Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Regis Pierre McGuire is an American-Canadian ice hockey analyst for the National Hockey League broadcasts on NBC in the United States. Until 2011, he was a prominent hockey analyst on The Sports Network in Canada, he was a player and scout. McGuire was born in Englewood Hospital and Medical Center in Englewood, New Jersey, the son of Rex, an Irish-American and Sally, a French-Canadian, he grew up in the Montreal area, attended Lower Canada College. In 1977, his family moved to Cresskill, New Jersey, due to anti-anglophone sentiment in Montreal that made it difficult for McGuire's father Rex to run his car dealership. McGuire attended Bergen Catholic High School where he played hockey. McGuire was a standout hockey defenseman at Hobart College from 1979 to 1982, he pitched for Hobart's baseball team and played quarterback on the football team for two years. He graduated from Hobart with an English degree. After college, McGuire played one season of hockey in the Netherlands. In 1984, he did not make the team.
McGuire began his coaching career at his alma mater, Hobart College, in 1984. He was paid $500 a season and made ends meet by working as a substitute English and physical education teacher in the Geneva, New York, school district. In 1985, he was named assistant lacrosse coach at Babson College. At Babson, he coached hockey under future New York Islanders head coach Steve Stirling. After three seasons at Babson, he moved to St. Lawrence University, where he was an assistant hockey coach from 1988 to 1990. While at St. Lawrence, McGuire met Scotty Bowman, who came to the school to visit his daughter; when Bowman became director of player development and recruitment for the Pittsburgh Penguins on June 12, 1990, he offered McGuire a job as a special assignment scout. When Bowman became interim head coach in 1991, McGuire was named an assistant coach. McGuire won a Stanley Cup as an assistant coach with the Pittsburgh Penguins in 1992. McGuire joined the Hartford Whalers on August 28, 1992, as an assistant coach and on September 8, 1993, became the team's assistant general manager.
On November 16, 1993, McGuire was named head coach of the Whalers, replacing Paul Holmgren, who had stepped aside due to frustration with a lack of effort from his players and a desire to focus on his role as the team's general manager. At age 32, McGuire was the youngest head coach in the NHL. Prior to becoming coach of the Whalers, McGuire had never been a head coach at any level. During his six months as Whalers head coach, McGuire coached the team to a 23–37–7 record. McGuire was fired as head coach on May 19, 1994. After the termination, captain Pat Verbeek called it the best thing that could have happened to the Whalers, he said that McGuire was mocked by other teams. In 1995, NHL commissioner Gary Bettman ruled that McGuire would forfeit half of the remaining salary owed to him by the Whalers for providing confidential coaching evaluations to the Edmonton Oilers; these evaluations had been prepared. Following his departure from the Whalers, McGuire became a scout with the Ottawa Senators.
On November 22, 1995, he was elevated to the position of assistant coach. On January 23, 1996, McGuire was fired, along with head coach Dave Allison and goaltending coach Chico Resch. On August 27, 1996, McGuire was named the inaugural head coach of the ECHL's Baton Rouge Kingfish, he was given a three-year contract. McGuire led the team to a 31 -- 33 -- a seventh-place finish in the South Division. On July 12, 1997, McGuire exercised an escape clause in his contract to become the radio analyst for CJAD's broadcasts of Montreal Canadiens games. From 1997–98 until 2001–02, McGuire served as color commentator for the Montreal Canadiens' English-language radio broadcasts on CJAD 800 with Dino Sisto, he worked on some of the team's regional television broadcasts on The Sports Network when primary color analyst Gary Green was unavailable and was a contributor to TSN's That's Hockey. When TSN re-acquired the Canadian national cable rights to NHL hockey in 2002, McGuire was hired as its lead hockey analyst.
With TSN, McGuire called the games along with the play-by-play voice of Gord Miller or Chris Cuthbert. He did special hockey events for TSN, including the NHL Entry Draft and international events like the IIHF World Junior Championships, he hosted a segment known as "McGuire's Monsters" where he covered a player with a significant impact through a combination of skills. McGuire joined NBC Sports after they acquired the rights to NHL games in 2006, he works as an "Inside the Glass" reporter with the lead broadcast team of Mike Emrick and Ed Olczyk. After the 2011 NHL Entry Draft, McGuire left TSN to work full time for NBC Sports and NBC Sports Network, he continues to appear on TSN Radio. McGuire writes for Sports Illustrated and provides frequent commentary on New York's WFAN, Toronto's Sportsnet 590, Ottawa radio station, the Team 1200, the Ottawa Senators' fan podcast SensUnderground, Montreal's TSN 690 where he can be heard on the Mitch Melnick show, the TEAM 1040 in Vancouver heard on the Canucks Lunch with Rick Ball, as well as Wednesday mornings on Calgary's Fan 960.
