London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
An atlas is a collection of maps, it is typically a map of Earth or a region of Earth, but there are atlases of the other planets in the Solar System. Furthermore, atlases of anatomy exist, mapping out the body or other organisms. Atlases have traditionally been bound into book form, but today many atlases are in multimedia formats, in addition to presenting geographic features and political boundaries, many atlases often feature geopolitical, social and economic statistics. They have information about the map and places in it, the use of the word atlas in a geographical context dates from 1595 when the geographer Gerardus Mercator published Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura. This title provides Mercators definition of the word as a description of the creation and form of the whole universe, this distinction is conventionally awarded to the Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius who in 1570 published the collection of maps Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. A travel atlas is made for use during travel.
It has maps at a large zoom so the maps can be reviewed easily, a travel atlas may be referred to as a road map. A desk atlas is made similar to a reference book and it may be in hardback or paperback form. With the coming of the market, publishers in different countries can reprint maps from places made elsewhere. This means that the names on the maps often use the designations or abbreviations of the language of the country in which the feature is located. For example, islands near Russia have the abbreviation O. for ostrov and this practice differs from what is standard for any given language, and it reaches its extremity concerning transliterations from other languages. In particular, German mapmakers use the transliterations from Cyrillic developed by the Czechs, national Geographic MapMachine History of atlases Atlases, at the US Library of Congress site - a discussion of many significant atlases, with some illustrations. Part of Geography and Maps, an Illustrated Guide, Historical atlases online Centennia Historical Atlas required reading at the US Naval Academy for over a decade.
Manuscript Atlases held by the University of Pennsylvania Libraries - fully digitized with descriptions, Historical Altas in Persuasive Cartography, The PJ Mode Collection, Cornell University Library Other links Google Earth, a visual 3D interactive atlas. Wikimapia a wikiproject designed to describe the entire world
Chambers Harrap Publishers is a reference publisher formerly based in Edinburgh, which held the property rights of the venerable W. R. Chambers Publishers and its competitor George G. Harrap and Company, Chambers was founded as W. & R. Chambers Publishers by the two brothers William Chambers of Glenormiston and Robert Chambers and they were born into a rich, mill-owning family in Peebles in Scotland in 1800 and 1802 respectively, during the time of the war with France. The war impoverished the family and, in 1813, the family left Peebles for Edinburgh, Robert remained at home to finish his education, but William was forced to find work to support his parents. He was a reader and would get up early in the morning to read by the dawn light because he was too poor to buy candles. He was apprenticed to a bookseller, at the sum of 4 shillings a week, Robert, an avid reader, could not go to university when he finished school because his parents could not afford to pay. He too moved to Edinburgh, rented a shop in Leith Walk.
Williams apprenticeship came to an end when he turned 18 and he joined Robert working in the shop, although they had had a modest beginning, the brothers began to do well. They had no training in printing and binding but together they printed and this was the nearest thing to a guaranteed best-seller in 19th-century Edinburgh, and brought further profits and some fame. In 1824, Robert wrote, and the published, Traditions of Edinburgh. Education was always the priority for William and Robert. In 1832, they published The Chambers Journal, a newspaper containing articles on subjects such as history, religion and science. It was a success and within a few years the weekly circulation had risen to 84,000 copies. This put an end to their struggle to survive although they still had to work hard, between 1859 and 1868 they published their most important work to date, the renowned Chamberss Encyclopaedia in 520 weekly parts at three-halfpence each. The first edition was based on a translation into English of the 10th edition of the German-language Konversations-Lexikon, the encyclopaedia was regarded as such a scholarly achievement that Law received the O. B. E. for her efforts.
At the end of 2009, the parent company shut the Edinburgh premises of Chambers Harrap Publishers, the Chambers imprint is now managed from London by Hodder Education, while Harrap titles are edited in Paris. A subsidiary, Allied Chambers, publishes the titles for the market in, Harrap mainly publishes bilingual dictionaries, for instance Harraps Shorter French Dictionary. The Harrap list includes study aids, slang dictionaries, phrasebooks, in the UK, Harrap publishes bilingual titles in French, Portuguese, Italian and Polish
Teach Yourself is an imprint of Hodder Education that specializes in self-instruction books. The series is most famous for its language education books, but its titles in mathematics are best sellers, like many similar series, the Teach Yourself series has always used a common design for all of its books. For 2010, the books have had a redesign. The website has been revamped to coincide with the relaunch, the Teach Yourself books were published from 1938 until 1973 by the English Universities Press. Most titles published during the Second World War were aimed at helping the British nation survive as well as improving knowledge in the subjects that would improve the war effort. The books in the Teach Yourself language series prior to 1973 were published in a hardback format, the Teach Yourself Languages range is available in over 65 languages and is available at four different levels. The Teach Yourself Languages range grade the four levels used against the Common European Framework for languages, in their 2012 range, Teach Yourself introduced a feature called Discovery Method.
