Mitcham is a district of south west London in the London Borough of Merton. It is centred 7.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross. In part of clear urban density but a suburb of houses with gardens, it is close to the cut-off of Inner London and Outer London, has traces of its former village in the historic county of Surrey, it is both residentially and financially developed and served by train and tram routes. Localities within Mitcham include Mitcham Common. Amenities include Mitcham Cricket Green. Nearby major districts are Wimbledon, Croydon, Tooting and Sutton. Mitcham, most broadly defined, had a population of 63,393 which includes the electoral wards of Cricket Green, Figges Marsh, Lavender Fields and Pollards Hill in 2011 and its surrounding constituency, which contains other parts of south Merton, had a population of 103,298. Mitcham is in the east of the London Borough of Merton and is bounded by the London Borough of Wandsworth, the London Borough of Croydon, the London Borough of Lambeth and the London Borough of Sutton.
Mitcham is close to Wimbledon, Croydon and Tooting. The River Wandle bounds the town to the southwest; the original village lies in the west. Mitcham Common takes up the greater part of the area to the south; the toponym "Mitcham" means big settlement. Before the Romans and Saxons were present, stood a Celtic settlement, with evidence of a hill fort in the Pollards Hill area; the discovery of Roman-era graves and a well on the site of the Mitcham gas works evince Roman settlement. The Anglo-Saxon graveyard on the north bank of the Wandle is the largest discovered to date, many of the finds therein are on display in the British Museum. Scholars such as Myres have suggested that Mitcham and other Thames plain settlements were some of the first populated by the Anglo-Saxons. What became the parish lands could have hosted the Battle of Merton, 871, in which King Ethelred of Wessex was either mortally wounded or killed outright; the Church of England parish church of St St Paul dates from the early Kingdom of England.
Rebuilt in 1819–21, the current building retains the original Saxon tower. The Domesday Book of 1086 lists Mitcham as a small farming community, an implied estimate of 250 people, living in two hamlets: Mitcham, the area today being Upper Mitcham; the area lay in the Anglo-Saxon county subdivision of Wallington hundred. The Domesday Book records Mitcham as Michelham, it was held by the Canons of Bayeux. Its domesday assets were: 1 virgate, it had 1/2 mill worth £ 3 1/2 ploughs, 56 acres of meadow. It rendered £4 5s 4d, a time when a pound sterling still implied something similar to a pound of silver. During her reign Queen Elizabeth I made at least five visits to the area. John Donne and Sir Walter Raleigh had residences here in this era, it was at this time that Mitcham became gentrified, as due to the abundance of lavender fields Mitcham became renowned for its soothing air. The air led people to settle in the area during times of plague; when industrialisation occurred, Mitcham grew to become a town and most of the farms were swallowed up in the expansion.
Remnants of this farming history today include: Mitcham Common itself. Many lavender fields were in Mitcham, peppermint and lavender oils were distilled. In 1749 two local physic gardeners, John Potter and William Moore, founded a company to make and market toiletries made from locally-grown herbs and flowers. Lavender features on Merton Council's coat of arms and the badge of the local football team, Tooting & Mitcham United F. C. as well as in the name of a local council ward, Lavender Field. Mitcham was industrialised first along the banks of the Wandle, where snuff, flour and dye were all worked. Mitcham, along with nearby Merton Abbey, became the calico cloth printing centres of England by 1750. Asprey, suppliers of luxury goods made from various materials, was founded in Mitcham as a silk-printing business in 1781. William Morris opened a factory on the River Wandle at Merton Abbey. Merton Abbey Mills were the Liberty silk-printing works, it is now a craft village and its waterwheel has been preserved.
Activity along the Wandle led to the building of the Surrey Iron Railway, the world's first public railway, in 1803. The decline and failure of the railway in the 1840s heralded a change in industry, as horticulture gave way to manufacturing, with paint, varnish and firework manufacturers moving into the area; the work provided and migratory patterns resulted in a doubling of the population between the years 1900 and 1910. Mitcham became a borough, within a two-tier council system, on 19 September 1934 with the charter of incorporation being presented to the 84-year-old mayor, Mr. R. M. Chart, by the Lord Lieutenant of Surrey, Lord Ashcombe. Social housing schemes in the 1930s included New Close, aimed at housing people made homeless by a factory explosion in 1933 and Sunshine Way, for housing the poor from inner London; this industry made Mitcham a target for German bombing during World War II. During this time Mitcham returned to its agricultural roots, with Mitcham Common being farmed to help with the war effort.
