E. Townsend Mix
Edward Townsend Mix was an American architect of the Gilded Age who designed many buildings in the Midwestern United States. His career was centered in Milwaukee and many of his designs made use of the region's distinctive Cream City brick. Mix was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on May 13, 1831, the first child of Edward A. and Emily M. Mix; the family moved west to Andover, Illinois, in 1836. They relocated again to New York City in 1845, he would be apprenticed to Connecticut architect Sidney Mason Stone. Mix studied under Richard Upjohn, who brought Mix towards the Gothic Revival architecture that would become one of his most enduring styles. In 1855, E. Townsend Mix moved to Chicago and began a brief partnership with architect William W. Boyington; the firm's work took Mix to Milwaukee, where he decided to begin an independent practice in 1856. Mix dissolved his partnership with Boyington and began designing homes and businesses for Milwaukee's leading residents. Mix was appointed Wisconsin's State Architect from 1864 to 1867.
The end of the Civil War brought an important contract when he was chosen to design the Milwaukee branch of the National Soldiers' Home for disabled war veterans. The resulting structure, finished in 1869, is a colorful Gothic Revival building that still towers over the surrounding park and cemetery. Mix designed the Gothic Revival Cathedral Church of All Saints and the Monroe Methodist Church at about this time. Mix's career further accelerated when the new state of Kansas selected his French Renaissance design for the Kansas State Capitol in Topeka. Construction began in 1866, several other architects including John G. Haskell modified Mix's design before the building was completed 37 years later. During the early 1870s, Mix designed a number of Italianate homes for prominent Midwestern families, including Villa Louis in Prairie du Chien for H. Louis Dousman in 1870, in 1874 both the Robert Patrick Fitzgerald House in Milwaukee and Montauk in Clermont, home of Iowa governor William Larrabee.
By the second half of the 1870s, Mix shifted much of his focus to the Second Empire style. In 1873 he remodeled the home of leading Milwaukee businessman Alexander Mitchell in this style, giving it a four-story tower and mansard roofs. Mitchell would hire Mix to use the same style in designing two commercial buildings in downtown Milwaukee: the Mitchell Building in 1876 and the Mackie Building in 1879. In the 1880s, Mix adopted a number of additional styles for his buildings, he used Romanesque Revival for St. Paul's Episcopal Church, built in Milwaukee in 1874, he employed elements of Queen Anne and Eastlake styles for the A. H. Allyn House in Delavan, Wisconsin, in 1885. Mix sometimes mixed these styles with Gothic Revival, as in the Everett Street Depot built in 1886 for the Milwaukee Road. By this time, the styles favored by Mix were falling out of fashion in Milwaukee as its German population demanded buildings more reminiscent of their homeland. In his career Mix designed a number of projects in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
In 1883 he designed a grand mansion for William D. Washburn called Fair Oaks, he designed a pair of buildings for the Saint Paul Globe newspaper, one in Saint Paul and another in Minneapolis. In 1888 he embarked on his largest project, the Northwestern Guaranty Loan Building, a twelve-story skyscraper in Richardsonian Romanesque style built with red Lake Superior sandstone, it was finished in 1890, the year of E. Townsend Mix's death in Minneapolis. E. Townsend Mix was a versatile architect who practiced an eclectic variety of styles, although he sometimes mixed styles in novel ways, he did little to push the boundaries of any particular style. However, in his effort to remain abreast of changing architectural fashions, Mix introduced to the Upper Midwest many popular styles from eastern cities, his buildings helped shape the landscape of urban Milwaukee and Minneapolis. Although urban renewal projects led to the demolition of some notable Mix buildings, including the Northwestern Guaranty Loan Building and the Everett Street Depot, many of his designs still stand, several are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Works include: 1865–68 – First Congregational Church, 220 Ransom St. Ripon, WI, NRHP-listed 1868 – Olivet Congregational Church, now part of All Saints' Episcopal Cathedral Complex, 804–828 E. Juneau Ave. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed 1869–87 – First Methodist Church, 11th St. and 14th Ave. Monroe, WI, NRHP-listed 1872 – First Baptist Church, 247 Wisconsin Ave. Waukesha, WI, NRHP-listed 1875 – Thomas Cook House, 853 N. Seventeenth St. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed 1875 – Immanuel Presbyterian Church, 1100 N. Astor St. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed. High Victorian Gothic. 1883 – Chauncey Hall Building, Queen Anne style, 338–340 Main St. Racine, WI, NRHP-listed 1885 – A. H. Allyn House, 511 E. Walworth Ave. Delavan, WI, NRHP-listed 1886–88 Elizabeth Plankinton House, Romanesque Revival, NRHP-listed, demolished. 1887–88 – Grand Avenue Congregational Church, Romanesque Revival, 2133 W. Wisconsin Ave. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed. 1890 – Metropolitan Building known as the Northwestern Guaranty Loan Building, Minnesota J. L. Burnham Block, 907—911 W. National Ave. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed Walter S. Chandler House, 151 W. College Ave. Waukesha, WI, NRHP-listed Kansas State Capitol, Bound by 8th and 10th Aves. and Jackson and Harrison Sts.
Topeka, KS, NRHP-listed Mackie Building, 225 E. Michigan St. Milwaukee, WI, NRHP-listed Milwaukee Normal School-Milwaukee Girls' Trade and Technica
The Mackie Building is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the building was called the Chamber of Commerce Building or the Grain Exchange. It was built in 1879 as an investment property by U. S. Representative Alexander Mitchell. During the 1970s, the building underwent extensive restorations; the Grain Exchange was located in a large three-story room in the building. The room was designed in a Simple Italian architectural style, with soaring ceilings, hand painted frescoes, gold leaf and over 10,000 sq. feet of space. The grain exchange is linked with the early commercial history of Milwaukee, when for a brief time, the city was the world's largest primary wheat market for trading and inspecting grain. Milwaukee's lake port was near vast acres of wheat in the state, so the Milwaukee grain exchange conveniently located there and invented and utilized the first octagonal trading pit; the grain exchange operated from 1880 to 1935. The Mackie Building is adjacent to the Mitchell Building, built by Alexander Mitchell designed by E. Townsend Mix and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Media related to Mackie Building at Wikimedia Commons
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Alexander Mitchell (Wisconsin politician)
Alexander Mitchell was a Scottish-born banker, railroad financier and Democratic politician in Milwaukee. He was born in Ellon, Aberdeenshire and immigrated to the United States in 1839, he pursued a career in banking in Milwaukee, founded the Marine Bank of Wisconsin. Mitchell was president of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway from 1864-1887. With fellow director Jeremiah Milbank he built this railroad into one of the most profitable in the United States, Mitchell was considered the wealthiest person in Wisconsin. Mitchell represented Wisconsin's 1st congressional district in the Forty-second United States Congress. After redistricting he represented Wisconsin's 4th congressional district in the Forty-third United States Congress, he was nominated for Governor of Wisconsin in 1877. He was an avid curler, helped popularize the sport in the United States. Mitchell helped found the Milwaukee Curling Club in the 1840s, shortly before his death was elected Patron of the Grand National Curling Club.
Mitchell was buried at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee. Mitchell owned a mansion across the street from the Milwaukee County Courthouse, now the site of the Wisconsin Club; the Historic Mitchell Street neighborhood was named in his honor, as was the city of Mitchell, South Dakota, incorporated in 1881. In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Alexander Mitchell was named in his honor; the Mackie Building, constructed by Mitchell as an investment property, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Additionally, the Mitchell Building, which he built, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as well, his papers, along with those of his son John, are in the archives of the Wisconsin Historical Society. Mitchell was married to Martha Reed, sister of Harrison Reed, who served as Governor of Florida during Reconstruction. Mitchell's son, John L. Mitchell, was a Congressman and United States Senator, his grandson, Billy Mitchell, was a United States Army officer prominent during the early days of military aviation.