Beyond hockey, McGuire served as a reporter for water polo at the 2012 and 2016 Summer Olympics for NBC, working with his NHL colleague Mike Emrick at the London Games in 2012. McGuire has been outspoken as an advocate of removing the red line and allowing skilled players to play a skilled game without clutching and grabbing impeding them, his views of hockey have him campaigning for all players to wear partial visors. McGuire's outspoken nat
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Bill Lee (left-handed pitcher)
William Francis Lee III, nicknamed Spaceman, is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher. He played for the Boston Red Sox 1969–1978 and the Montreal Expos 1979–1982. On November 7, 2008, Lee was inducted into the Red Sox Hall of Fame, as the team's record-holder for most games pitched by a left-hander and the third-highest win total by a Red Sox southpaw. On August 23, 2012, Lee signed a contract to play with the San Rafael Pacifics of the independent North American League at age 65. In addition to his baseball experience, Lee is known for his counterculture behavior, his antics both on and off the field, his use of the Leephus pitch, a personalized variation of the eephus pitch. Lee has co-written four books: The Wrong Stuff. In 2006, the documentary film by Brett Rapkin Spaceman: A Baseball Odyssey featured Lee. Lee was born in Burbank, into a family of former semi- and professional baseball players, his grandfather William Lee was an infielder for the Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League and his aunt Annabelle Lee was a pitcher in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.
“She was the best athlete in the family," Lee said. "She taught me how to pitch."Lee attended and played baseball at Terra Linda High School in San Rafael, graduating in 1964 before enrolling at the University of Southern California. At USC, Lee majored in physical education and geography and attended from 1964-1968 where he played for Rod Dedeaux and was part of the Trojans team which won the 1968 College World Series, was drafted by the Boston Red Sox in the 22nd round of the 1968 Major League Baseball Draft. Lee served in the US Army Reserve for 6 years during the Vietnam War. One of his jobs was to process the dead soldiers from New England and call the families and say "you can come get whatever’s left of your son." He was a Chemical Radiation Biological Officer for the 1173rd, earned Soldier of the Cycle at Fort Polk Louisiana. Lee is a rastafarian and Catholic, he is married to Canadian-born Diana Donovan. Lacking a good fastball, Lee developed off-speed pitches, including a variation of the Eephus pitch.
The Leephus pitch or Space Ball, the names for Lee's take on the eephus pitch, follows a high, arcing trajectory and is slow. Lee is the last Red Sox player to miss time during the season for military obligation after being active duty in the Army Reserve from June 1 to October 1, 1970. Lee was used exclusively as a relief pitcher during the first four years of his career. During that period, Lee appeared in 125 games, starting in nine, compiled a 19–11 record. In 1973, he was used as a starting pitcher, he started 33 of the 38 games in which he appeared and went 17–11 with a 2.95 Earned Run Average, was named to the American League All-Star team. He followed 1973 with two more 17-win seasons, he started two games in the 1975 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds. He left both the 2nd and 7th games with the lead, but the Red Sox lost both games, the Series. On May 20 of the 1976 season, Lee started a game against the New York Yankees, pitched six innings, the Red Sox won 8-2. However, the game is remembered for the final out of the sixth when the Yankees' Lou Pinella was tagged out at home by Sox catcher Carlton Fisk.
Pinella slid with his spikes high into Fisk as he was tagged out, touching off an on-field brawl where Lee suffered a torn ligament in his pitching shoulder. Lee would miss two months of the season and finish with a 5-7 record. During the 1978 season and Red Sox manager Don Zimmer engaged in an ongoing public feud over the handling of the pitching staff. Lee's independence and iconoclastic nature clashed with Zimmer's old-school, conservative personality. Lee and a few other Red Sox formed what they called "The Buffalo Heads" as a response to the manager. Zimmer relegated Lee to the bullpen and management traded Hall of Famer Ferguson Jenkins and Bernie Carbo. Lee threatened to retire after his friend Carbo was traded: he subsequently referred to Zimmer as "the gerbil," which proved to be the last straw. Lee left the Red Sox after pitching in a 10-9 win at home over California on June 12 but returned a few days later, but during the home stretch, when the Red Sox were battling the Yankees for the pennant, Zimmer refused to pitch Lee.
The Red Sox lost the pennant in a one-game playoff with the Yankees. Lee was traded at the end of 1978 to the Montreal Expos for a utility infielder. Lee bade farewell to Boston by saying, "Who wants to be with a team that will go down in history alongside the'64 Phillies and the'67 Arabs?" Lee won 16 games for the Expos in 1979, while being named The Sporting News National League Left Hander of the Year. During the 1980 season, Lee caused more controversy by admitting to using marijuana; this landed him on the cover of High Times magazine. Called into the office of baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn, Lee said he did not smoke the drug but just put it on his pancakes. Lee's major league career ended in 1982, when he was released by the Expos after staging a one-game walkout as a protest over Montreal's decision to release second baseman and friend Rodney Scott. Asked by a sportswriter if he minded being “blackballed,” Lee said, “I'll go down in history with a lot of people who've been blackballed."