The first two strands, Get Talking and Get Started, are aimed at beginners and those who have not learnt a language since school. Get Talking is a course designed to get teach basic speaking in a short period. Get Started In is a comprehensive course tackling all four skills. The third strand is the Complete course, which is aimed at absolute beginners. The Complete range offers the broadest range of products in the Teach Yourself Languages series as it covers all 65 languages available from Teach Yourself, enjoy is the fourth level, introducing further vocabulary and grammar. This series was marketed as the Perfect your. Books in the Teach Yourself series have published by Hodder & Stoughton since 1974. They are now available around the Anglophone world and cover numerous subjects, from education to computers, games. The company now specialises in courses through books, cassettes, compact discs
Sir Patrick Alfred Caldwell-Moore CBE HonFRS FRAS was an English amateur astronomer who attained prominent status in that field as a writer, radio commentator and television presenter. As an amateur astronomer, he known as a specialist in Moon observation. Idiosyncrasies such as his diction and monocle made him a popular. Moore was a self-taught xylophonist, glockenspiel player and pianist and he was a former amateur cricketer and chess player. In addition to popular science books, he wrote numerous works of fiction. He served in the Royal Air Force during World War II and he never married or had children. Moore was born in Pinner, Middlesex on 4 March 1923 to Capt. Charles Trachsel Caldwell-Moore MC and his family moved to Bognor Regis, and subsequently to East Grinstead where he spent his childhood. His youth was marked by problems, which left him in poor health. He developed an interest in astronomy at the age of six and he was invited to run a small observatory in East Grinstead at the age of 14, after his mentor – who ran the observatory – was killed in a road accident.
At the age of 16 he began wearing a monocle after an oculist told him his eye was weaker than his left. Three years later, he began wearing a set of dentures. During World War II, Moore joined the Home Guard in East Grinstead where his father had been elected platoon commander, during his time in Canada, he met Albert Einstein and Orville Wright while on leave in New York. After the end of hostilities, Moore became an adjutant and an Area Meteorological Officer, finally demobilized in October 1945 with the rank of Flying officer. The war had a significant influence on Moores life - he said his only romance ended when his fiancée Lorna, Moore subsequently remarked that he never married because there was no one else for me. Second best is no good for me, I would have liked a wife and family, but it was not to be. In May 2012 he said to the Radio Times magazine, We must take care, the Germans will try again, given another chance. He said, in the interview, that The only good Kraut is a dead Kraut.
Moore wrote the foreword for his mothers 1974 book, Mrs Moore In Space, after the war, Moore rejected a grant to study at the University of Cambridge, citing a wish to stand on my own two feet
Hachette, French pronunciation, , is a French publisher. It was founded in 1826 by Louis Hachette as Brédif, a bookshop and it became L. Hachette et Compagnie on 1 January 1846, Librairie Hachette in 1919, and Hachette SA in 1977. It was acquired by the Lagardère Group in 1981, in 1992 the publishing assets of Hachette SA were grouped into a subsidiary called Hachette Livre, the flagship imprint of Lagardère Publishing. Hachette has its headquarters in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, in 1996 it merged with the Hatier group. In 2004, Hachette acquired dictionary publisher Éditions Larousse, in 2006, it expanded into the United States when it purchased Time Warners book-publishing division, which was renamed Hachette Book Group USA. In June 2013, Hachette announced that it would acquire Hyperion Books from Disney and it is one of the largest English-language publishers, known as the Big Five. In May 2014, Amazon. com stopped taking pre-order sales of Hachette books, citing a breakdown in negotiations over commission and ebook pricing.
According to Hachette, Amazon had stopped discounting its books, Hachette has its headquarters in the Beaugrenelle district in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. Hachettes head office previously occupied a building at the intersection of Saint-Germain and it moved to its current location. Hachette planned to lease 9,900 square metres of space at a building in Malakoff, Hauts de Seine around 2011, in June 2014, the companys U. S. Financial details of the deal were not disclosed, however, in August 2014, the deal was called off because Hachette and the other parties involved decided the deal was too complicated
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas.
Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.
Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation
George Philip (cartographer)
George Philip, was a cartographer and map publisher. He had one son, who was admitted to the business in 1848, the eventual company, George Philip & Son Ltd, continued to operate successfully until in 1987 when it was sold to Reed International where it continued to trade as George Philip Ltd. In 1998, following a management buy-out of the Illustrated books division, hachette Livre acquired the group in 2001. George senior was born in Huntly, Aberdeenshire to a staunchly Calvinist family, in 1819 he became assistant to the Liverpool bookseller, William Grapel and in 1834 started his own business in Liverpool producing maps and educational books. He used cartographers to produce maps on copper plates, Philip had these printed and hand-coloured by his women tinters. By the time he produced his county maps of 1862 he was using machine coloured maps produced on power-driven lithographic presses, the firm supplied atlases and textbooks overseas starting with an atlas for Australian schools in 1865 and for New Zealand in 1869.
The demand from schools, established after 1870, enabled further expansion in the market for general textbooks, school stationery, atlases
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Yen Press LLC is an American manga and graphic novel publisher co-owned by Kadokawa Corporation and Hachette Book Group. In addition to their regular releases, Yen Press produces Yen Plus. The companys varied list demonstrates an interest in publishing a variety of Japanese manga, Korean manhwa. In addition to translated material, Yen Press has released original series, most notably a manga adaptation of James Pattersons Maximum Ride, Yen Press was founded in 2006 by former Borders Group buyer Kurt Hassler and DC Comics VP Rich Johnson. In July 2007, it was announced that Yen Press was to absorb ICEkunion, while the manga titles bearing ICEkunions label would be continued to be sold in stores, subsequent printings would bear the Yen Press logo. Kurt Hassler assured fans, We plan to pick up all the existing titles. We’re going to continue everything, none of these series are going to fall into a void. ”Yen Press had previously stated that it would like to release 30 -40 volumes within 2008. The first issue debuted on July 29,2008, in 2009, Yen Press announced that it had acquired the rights to Yotsuba&.
and Azumanga Daioh from their former licensee, A. D. Vision. In September 2009, Yen Press rereleased the first five volumes of Yotsuba&. in addition to releasing the sixth volume, kruse † - Digital distribution rights only due to being a Square Enix title. Viz Media has the rights for series paperback releases