Mithridates VI of Pontus

Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI known as Mithradates the Great and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, he has been called the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates is the Greek attestation of the Persian name Mihrdāt, meaning "given by Mithra", the name of the ancient Iranian sun god; the name itself is derived from Old Iranian Miθra-dāta-. Mithridates VI was a prince of Greek ancestry, he claimed descent from Cyrus the Great, the family of Darius the Great, the Regent Antipater, the generals of Alexander the Great as well as the kings Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Seleucus I Nicator. Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus.

He was the first son among the children born to Mithridates V of Pontus. His father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa, his mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid princess and the daughter of the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes and his wife-sister Laodice IV. Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held, he left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates' mother, Laodice VI, his younger brother, Mithridates Chrestus. Neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC and favored Mithridates Chrestus over Mithridates. During his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mother's plots against him, went into hiding. Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king.

By this time he had grown to become a man of physical strength. He could combine extraordinary energy and determination with a considerable talent for politics and strategy. Mithridates removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus. Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes. Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates gave both royal funerals. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16, his goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, to ensure the succession to his legitimate children. Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and Anatolia, he first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus; the most important centres of Crimea, Tauric Chersonesus and the Bosporan Kingdom surrendered their independence in return for Mithridates' promises to protect them against the Scythians, their ancient enemies.

After several abortive attempts to invade the Crimea, the Scythians and the allied Rhoxolanoi suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Pontic general Diophantus and accepted Mithridates as their overlord. The young king turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise, he contrived to partition Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia. It was on the occasion of the Paphlagonian invasion of 108 BC that Mithridates adopted the Bithynian era for use on his coins in honour of the alliance; this calendar era began with the first Bithynian king Zipoites I in 297 BC. It was in use in Pontus by 96 BC at the latest, yet it soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic. When Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, defeated him in a series of battles, the latter was constrained to enlist the assistance of Rome; the Romans twice interfered in the conflict on behalf of Nicomedes, leaving Mithridates, should he wish to continue the expansion of his kingdom, with little choice other than to engage in a future Roman-Pontic war.

By this time Mithradates had resolved to expel the Romans from Asia. The next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans. Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, declared war on Pontus. Rome itself was involved in a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were only two legions present in Macedonia; these legions combined with Nicomedes IV's army to invade Mithridates' kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC. Mithridates won a decisive victory, his victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia. The following year, 88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities wiping out the Roman presence in the region. 80,000 people are said to have perished in this massacre. The episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers; the Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Anatolian cities. The royal family moved the capital from Amasya to the Greek city of Sinope.

Its rulers tried to assimilate the potential of their subjects by showing a Gree

America (Neil Diamond song)

"America" is a song written and recorded by Neil Diamond, released in 1980 on the soundtrack album of Diamond's film The Jazz Singer. The song was a hit single in the United States in 1981, reaching number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 and was Diamond's sixth number one on the Adult Contemporary chart. Billboard rated it as the #62 pop single overall for 1981. Although the single version was a studio recording, it sounds live because of crowd overdubs in the song; the song's theme is a positive interpretation of the history of immigration to the United States, both during the early 1900s and the present. Combining Diamond's powerful melody, dynamic arrangement, bombastic vocal, it ends with an interpolation of the traditional patriotic song "My Country,'Tis of Thee". In Diamond's concerts, the song is a popular number both home and abroad, with a large United States flag displayed from the rafters on cue to the lyric, "Every time that flag's unfurled / They're coming to America." The song was featured at the Stone Mountain Laser Show near Georgia.

The song has been used in a number of contexts, including as a theme song for Michael Dukakis' 1988 presidential campaign and in promotion of the 1996 Olympics. Diamond sang it at the centennial re-dedication of the Statue of Liberty. Shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks, Diamond modified the lyrics to "America" during live performances. Instead of "They're comin' to America," towards the end, it became "Stand up for America." It was included on a memorandum listing songs deemed inappropriate by Clear Channel Communications following the September 11 attacks. New-age pianist David Lanz performed a cover of this song for his album Finding Paradise. Me First and the Gimme Gimmes covered this song in their 2008 album Have Another Ball. List of number-one adult contemporary singles of 1981 Lyrics from


Ayyab was a king of Aštartu, named Tell'Aštara, during the Amarna letters correspondence of 1350-1335 BC. His city is located south of Damascus-, is involved with the takeover of cities by the Habiru of the Amarna letters intrigues. Besides foreign countries to the north, for example Hatti of the Hittites, the internal Habiru were affecting cities/city-states, their kings. Biridašwa was another king of Aštartu. Ayyab is the author of only one letter to the Egyptian pharaoh, letter EA 364-. "To the king, my lord: Message of your servant. I fall at the feet of 7 times. I am the servant of my lord, the dirt at his feet. I have heard what my lord, wrote to me through Atahmaya. I have guarded carefully, s of the king, my lord. Moreover, note that it is the ruler of Hasura who has taken 3 cities from me. From the time I heard and verified this, there has been waging of war against him. May the king, my lord, take cognizance, may the king, my lord, give thought to his servant. -EA 364, lines 1-28 Ayyab's name is referred to in only one letter of the Amarna letters corpus, one of two letters by Labaya's son: Mutbaal of the city, modern Pella, Jordan.

The letter is EA 256, title: "Oaths and denials". See: "Tenuous identifications with Biblical figures": Labaya-. Tell-Ashtara Shutu Aram Damascus Upu, regional Damascus Biridašwa, mayor of Aštartu/Tell-Ashtara Tahmašši, Egyptian official Moran, William L; the Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992