But didn't he mind being "out of baseball for good?" "Oh, I'll never be out of baseball for good,” he said. “It's my life." On September 2, 2018. Lee played Designated Hitter for the Ottawa Champions. Lee's personality earned him popularity as well as the nic
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
The Montreal Expos were a Canadian professional baseball team based in Montreal, Quebec. The Expos were the first Major League Baseball franchise located outside the United States, they played in the National League East Division from 1969 until 2004. Following the 2004 season, the franchise relocated to Washington, D. C. and became the Washington Nationals. After the minor league Triple-A Montreal Royals folded in 1960, political leaders in Montreal sought an MLB franchise, when the National League evaluated expansion candidates for the 1969 season, it awarded a team to Montreal. Named after the Expo 67 World's Fair, the Expos played at Jarry Park Stadium before moving to Olympic Stadium in 1977; the Expos failed to post a winning record in any of their first ten seasons. The team won its only division title in the strike-shortened 1981 season, but lost the 1981 National League Championship Series to the Los Angeles Dodgers; the team was sold in 1991 by its majority, founding owner, Charles Bronfman, to a consortium headed by Claude Brochu.
Felipe Alou was promoted to the team's field manager in 1992, becoming MLB's first Dominican-born manager. He led the team to four winning seasons, including 1994, where the Expos had the best record in baseball before a players' strike ended the season. Alou became the Expos leader in games managed; the aftermath of the 1994 strike initiated a downward spiral as the Expos chose to sell off their best players, attendance and interest in the team declined. Major League Baseball purchased the team prior to the 2002 season after the club failed to secure funding for a new ballpark. In their final two seasons, the team played 22 home games each year at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On September 29, 2004, MLB announced the franchise would relocate to Washington, D. C. for the 2005 season, the Expos played their final home game in Montreal. The Expos posted an all-time record of 2,753 wins, 2,943 losses and 4 ties during their 36 years in Montreal. Vladimir Guerrero led the franchise in both home runs and batting average, Steve Rogers in wins and strikeouts.
Three pitchers threw four no-hitters: Bill Stoneman, Charlie Lea, Dennis Martínez, who pitched the 13th official perfect game in Major League Baseball history. The Expos retired four numbers in Montreal, nine former members have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame, with Gary Carter, Andre Dawson and Tim Raines' plaques depicting them with Expos caps. Professional baseball in Montreal dates back to 1890 when teams played in the International Association. A second attempt at hosting a pro team failed in 1895; the Montreal Royals of the Eastern League played 20 seasons. The Royals were revived in 1928 and were purchased by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1939 to serve as one of their Triple-A affiliates. Under Dodgers' management, the Royals won seven International League championships and three Junior World Series titles between 1941 and 1958. In 1946, Jackie Robinson joined the Royals and led the team to a Junior World Series title in advance of his breaking baseball's colour barrier one year later.
By the late 1950s, the Royals' championship years were past, faced with declining attendance, the team was sold and relocated following the 1960 season as the Dodgers reduced the number of teams they maintained at the AAA level. Upon the Royals' demise, Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau and city executive committee chairman Gerry Snyder began their campaign for a Major League Baseball team; the city, considered a leading candidate to acquire the St. Louis Browns if the team had relocated in 1933, was too late to submit its candidacy for a team as part of the National League's 1962 expansion but presented its bid to the league's owners at the winter meetings in 1967. Aiding Montreal's bid was the fact that Walter O'Malley, who owned the Dodgers and oversaw the Montreal Royals, was the chairman of the NL's expansion committee. On May 27, 1968, National League president Warren Giles announced the league would add expansion teams in San Diego and Montreal at a cost of US$10 million each. With the franchise secured, Snyder built an ownership group of six partners led by financier Jean-Louis Lévesque and Seagram heir Charles Bronfman.
Lévesque was tapped as chairman and the public face of the ownership group since he was a francophone. However, he bowed out, Bronfman took over as chairman; the new group was faced with the immediate problem of finding a suitable facility in which to play for at least two years. Drapeau had promised the NL that a domed stadium would be built by 1971. However, Snyder's successor as executive committee chairman, Lucien Saulnier, told Bronfman that Drapeau could not make such a guarantee on his own authority; as 1968 dragged on without movement from the city on a facility and his group threatened to walk away. While they had more than enough money between them to pay the first installment of the expansion fee, they wanted assurances that a park would be built before proceeding any further with the effort. Delorimier Stadium, which hosted the Royals, was rejected as a temporary facility; the Autostade, home of the Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes, was ruled out due to the prohibitive cost of expanding it and adding a dome, as well as doubts that the city had the right to make the needed renovations to the federally-owned facility.
