The usurper is named Gaumata in the Behistun inscription of Darius I, named Smerdis in Herodotus Histories, and is named Sphendadates in the surviving fragments of Ctesias. In Darius trilingual Behistun inscription, the prince being impersonated is named Pirtiya in Elamite, Bardiya in Old Persian, in the Histories, the prince and his imposter have the same name. For Ctesias, Sphendadates poses as Tanyoxarces, other Greek sources have various other names for the figure being impersonated, including Tanoxares and Mardos. The three oldest surviving sources agree that Gaumata/Pseudo-Smerdis/Sphendadates is overthrown by Darius and others in a coup détat, most sources have Darius as part of a group of seven conspirators. In Greek and Latin sources, Darius subsequently gains kingship by cheating in a contest, the evaluation of the primary sources has been cause for much disagreement in modern scholarship. The key argument against a fabrication is that there is no evidence for it, the key argument for a fabrication is that Darius had reason to invent the story since he had no particular rights to the throne.
Cambyses had Bardiya killed, and succeeded in keeping that a secret from the people, while Cambyses was away in Egypt, rebellions developed in Persia and in Media and in other provinces. A maguish by the name of Gaumata began to proclaim himself as Bardiya, still in Egypt, committed suicide. Out of fear of retribution from Gaumata, the people remained quiet, a section of the Behistun inscription of a date has another rebel, a certain Vahyazdata, claiming to be Bardiya. A longer version of the story appears in Book 3 of Herodotus Histories, jealous of his brother Smerdis skill with a particular bow brought from the king of Ethiopia, Cambyses sends Smerdis back to Persis. Cambyses has a dream in which Smerdis would supplant him, the assassination succeeds and is meant to be kept secret. One of the few that know of Smerdis death is Patizeithes and that steward has a brother who greatly resembles Smerdis in appearance, and whose name is Smerdis. The steward puts his brother on the throne, and has him pretend that he is the brother of Cambyses, the false Smerdis succeeds in the deception by not allowing anyone who knew the real Smerdis into his presence.
Still in Egypt, Cambyses learns of the false Smerdis, and knowing that the real Smerdis is dead, Cambyses readies his army to return to Susa, but while mounting his horse accidentally injures his thigh with the point of his sword. Cambyses dies from the wound a few days later, on his death bed, Cambyses perceives Smerdis as favouring a return to Median hegemony. Meanwhile, Otanes, a nobleman of Persis, suspects that the king is not the brother of Cambyses, but rather the Smerdis whose ears Cyrus had commanded be cut off for some grave reason. To confirm his suspicion, Otanes asks his daughter Phaidyme – who is a member of the harem, Phaidyme does as asked, and one night while the king is asleep, confirms that the king does not in fact have ears. His suspicions confirmed, Otanes gathers six noblemen and plots to get rid of the false Smerdis, a seventh nobleman, arrives at the capital shortly thereafter, and is included in the group
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
Tissaphernes was a Persian soldier and statesman. He was the grandson of Hydarnes, chithrafarna Shining Fortune, čiθra is from the Proto-Indo-European adjective koitrós bright, farnah is equivalent to Avestan xvarənah fortune, which appears as luminous. čiθra means nature, specifically the animate nature, the phrase čihr-farn means of glorious or splendid nature, or of radiant appearance. Tissaphernes was born in 445 BC and he belonged to an important Persian family, he was the grandson of Hydarnes, an eminent Persian general, who was the commander of the Immortals during the time of king Xerxes invasion of Greece. In 413 BC, Tissaphernes suppressed the rebellion of Pissuthnes and had him arrested, as a reward, Tissaphernes was appointed as satrap of Lydia and Caria, and commander in chief of the Persian army in Asia Minor. But Tissaphernes was unwilling to take action and tried to achieve his aim by astute, on the death of Darius II in 404 BC, Artaxerxes II was crowned king of Persia. Tissaphernes, who found out about Cyrus the Youngers plan to assassinate his brother, informed the king about the conspiracy, but by the intercession of his mother Parysatis, Cyrus was pardoned and sent back to his satrapy.
According to Plutarch, his resentment for him more eagerly desirous of the kingdom than before. With the desire for revenge, Cyrus gathered an army and pretended to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians. In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army, which now included Xenophons Ten Thousand, by dexterous management and promises of large rewards, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war. A Spartan fleet of 35 triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria, Tissaphernes managed to warn Artaxerxes II and quickly gathered together an army. Cyrus advanced into Babylonia before he met with any opposition, in October 401 BC, the battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites,2,500 peltasts, Cyrus saw that the outcome depended on the fate of the king. He therefore wanted Clearchus of Sparta, the commander of the Greeks, as a result, the left wing of the Persians under Tissaphernes was free to engage the rest of Cyrus forces.
Cyrus in the centre threw himself upon Artaxerxes but was slain, Tissaphernes claimed to have killed the rebel himself. They offered to make their Persian ally, Ariaeus and they offered their services to Tissaphernes, but he refused. However, the Greeks refused to surrender to him, Tissaphernes was left with a problem, he faced a large army of heavy troops that he could not defeat by frontal assault. He supplied them with food and, after a wait, led them northwards for home, meanwhile detaching Ariaeus
The Achaemenid Empire, called the Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. The empires successes inspired similar systems in empires and it is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes, Alexander, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. Upon his death, most of the former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire. The Persian population of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire, the historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well.
Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange. The impact of Cyruss edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire set the tone for the politics and history of modern Iran. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details Due to the duration of their reigns, Xerxes II. The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here, the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished, they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as by 6th century BC another group of ancient Iranian peoples had established the short lived Median Empire. The Iranian peoples had arrived in the region of what is today Iran c.1000 BC and had for a number of centuries fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.
However, the Medes and Persians, Cimmerians and Chaldeans played a role in the overthrow of the Assyrian empire. The term Achaemenid means of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes, despite the derivation of the name, Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, and a vassal of Assyria. At some point in 550 BC, Cyrus rose in rebellion against the Medes, eventually conquering the Medes and creating the first Persian empire
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, at its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia. Lydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, with Sardis as its capital, appointed by Cyrus the Great, was the first satrap. Lydia was the name of a Roman province, coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC. The endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire and these in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC. The region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom, the Lydian language is not part of the Luwian subgroup. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture, recent decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not even part of the same language family.
The boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries and it was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. Later, the power of Alyattes II and Croesus expanded Lydia. Lydia never again shrank back into its original dimensions, the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. It used many prefixes and grammatical particles, Lydian finally became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC, in Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia. Homer describes their capital not as Sardis but as Hyde, Hyde may have been the name of the district in which Sardis was located. Later, Herodotus adds that the Meiones were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys and this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers, some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles.
In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, all three heroic ancestors indicate a Lydian dynasty claiming Heracles as their ancestor
Mausolus was the eldest son of Hecatomnus, a native Carian who became the satrap of Caria when Tissaphernes died, around 395 BC. He moved his capital from Mylasa, the ancient seat of the Carian kings and he is best known for the monumental shrine, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and named for him by order of his widow Artemisia. Antipater of Sidon listed the Mausoleum as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the site and a few remains can still be seen in the Turkish town of Bodrum. The term mausoleum has come to be used generically for any grand tomb
It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Southwestern Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer, and continues through the emergence of Christianity and it ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity, blending into the Early Middle Ages. Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures, Classical antiquity may refer to an idealised vision among people of what was, in Edgar Allan Poes words, the glory that was Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome. The culture of the ancient Greeks, together with influences from the ancient Near East, was the basis of art, society. The earliest period of classical antiquity takes place before the background of gradual re-appearance of historical sources following the Bronze Age collapse, the 8th and 7th centuries BC are still largely proto-historical, with the earliest Greek alphabetic inscriptions appearing in the first half of the 8th century.
Homer is usually assumed to have lived in the 8th or 7th century BC, in the same period falls the traditional date for the establishment of the Ancient Olympic Games, in 776 BC. The Phoenicians originally expanded from Canaan ports, by the 8th century dominating trade in the Mediterranean, carthage was founded in 814 BC, and the Carthaginians by 700 BC had firmly established strongholds in Sicily and Sardinia, which created conflicts of interest with Etruria. The Etruscans had established control in the region by the late 7th century BC, forming the aristocratic. According to legend, Rome was founded on April 21,753 BC by twin descendants of the Trojan prince Aeneas and Remus. As the city was bereft of women, legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines. Archaeological evidence indeed shows first traces of settlement at the Roman Forum in the mid-8th century BC, the seventh and final king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus.
As the son of Tarquinius Priscus and the son-in-law of Servius Tullius, Superbus was of Etruscan birth and it was during his reign that the Etruscans reached their apex of power. Superbus removed and destroyed all the Sabine shrines and altars from the Tarpeian Rock, the people came to object to his rule when he failed to recognize the rape of Lucretia, a patrician Roman, at the hands of his own son. Lucretias kinsman, Lucius Junius Brutus, summoned the Senate and had Superbus, after Superbus expulsion, the Senate voted to never again allow the rule of a king and reformed Rome into a republican government in 509 BC. In fact the Latin word Rex meaning King became a dirty and hated throughout the Republic. In 510, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow the tyrant Hippias, cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy conducted by Isagoras. Greece entered the 4th century under Spartan hegemony, but by 395 BC the Spartan rulers removed Lysander from office, and Sparta lost her naval supremacy.
Athens, Argos and Corinth, the two of which were formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the Corinthian War, which ended inconclusively in 387 BC