produces wheat and long-staple cotton. Since ancient times, Benha has been known for the production of attar of roses, an ingredient in perfume.
Today it is the center of Egypt's electronics industry. Benha is a major junction in the rail network that radiates north from Cairo and it has the 6th biggest train station in Egypt; the north of Benha is the site of one of several ancient cities called Athribis, the capital of the tenth nome of Lower Egypt in about 1500 BC. The site has never been systematically investigated by archaeologists. Over the years, peasants digging in the area have uncovered a large hoard of silver. Athribis was the center of worship of the black bull, enjoyed the most popularity during the Roman period of rule in Egypt. Not much still stands of this ancient capital except some remains from the 18th to the 26th Dynasties. Though not a popular tourist destination, there are such sites here as a Greco-Roman cemetery and silver ingots discovered at the Athribis site on display at the Egyptian Museum. About 20 km southwest of Benha is Tall al Yahudiya, the site of Leontopolis, famed for its glazed tiles in ancient times.
Population is around 2,479,347. and Total Area is 16,105 km². Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert. Benha University was established in November 1976 as a branch of Zagazig University in the governorate, it became an independent University in 2005 incorporating several facilities and departments with around 60,500 graduates per annum. The Faculty of Medicine is notable for management of 2 main hospitals in Benha. Banha university contains 15 faculties divided into 3 categories: Scientific Faculties, Humanities Faculties, Medical Faculties. Scientific Faculties category contain 7 faculties "Faculty of Engineering, Banha Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Computer & information, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Arts, faculty of Commerce " Humanities Faculties category contains 5 faculties "Faculty of Education, Faculty of Specific Education, Faculty of Physical Education, Faculty of law, the Faculty of Arts. Medical Faculties which contain 3 faculties " Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary, the Faculty of Nursing.
Benha consists of several districts: Al-Vilal, Benha El-Gedida, Attrib, El-Manshia, El-Shedia, Wast Al-Balad, Al-Haras el-Watani, Manshit Al-Nur and Hayy El-Zehour, Kafr El-Saraia, Ezbet El-Moraba'a,kafr El-gazzar,Batta. Ahmed Fathy, footballer Ahmed Helmy, actor Hussein Al Marsafy, one of greatest poets and writers in Isma'il Pasha era, born in Marsafa and died on 1889. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Benha, Egypt". Archived from the original on 29 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-13. Qalyubia Governorate's official website
Zagazig is a city in Lower Egypt. Situated in the eastern part of the Nile delta, it is the capital of the governorate of Sharqia. In 1999, its population was 279,000, which increased to 529,100 in 2018, it is built on a branch of the Sweet Water Canal and on al-Muˤizz Canal, is 47 miles by rail north-northeast of Cairo. Situated on the Nile Delta in the midst of a fertile district, Zagazig is a centre of the cotton and grain trade of Egypt, it used to have offices of numerous European merchants. It is the chief hub of the corn and cotton trade. There is a museum of antiquities, the Sharkeya National Museum that contains many important archaeological exhibits. Zagazig University, one of the largest universities in Egypt, is located in the city, with colleges in different fields of science and arts; the Archaeological Museum of the University of Zagazig exhibits significant finds from the nearby sites and Kufur Nigm. There is a branch for Al-Azhar University, the largest Islamic university in the world.
Zagazig is the birthplace of famous Coptic Egyptian journalist and social critic, Salama Moussa. The most notable streets in zagazig are Farouk st, Government st and El kawmia st; the ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Bubastis are located 3 kilometres southeast of town. Bubastis was the ancient capital of the 18th nome, is home to the feast celebrating the cat goddess Bastet. Bubastis is the Greek version of the Egyptian language name Pr-Bastet "House of Bastet". Bubastis became the capital of Egypt in the 23rd Dynasties. There are remains of the temples built by Osorkon II and Nectanebo II. Catacombs where the sacred cats were buried are located behind an Old Kingdom chapel remains that are from the period of Pepi I Meryre. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert, as the rest of Egypt. Abaza family, the largest family in Sharqia and Egypt's largest Circassian community. Abdelhalim Hafez, Egyptian singer and actor Ahmed Orabi, colonel who led the revolt against the British in 1882 Carmen Suleiman, singer Mohamed Morsi, the fifth president of Egypt Salama Moussa, Coptic Egyptian journalist and social critic Ahmed Zaki, actor John Traicos, International cricketer of Greek origin Rushdy Abaza, actor Fekry Pasha Abaza and political activist List of cities and towns in Egypt LookLex: Egypt: Zagazig Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Zagazig". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press