By August 1968, the NL owners had grown concerned about the unresolved stadium question, putting the franchise's future in doubt. There were rumours of awarding the
A radio personality or radio presenter is a person who has an on-air position in radio broadcasting. A radio personality who hosts a radio show is known as a radio host, in India and Pakistan as a radio jockey. Radio personalities who introduce and play individual selections of recorded music are known as disc jockeys or "DJs" for short. Broadcast radio personalities may include talk radio hosts, AM/FM radio show hosts, satellite radio program hosts. Notable radio personalities include pop music radio hosts Martin Block, Dick Clark, Casey Kasem, Delilah Luke, Alan Freed, Ameen Sayani, Herb Kent, Wolfman Jack. A radio personality can be someone who discusses genres of music; the radio personality may broadcast use voice-tracking techniques. In the 2010s, radio personalities are expected to supplement their on-air work by posting information online, such as on a blog or on another web forum; this may be either to connect with listeners. With the exception of small or rural radio stations, much of music radio broadcasting is done by broadcast automation, a computer-controlled playlist airing MP3 audio files which contain the entire program consisting of music, a radio announcer's pre-recorded comments.
In the past, the term "disc jockey" was used to describe on-air radio personalities who played recorded music and hosted radio shows that featured popular music. Unlike the modern club DJ who uses beatmatching to mix transitions between songs to create continuous play, radio DJs played individual songs or music tracks while voicing announcements, comments and commercials in between each song or short series of songs. During the 1950s,'60s and'70s, radio DJs exerted considerable influence on popular music during the Top 40 radio era, because of their ability to introduce new music to the radio audience and promote or control which songs would be given airplay. Although radio personalities who specialized in news or talk programs such as Dorothy Kilgallen and Walter Winchell existed since the early days of radio, exclusive talk radio formats emerged and multiplied in the 1960s, as telephone call in shows, interviews and public affairs became more popular. In New York, WINS switched to a talk format in 1965, WCBS followed two years later.
Early talk radio personalities included Sally Jesse Raphael. The growth of sports talk radio began in the 1960s, resulted in the first all-sports station in the US, WFAN that would go on to feature many sports radio personalities such as Marv Albert and Howie Rose. FM/AM radio – AM/FM personalities play music, talk, or both; some examples are Elvis Duran, Big Boy, Kidd Kraddick, John Boy and Billy, The Bob and Tom Show, The Breakfast Club, Rickey Smiley. Talk radio – Talk radio personalities discuss social and political issues from a particular political point of view; some examples are Rush Limbaugh, Art Bell, George Noory, Brian Kilmeade, Brian Lehrer, Don Geronimo and John Gibson. Sports talk radio – Sports talk radio personalities are former athletes, sports writers, or television anchors and discuss sports news; some examples are Dan Patrick, Tony Kornheiser, Dan Sileo, Colin Cowherd, Mike Francesa. Satellite radio – Satellite radio personalities are not subject to government broadcast regulations and are allowed to play explicit music.
Howard Stern and Anthony, Dr. Laura, Chris "Mad Dog" Russo are some of the notable personalities who have made the move from terrestrial radio to satellite radio. Internet radio - Internet radio personalities appear on internet radio stations that offer news, sports and various genres of music that are carried by streaming media outlets such as AccuRadio, Pandora Radio, Slacker Radio and Jango. Radio personality salaries are influenced by years of education. In 2013, the median salary of a radio personality in the US was $28,400. 1–4 years: $15,200–39,400, 5–9 years: $20,600–41,700, 10–19 years: $23,200–51,200, 20 or more years: $26,300–73,000. A radio personality with a bachelor's degree had a salary range of $19,600–60,400; the salary of a local radio personality will differ from a national radio personality. National personality pay can be in the millions because of the increased audience size and corporate sponsorship. For example, Rush Limbaugh was paid $38 million annually as part of the eight-year $400 million contract he signed with Clear Channel Communications.
Due to radio personalities' vocal training, opportunities to expand their careers exist. Over time a radio personality could be paid to do voice-overs for commercials, television shows, movies. Universities offer classes in radio broadcasting and have a college radio station, where students can obtain on-the-job training and course credit. Prospective radio personalities can intern at radio stations for hands-on training from professionals. Training courses are available online. Many radio personalities do not have a post-high school education, but some do hold degrees in audio engineering. If a radio personality has a degree it's a bachelor's degree level qualification in radio-television-film, mass communications, journalism, or English. A radio personality position has the following requirements: Good clear voice with excellent tone and modulation Great communication skills and creativity to interact with listeners