Wisconsin ClubUnited States Congress. "Alexander Mitchell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Second Empire architecture
Second Empire is an architectural style, most popular in the latter half of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century. It was so named for the architectural elements in vogue during the era of the Second French Empire; as the Second Empire style evolved from its 17th-century Renaissance foundations, it acquired a mix of earlier European styles, most notably the Baroque combined with mansard roofs and/or low, square-based domes. The style spread and evolved as Baroque Revival architecture throughout Europe and across the Atlantic, its suitability for super-scaling allowed it to be used in the design of municipal and corporate buildings. In the United States, where one of the leading architects working in the style was Alfred B. Mullett, buildings in the style were closer to their 17th-century roots than examples of the style found in Europe
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Solomon Laurent Juneau, or Laurent-Salomon Juneau, was a French Canadian fur trader, land speculator, politician who helped found the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He was born in Repentigny, Canada to François and Thérèse Galarneau Juneau, his cousin was Joseph Juneau, who founded the city of Alaska. After landing at Fort Michilimackinac in 1816, Juneau worked as a clerk in the fur trade before becoming an agent for the American Fur Company in Milwaukee, he had been summoned to the Milwaukee area by Jacques Vieau, a French-Canadian fur trader and the first permanent white settler in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1818 Jacques Vieau hired Solomon Juneau, based on the accounting prowess Juneau had become known for, Juneau's reputation for being able to deal well with the local native Americans. Juneau married one of Vieau's daughters and went on to found what was to become the City of Milwaukee. Juneau settled an area east of the Milwaukee River called Juneautown in 1818, which joined with George H. Walker's Walker's Point and Byron Kilbourn's Kilbourntown to incorporate the City of Milwaukee.
In 1831, Juneau set in motion the naturalization and citizenship process. By 1835, he was selling plots of land in Juneautown, he built Milwaukee's first store and first inn, was recognized for his leadership among newcomers to Milwaukee. In 1837 he started the Milwaukee Sentinel, which would become the oldest continuously operating business in Wisconsin, he was the first mayor of Milwaukee from 1846 until 1847, was appointed its first Postmaster. Solomon Juneau High School, built in 1932, is named after him; the school is located at 6415 West Mount Vernon Avenue in Milwaukee. In 1820, Juneau married Josette, the Métis daughter of Jacques Vieau, a fur trader who had built a trading post overlooking the Menomonee Valley years before, his Menominee wife. Josette was the oldest of 12 children, was Menominee and French by ancestry. Through her alliances to the tribe, the relationships fostered through Juneau's business in fur trading, it is reported that he was popular with the Menominee. After the treaty of 1848 between the United States and the Menominee, Juneau registered his wife and children as half-breeds of the Menominee Nation.
In 1854, Juneau and family relocated to Dodge County, where they founded the village of Theresa, named after Juneau's French-Canadian mother. Josette died there in 1855, he died in the arms of Benjamin Hunkins, his "faithful friend and constant nurse." Six Menominee chiefs served as pallbearers at his funeral. He is buried at Calvary Cemetery, Wisconsin. Juneau's grandson Paul O. Husting would be elected as a member of the United States Senate; the property, believed to have once been the site of Juneau's residence is now the site of the Mitchell Building, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. SS Solomon Juneau Juneau Monument Solomon Juneau Business High School Mack, Edwin S.. The Founding of Milwaukee. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Fox, Isabella. Solomon Juneau: a biography with sketches of the Juneau family. Milwaukee, Wis.: Evening Wisconsin Printing Co. Obituary. Milwaukee Sentinel. 28 January 1858. Solomon Juneau at Find a Grave Wisconsin Historical Society Josette and Solomon Juneau Urban spelunking: Solomon Juneau's cabin