From 1929 the electronics company Mullard had a factory on New Road. Post war, the areas of Eastfields, Phipps Bridge and Pollards Hill
London Borough of Merton
The London Borough of Merton is a borough in south-west London, England. The borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Mitcham, the Municipal Borough of Wimbledon and the Merton and Morden Urban District, all within Surrey; the main commercial centres in Merton are Mitcham and Wimbledon, of which Wimbledon is the largest. Other smaller centres include Raynes Park, Colliers Wood, South Wimbledon, Wimbledon Park and Pollards Hill; the borough is the host of one of tennis's Grand Slam competitions. The borough derives its name from the historic parish of Merton, centred on the area now known as South Wimbledon. Merton was chosen as an acceptable compromise, following a dispute between Wimbledon and Mitcham over the new borough's name; the local authority is Merton London Borough Council. Colliers Wood Lower Morden Merton Park Mitcham Mitcham Common Morden Morden Park Motspur Park New Malden Norbury Pollards Hill Raynes Park St. Helier South Wimbledon Summerstown Wimbledon Wimbledon Park The May 2014 local government elections saw the Labour Party win an overall majority, following the gain of seven seats from the Conservative Party, one from UKIP.
This followed four years as a minority administration. The current council has a Labour majority and its composition is: Labour: 34 Conservatives: 17 Liberal Democrats: 6 Merton Park Residents: 3 At the Annual Council Meeting, a ceremonial mayor is elected to serve for a year. At the same time, it elects a deputy mayor to serve alongside the mayor. Since 1978, each Mayor must be an elected councillor. Cllr Mary Curtin, a Labour councillor and represents Lower Morden ward is the Mayor of the London Borough of Merton with Geraldine Stanford, councillor from Figge’s Marsh ward, as her deputy. A lot of filming for former ITV police drama The Bill took place in Merton in the districts of Mitcham and Colliers Wood; the set of Sun Hill police station was located in the Borough. The main local newspaper in Merton is the Wimbledon Times; this newspaper was founded in 1977 by a former Conservative councillor on Merton Council, but since the paper has been sold on and it is now published in different editions across South London.
The newspaper is available free. It is published each Friday. Notable businesses with their headquarters in Merton including: Eidos Interactive, a subsidiary of Square Enix, located in Wimbledon Bridge House in Wimbledon. Lenstore, an online optical retailer, located in Wimbledon Park Square Enix Europe: located in Wimbledon Bridge House in Wimbledon. London's Poverty Profile found; this is the 5th worst figure out of 32 London boroughs. Merton is served by a wide range of National Rail stations across the borough, as well as the southern tip of London Underground's Northern line and the District line on the Wimbledon branch; the borough is served by several Tramlink stops from Wimbledon, that goes to Croydon, New Addington, Elmers End and Beckenham. It is the only London Borough which has tube and tram services. London Underground stations Colliers Wood South Wimbledon Morden Wimbledon Park WimbledonTramlink stops Wimbledon Dundonald Road Merton Park Morden Road Phipps Bridge Belgrave Walk Mitcham Mitcham JunctionNational Rail stations Tooting Haydons Road Wimbledon Wimbledon Chase South Merton Morden South St Helier Mitcham Junction Mitcham Eastfields Raynes Park Motspur ParkIn March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: driving a car or van, 19.2% of all residents aged 16–74.
In 2001, the census recorded. The highest ethnic populations were recorded in wards in the east of the borough in Mitcham and Pollards Hill; the percentage of population from ethnic minorities is predicted to rise across the borough within the next decade. A 2017 report by Trust for London and the New Policy Institute found that Merton has a poverty rate of 20%, the 7th lowest rate in London, it found that the level of pay inequality in Merton is lower than in any other borough, except neighbouring Croydon. According to the council's comparative assessment of wards made in 2004, the most deprived wards within the borough were in the south and east where unemployment rates, educational attainment and the quality of health were worst; the most affluent wards were in the west of the borough. Comparative crime rates appear to be unrelated to the deprivation ranking of wards; the wards containing Mitcham town centre and the St Helier Estate are ranked highest for crime within Merton with the wards containing the commercial shopping centres of Colliers Wood and Wimbledon featuring high in the ranking.
The constituency area of Wimbledon is an affluent area of London with a high proportion of city workers, while Mitcham and Morden is deprived by comparison, which explains the geographical split of political representation of the borough at both national and local elections. Merton operates a Police Cadet scheme under the Me
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate